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Nekuahvoli

Nekuahvoli, darajai qone namudani talaboti moddi, manavi va ijtimoii odamon, tamin budani aholi az nemathoi istemoli. Vazi Nekuahvoliro nishondodhoi miqdoriyu sifati, ki sohahoi mukhtalifi onro dar bar megirand, muayyan mekunad. Macalan, hajmi umumii nemathoi moddii istemolshavanda va khizmat ba har sari akholi, hajmi istemolii mahsuloti khurokvori va molhoi gayriistemoli; daromadi realii aholi; hajun muzdi kor, fondhoi jamiyatii  istemoli; davomnokii vaqti kori va vaqti kholi; sharoiti manzilgoh; nishondodhoi sohai maorif, madaniyat, nigohdorii tandurusti va gayra. Nekuahvoli ba darajai inkishofi quvvahoi istehsolkunanda va kharakteri munosibathoi istehsoli vobasta ast.

Amali qonunhoi iqtisodi, pesh az hama amali qonuni asosii iqtisodi va maqsadi istehsoloti jamiyatyo mohiyati Nekuaholiro muayyan mokunad. Nekuahvoli dar zamoni kapitalizm munosibati istismoriro ifoda mekunad. Nekuahvolii mehnatkashon va burjuaziya mutlaqo ba ham mukholif meboshad. Qonuni asosii iqtisodii kapitalizm meyori ijtimoii darajai zindagii mehnatkashon mahdudiyati talaboti takror istehsoli quvvai koriro muay­yan menamoyad, ki baroi ba dast ovardani arzishi izofa, andukhtani kapital zarur ast. Qashshoqshavii nisbi, dar baze davraho qashshoqshavii mutlaqi mehnatkashon khosi kapitalizm ast. Bekori dar zamoni kapitalizm ba Nekuahvolii mehnatkashon tasiri manfi merasonad. Holo dar olami sarmoya 30 million nafar odamon bekorand. Gurusnagi, bekori, nabudani bovari ba fardo, intensifikatsiyai bepoyoni mehnat zaminai kasalihoi ijtimoi (nashamandi, kasalihoi ruhi, kasalikhoi daruni, sil va gayra) buda, boisi barvaqt az kor mondan, kutoh shudani umri mehnatkashon megardad.

Nekuahvoli dar zamoni sotsializm munosibati hamkorii kollektivonaro ba­roi purra qone gardondani tala­boti moddiyu manavii khalq va inkishofi hamatarafai har yak shakhs ifoda mekuvad. Nekuahvolii ba tarzi ijtimoii hayot aloqai zich dorad. Dar mamlakathoi sotsialisti dar prosessi sokhtmoni sotsializm va kommunizm Nekuahvolii sifatan navi mehnatkashon ba dast ovarda shudaast, ki on az istismor ozod ast. Mehnati ozodi dar yak uzvi qobili mehnati jamiyat moli inkishofi tarzi hayoti sotsialisti va baland shudani Nekuahvoli meboshad. Sotsializm hamai azoi jamiyatro bo kor tamin mekuvad.

Az rui malumoti ba ruikhatgirii aholii soli 1970 dar istehsoloti jamiyatii SSSR ziyoda az 92% aholii qobili mehnat ishtirok dosht. Beko­ri dar tamomi mamlakathoi azoi SEV komilan mahv shudaast. Aa rui plan inkishof yoftani istehsoloti jamiyati va afzoishi sobiti daromadi milli asosi moddii muntazam baland shudani Nekuahvolli ahli jamiyati sotsialisti meboshad. Dar SSSR 4/5 hissai daromadi milli baroi istemol va chahoryaki on baroi andukhtan istifoda meshavad. Agar chunin nukta ba nazar girifta shavad, ki 1/5 hissai fondhoi andukht baroi sokhtmoni khonahoi istiqomati, maktab, bemorkhona, muassisahoi mada­niyu marifati, inshooti sporti, muassisahoi khizmati kommunaliyu maishi sarf meshavand, jamei nemathoi moddie, ki bevosita baroi behbudii zindagii khalq sarf me­shavand, ziyoda az 80% daromadi milliro tashkil medihad. Vazni qiyosii fondhoi istemoli dar daromadi millii Bulgoriya, Vengriya RDG, Polsha, RSChS dar hududi 69—77% meboshad.

Dar mamlakathoi kapitalisti qismi ziyodi daromadi milliro sinfhoi istismorgar az khud me­kunand. Dar jamiyati sotsializmi mutaraqqi imkoniyati dar yak vaqt inkishof yoftani istehsolot va ba­land shudani Nekuahvolii khalq payvasta vase meshavad. Dar panjsolai 10-um dar SSSR baroi baland bardoshtani Nekuahvolii khalq nisbat ba du panjsolai guzashta ziyodtar mablag sarf shuda­ast. Tavassuti in muzdi kori beshtar az 75 million nafar odamoni soveti afzuda, ba 40 million nafar nafaqa, sti­pendiya, yordampuli va digar khel yorii moddi ziyod karda shud. Khamchun sharti asosii balandshavii Nekuahvoli daromadi millii respublika niz afzud. Kharojote, ki dar panjsolai 11-um baroi Nekuahvolii mehnatkashoni respublika peshbiny shudaast, nisbat ba panjsolai dahum 3,6 milliard sum ziyod ast.

Programmai inkishofi ijtimoii dehoti soveti, ki partiya muqarrar kardaast, bo muvaffaqiyat ijro me­shavad. Nekuahvolii dehqonon nazar ba Nekuahvolii korgaronu khizmatchiyon zudtar baland meshavad. Solhoi 80-um baroi baland bardoshtani Nekuahvolii aholii dehot taqriban 160 milliard sum sarf karda meshavad. In yake az sharthoi zarurii bartaraf namudani tafovuthoi ijtimoiyu iqtisodi, madaniyu maishii bayni shahru dehot ast.

Yake az nishonahoi asosii Nekuahvoli daromadi reali ba har sari aholi mebo­shad. Dar SSSR on dar har 15 sol du barobar afzuda, dar panjsolai yozdahum nisbat ba panjsolai dahum 16—18% ziyod meshavad. Darajai istemoli nemathoi moddi, arzon namudani on ba gamkhorii davlat dar haqqi azoyoni jamiyat dalolat mekunad.

Alomati muhimmi baland budani Nekuahvoli afzudani hajmi muomilai molhoi chakana ast. Soli 1980 muomilai mol dar respublika nisbat ba 1975— 34% shud, ki 207 million sum az plan ziyod ast.

Ba sistemai maorifi khalqi res­publika diqqati jiddi doda mesha­vad. Tanho dah dad soli okhir kharojot baroi maorifi khalqi du barobar afzud. Baroi nigohdorii tandurusti davlat az hisobi fondhoi jamiyatii istemoli mablag sarf me­kunad. Khizmati tibbi dar mamlakati mo bepul ast. Dar ShMA aholi dar sol baroi khizmati tibbi 50 milliard dollar sarf mekunad.

Dar kori baland bardoshtani Nekuahvoli gamkhorii davlat dar hakqi kudakon mavqei kalon dorad. Soli 1965 dar res­publika 431 muassisaya tomaktabi vujud dosht, ki 54598 nafar kudakonro dar bar megirift. Soli 1980 adadi muassisaho ba 720 va miqdori tarbiyatgirandagon ba 112758 nafar rasid.

Dar RSS Tojikiston chun dar tamomi SSSR baroi kudakon yordampuli doda meshavad. Tanho soli 1974 dar respublika baroi modaroni serfarzand az hisobi davlat 89,1 million sum kharj shud.

Dar SSSR bo rohi baland bardosh­tani hajmi nafaqa, alalkhusus bo ro­hi ba ham nazdik kunonidani hajmi nafaqai korgaron, khizmatchiyon va kolkhozchiyon kori az nafaqa tamnn namudani aholi behtar karda me­shavad. Chunonchi, dar respublika hajmi minimalli nafaqa az 30 to 45-sum baroi kolkhozchiyon az 12 to 20 sum ziyod karda shud.

Dar mamlakati mo zanon dar sinni 55 va mardon dar sinni 60 ba nafaqa mebaroyand. ‘Hol on ki dar ShMA mardon dar sinni 65 va zanon dar sinni 62, dar RFG, Finlyandiya, Niderland zanu mard dar sinni 65, dar Kanada, Irlandiya va Norvegiya zanu mard dar sinni 70 ba nafaqa mebaroyand.

Khususiyati digari behtar shudani Nekuahvolii odamon dar zamoni sotsializm kutoh namudani ruzi kori va ziyod shudani vaqti kholist. Kutoh namu­dani vaqti kori daroz namudani muhlati otpuskho, sabuk kardani mehnati khonagi boisi afzudani vaqti reali gardid. Vaqti kholi ba iborai Karl Marks sarvati daqiqii har yak shakhs va tamomi jamiyat ast.

Adabiyot: Materialhoi sezdi 26 KPSS, Dushanbe. 1981; Kapustin E. I., Rost blago­sostoyaniya sovetskogo naroda — visshaya sel ekonomicheskoy politiki KPSS, Moskva,

Sovetskiy Tadjikistan az 50 let, Dushanbe 1975; Shagi nashego razvitiya, Dushanbe, D. Khumorov.

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