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Nemirovich-Danchenko

Nemirovich-Danchenko Vladi­mir Ivanovich (23. 12. 1858, Ozurgeti, hozira Makharadzei RSS Gurjiston— 25. 4. 1943, Mosk­va), rejissyor, arbobi teatr, peda­gog, navisanda va dramaturgi sove­ti Artisti Khalqii SSSR (1936). Asosguzori (yakjoya bo K. S. Stanislav­skiy) Teatri badeii Moskva (ho­zira Teatri badeii akademii Moskva ba vomi M. Gorkiy). Solhoi 1876—79 donishjui fakulteti fizikayu matematikai Universiteti Moskva. Solhoi 70 hamchun munaqqidi teatr nom barovard. Asarhoi nasriashro dar ra­viyai A. P. Chekhov ejod kardaast. Pesahoi u «Kori nav» (1890), «Tillo» (1895), «Qadri hayot» (1896) va gayra dar Teatri khurd va Teatri Alek­sandrin namoish doda meshudand.

Darki amiqi sanati teatrii zamonash Nemirovich-Danchenkoro ba fikri islohoti on, nav kardani reshahoi tamoyuloti mavjuda ovard. Dar Jamiyati sanat va adabiyot bo faoliyati rejissyorii K. S. Stanislavskiy shinos shuda, kushishhoi minbadaashro dar hamkori bo u davom dod. Tasis yoftani Teatri badeii ommavi soli 1898 (nomi avvalai MKhAT) natijai in hamkori bud. Hayati teatrro shogirdoni Nemirovich-Danchenko va azoyoni Jamiyati sanat va adabiyot tashkil dodand. Dar teatri mazkur qarib hamai pesahoi mashhuri A. P. Chekhov «Mohikhurak» (1898), «Vanya-amak» (1899), «Se khoharon» (1901), «Oluboluzor» (1904), «Ivanov» (1904), inchunin pesahoi Maksim Gorkiy «Dar qar» (1902), G. Gauptman «Beka­sov» (1899), G. Ibsen «Vaqte ki mo, murdagon, bedor meshavem» (1900) va gayra guzoshta shudaand.

Soli 1903 Nemidov-Danchenko fojiai U. Shekspir «Yuliy Sezar»- ro ba sahna guzosht, ki dar on vositahoi teatrii psikhologii hozirazamon vase istifoda shudaast. Mahorati rejissyorii Nemidov-Danchenko makhsusan hangomi basahnaguzorii pesahoi klassikii rus zohir gardid («Margi Pazukhin»-i M. B. Saltikov-Shedrin, 1914; «Barodaron Karamazovho»-i F. M. Dostoevskiy). Solhoi peshazrevolyutsioni  teatr ba tanazzul duchor omad; yagon asari dramavie nabud, ki Nemidov-Danchenko ba on takya karda, teatrro boz ba safi pesh barorad (spektaklhoi in davra «Anatema», 1909 va «Tafakkur», 1914, asarhoi L. N. Andreev va gayra).

Falabai Revolyutsiyai Ok­tyabr baroi Nemidov-Danchenko imkoniyathoi va­se faroham ovard. Sahmi Nemidov-Danchenko dar inkishofi sanati rejissyori, tashakkuli MKhAT dar asoshoi realizmi sotsialisti va tarbiyai aktyoroni navi ifodakunandai gumanizmi so­tsialisti khele buzurg ast. Nemidov-Danchenko dar rohi ba sadha guzoshtani asarhoi muallifoni soveti kushishhoi ziyode kardaast («Lyubov Yarovaya»-i K. A. Trenyov, 1938, «Soati burji Kreml»-i N. F. Pogodin, 1942 va gayra). Nemidov-Danchenko ba tahlili leninii ejodiyoti Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy takya namuda, «Ekhyo» (1930) va «Anna Karenina» (1937)-ro manzuri nazari tamoshobinon kard.«Radu barq»-i N. A. Ost­rovskiy (1935), «Dod az dasti aql»-i A. S. Griboedov (1938) niz az kor­hoi namoyoni Nemilov-Danchenko meboshand. Nemidov-Danchenko tamomi umr bo halli masalahoi nazariyai teatr mashgul shudaast. Dar sohai teatri musiqi niz prinsihoi realizmi sahnaviro tatbiq namuda, soli 1919 dar nazdi Teatri badeii Moskva (MKhAT) Studiyai musiqi tasis kard (az soli 1928 Teatri musiqii ba nomi V. I. Nemirovich — Danchenko) va dar on yak qator spektaklho guzosht. Laureati Mukofoti davlatii SSSR (1942, 1943). Bo orde­ni Lenin va ordeni Bayraqi Surkhi Mehnat mukofotonida shudaast.

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