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Neogen

Neogen (az neo… va yun. Renos — tavallud, sin), dar geologiya davrai duyumi erai kaynozoro guyand. Tabaqai jinshoi kuhie, ki dar in davra ba vujud omadaand, mutaalliqi sistemai neogenand. Davrai Neogen 25 million sol muqaddam cap shuda, beshtar az 23 million sol davom kardaast. Istilohi Neogenro bori nakhust soli 1853 geologi avstriyagi M. Gyornes peshnihod kard. Davrai Neogen ba du zamon: zamoni miosen va zamoni pliosen taqsim meshavad. Prosesshoi kuhpaydoshavie, ki okhirhoi dav­rai paleogen cap shuda budand, dar davrai Neogen ham idoma doshtand.

Dar natija dar nohiyahoi chindorshavii alpi kuhhoi nav ba vujud omada, kuhhoi qadima va platformaho niz to andozae baland shudand. Dar dav­rai Neogen dar qitaqol Evropa va Osiyo sistemai kuhhoi Alp, Karpat, kuhhoi nimjazirai Balkan, Qrim, Kavkaz, Pomiru Oloy, Tiyonshon, Oltoy, Kunlun va gayra tashakkul yoftand. Dar atrofi uqyonusi Orom, qad-qadi kanori materikho, kuhhoi Kordilera, And, Kamchatka, Yaponiya, Filippin, Gvineyai Nav, Zelandiyai Nav qad kashidand; qatorkuhhoi zeriobi baland shuda, silsilai jazirahoro tashkil dodand. Paydoishi bisyor bahrhoi dokhili, ba monandi Kaspiy, Siyoh, Marmar, Ion, Adriatika, Tirren, inchunin silsilai pastkhamihoi amiqi Afrikai Sharqiyu bahri Surkh, atro­fi kuli Baykal va digar joyho, ki az fururavihoi qishri Zamin hosil shudaand, ba davrai Neogen taalluq dorand.

Nimjazirahoi Apennin, Balkan (qismi janubiash), Osiyoi Khurd, Kav­kaz va atrofi pastkhamihoi fururafta dar Neogen markazhoi vulqonizm hisob meshudand. Khulosa, dar okhiri davra taqsimoti bahru khushkihoi rui Zamin va tarhi onho ba shakli hozirai bahru bar khele nazdik bud. Dar davomi davrai Neogen iqlim tadrijan sard va khushk shuda, dar okhiri davra tamomi zonahoi tabii (ba juz tundra) tashakkul yoftand. Olami nabotot va hayvonot ba zamoni hozira nazdik boshand ham, vale mavze- hoi pahnshavii onho farq dosht. Masalan, dar Evropai Garbi, Sibir dar avvalhoi davrai Neogen ba joi beshahoi hozirai suzanbarg beshahoi pahnbarg (dar Evropai Garbi — norjil, sekvoyya, sarv, gor; dar Si­bir—bulut, shamshod, zarang, fark) meruidand; dar okhiri davra in beshaho ba samti Janub joy ivaz kardand. Dashtu biyoboni hamvorihoi Osiyoi Miyona va Qazoqiston az avvalhoi davra vujud doshta, olami nabototashon ba davrai hozira khele nazdik bud.

Florai mintaqahoi tropiki az florai zamoni hozira kam farq mekard. Dar bahrhoi davrai Neogen khususan narmbadanhoi dupallayu shikampoho. khorpushthoi bahri, mshankaho va gayra nihoyat ziyod budand. Dar davrai Neogen dar olami khayvonoti khushkizeh baso tagyirot ba amal omad. Dar in muddat yak qator jinshoi hayvonhoi shirkhur (dar Evropa — guruhi sumdorhoi ibtidoi, darran- dahoi qadima, khaltadorho) tamoman murda rafta, joi onhoro vorisoni oilahoi nav, ba monandi khirsho, kaftorho, khartumdorhoi nakhust (mastodontho, dinoteriyaho), gurozho, buzu gusfandho, govu gavaznho, maymunhoi odamshakl giriftand. Jinshoi navi hasharot, khoyandaho ba vujud omadand. Hamai onho sarnasli hayvonhoi zamoni hozira meboshand. Hayvoni khosi khamonvaqtai dashthoi vasei Evropayu Osiyo asphoi sepanja — gipparionho budand.

Tahnishasthoi sistemai Neogen bahri, laguni, kontinenti buda, dar bisyor hamvori, pastkhamihoi nazdikuhi va baynikuhii rui Zamin joygir shudaand. Onho az qabathoi ohaksang, mergel, gil, regsang, kong­lomerat iboratand. Gafsii tabaqai in jinshoi kuhi az dahho metr to ba yakchand kilometr merasad. Tahnishasthoi davrai Neogen dar Osiyoi Miyona niz vusat yoftaast. Dar territoriyai Tojikiston onhoro dar depressiyahoi Tojikistonu Fargona, qismi garbii vodii Zarafshon, sargahi daryoi Mugsu didan mumkiya ast. In tahnishastho az qabathoi gil, regsang konglomerat tarkib yofta, paydoishashon koptinentist.

Yake az muhimtarin sarvathoi zerizaminii davrai Neogen neft meboshad. Bisyor konhoi kaloni nefg dar  SSSR (dar Ozarboyjonu Turkmaniston, Kavkazi Shimoli, Sakhalin),  Ruminiya, Iroq, Eron, Arabistoni Saudi, Birma, jazirahoi Indoneziya,  ShMA, Meksikai Janubi, Venesuela,  Kolumbiya, Argentina dar tabaqai  jinshoi davrai Neogen joygir shudaand.  Dar tahnishasthoi sistemai Neogen inchunin gaz, angishti bur, namaksang,  namaki kaliy va gayra yoft meshavand. Bo jinshoi intruzivii davrai Neogen yak  qator konhoi madani mis, arsen,  surb, ruh, surma, molibden, volfram, vismut, simob aloqamandand.

Adabiyot: Andrusov N. I. Izbrazitelnie tru di. tom 1—4, Moskva. 1961—65: Kolesni

­ kov V. TG. J i j ch e n k o V. P. vadigar. Stratigrafii SSSR, tom 12 — Neogen SSSR. Moskva— Leningrad, 1940; Geologiya SSSR, tom 21 (Tadjikskaya SSR) Moskva, 1950.

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