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Nekrasov Nikolay Alekseevich

Nekrasov Nikolay Alekseevich (10. 12. 1821, mahali Nemirov, hozira viloyati Vinnisa — 8. 1. 1878, Peter­burg), shoiri rus, arbobi adabiyot. Solhoi bachagii Nekrasov dar dehai Greshnevo (hozirai de­hai Nekrasov) nazdiki Yaroslavl, dar mulki padarash guzashtaast. Dar on jo u az hayoti dehqonon bokhabar shud. Solhoi 1832—37 dar gim­naziyai Yaroslavl tahsil kard. Soli 1839 kushish kard, ki ba universiteti Pe­terburg dokhil shavad (solhoi 1839— 40 shunavandai ikhtnyori ba hisob meraft). Az yorii padar mahrum bud va kambagalona umr ba cap meburd. Sherhoyash az soli 1838 chop shudaand.

Soli 1840 majmuai sherhoi Nekrasov «Orzuho va ovozho» ba tab rasid, ki dar on sherhoi navshogirdona va khomi Nekrasov chamovari shuda budand. In majmua ba tanqidi sakhti V. G. Belinskiy duchor shud va muallif onro nobud kard. Ammo Nekrasov ruhaftoda nashuda, ba kori ejodi boz qavitar qamar bast va hikoyaho, povestho, pesaho, maqolaho doir ba teatr va feletonho navishtan girift. Solhoi 1842—43 bo Belinskiy va mahfili u robita paydo kard. Nekrasov bo maqolahoi tanqidi va taqrizhoyash dar muborizahoi Belinskiy baroi realizm va khalqiyati adabiyoti rus hamsaf gardid. Nekrasov dar «Sovremennik» hamchun muharrir va tashkilotchii kuvvahoi adabi mahorat zohir namud; hatto badi reaksiyai siyosii 1848 Nekrasov baroi nigoh doshtani tamoyuli demokratii jurnal kori bisyore kard. Dar in davra romanhoi u «Se mamlakati odam» (1848—49), «Kuli murda» (1851, bo hamrohii A. Ya. Pa­paeva, ki zavjaash shud) nashr gardidand. In romanho ruhi demokrati doshtand. Solhoi 60 istedodi Nekrasov hamchun shoiri khalq, hajvnavis, foshkunandai «bolonishinon», himoyatgari dehotiyoni sitamdida ravnaq girift. Soli 1856 majmuai Nekrasov «Sherho» az chop baromad, ki khalqro oshkoro ba

 

faoliyati grajdani va revolyusioni davat mekard va hamchun manifesti adabiyoti peshqadami rus qabul gardid. Dar vaziyati revolyutsionii solhoi 1859—61 dar ashori Nekrvsov mavzui dehot mavqe megirad. Sherhoi «Andesha», «Dafn», va dos­tonhoi u «Dehqonbachaho» (1861; tarjumai tojikiash 1953), «Sarmoi binisurkh» (1863) az muhabbati shoir ba dekhqoni rus sarshorand. Dar in davra etibori Nekrasov dar bayni jome- ai rus, makhsusan javononi peshaqadam va hodimoni revolyutsionii on khele afzud. Soli 1868 ba Nekrasov muyassar shud, ki jurnali «Otechestvennie zapiski»-ro ba dast girad. Dar in jo bobhoi dostoni «Dar Rusiya osuda kist», dostonhoyash dar borai dekabristho: «Bobo» (1870), «Zanhoi rus» (1872—73) va hajviyai «Muosiron» (1875—76) ba tab rasidand. Dar in asarho va ashori lirikii mukhimtarin alomati solhoi 70, ki az shiddat giriftani harakati khalqchigii revolyusnoni, «ba khalq nazdik shudan» iborat bud, ifoda yoftaast. Shoir dar solhoi okhiri hayotash, ki pur az mehnati purmashaqqati ejodi, tashvishhoi jurnalu korhoi jamiyati budand, ba kasa­lii vaznin giriftor shud. Bo vuju­di on «surudhoi vopasin»-i khudro navishta, az rohi taykardaash, az muhabbatash ba khalqi rus bo hamon ilhomi shoironai sobiqash hikoyat kardaast. Marosimi dafni Nekpasov ba namoishi khalqii demokrati monand shuda bud.

Sheri Nekrasov, ki dar zami­nai inkishofi peshinai adabiyoti rus ba vujud omada, ananahoi ejo- dii Pushkin, Lermontov va Gogolro davom medod, peshrafti azimi hayoti khalqi rusro, ki dar rohi muborizai ozodikhohi bedor shuda bud, inikos kardaast. Az in ru shoir dar bayni navisandagoni realisti asri 19 rus maqomi alohida ishgol kar­daast. Nekrasov na tanho gami khalqro mekhurd, balki bo dehqononi Rossiya yak shuda bud, az nomu zaboni onho sukhan meguft. Mavzui khalq, dehqonon, ki baroi adabiyoti rus nav buda, ba vositai kharakter va tiphoi gunogun ifoda yoftaast, az sherhoi avvalini Nekrasov «Foytuni seaspa va «Vatan» to dostonhoi kaloni epiki va murojiati     lirikii pesh az margash ba khalqi rus — khulosa tamomi ejodiyoti shoirro faro megirad. To Nekrasov hej kas gamu qashshoqii dehotro in daraja khaqqoni tasvir nakardaast («Fikru khayol dar peshi dari daromad», tarjumai tojikiash 1953; «Orina, modari askar», «Bazmi osmonkaf») va hej kas dar hayoti khalq in qadar jihathoi khub va kharakterhoi bar- jastavu muqtadiroro nadidaast (Darya, Matryona, Saveliy, Ermil, Girin).

Hamai asarhoi Nekrasov andesha dar borai khalq va taqdiri u meboshand. Dar lirikai purmazmunu dramatikii Nekrasov masalai khizmat ba khalq joi namoyoyaro ishgol mekunad («Javonmardii yaksoata», 1860). Qismati vaznini zani rus hamesha dar markazi diqqati Nekrasov bud. In mavzu ham dar lirika va ham dar dostonhoi u dar borai dekabriston: «Knyazkhonum Volkonskaya», «Kryazkhonum Trubetskaya» inikos yoftaast. Dar in dostonhoi tarikhi voqeahoi guzashta dar aloqamandi bo taqdiri khalq va idealhoi revolyusionii khalqchigii solhoi 70 ifoda gardidaast. Dostoni «Dar Rusiya osuda kist» (1866—76) ejodiyoti Nekrasovro jambast menamoyad. In doston ensiklopediyai haqiqii hayoti asri 19 khalqi rus buda, bo goyai buzurg, tahlilu tanqidi ijtimoii ruzgor, ki az nazari khudi dehqonon doda shudaast, kasro ba vajd meorad. Muhimtarin alomati ejodiyoti Nekrasov raviyai hajvii on meboshad. Nekpasov az fosh namudani mansabdoroni zabonboz, burjuyhoi navparast va munofiqoni guzaro («Qasidai muosir», «Surudi gahvora») ba hajvii tezu tundi tamomi sokhti siyosi, pomeshikoni krepostnoy, liberalho, senzurai podshohi, ozodii bardurugi matbuot guzashtaast («Surud dar borai ozodii sukhan», «Murofia» va gayra).

Nekrasov shokhkorihoi hajvi rusro ejod kardaast: «Vaqthoi okhir» (1871) va «Muosiron» (1875—76). Nekrasov shoiri khaqiqii millii rus buda, hama sarvati zaboni khalq va folklorro ba sher dokhil kard, prozaizmho, sabkhoi gunoguni nutq va okhanghoi surudro jasurona istifoda burd. Sheri Nekrasov, ki dar on ruhi grajdani va badeiyati baland bo ham sakht payvandand, ba inkishofi minbadai sheri klassiki va sheri sovetii rus niz tasiri sudmand rasonidaast. Khona-muzei Nekrasov dar Leningrad (az soli 1946) va bog-muzei u dar dehai Karabikhai viloyati Yaroslavl (az soli 1947) kushoda ast. Tarjumai ash­ori Nekrasov ba zaboni tojiki az solhoi 30 ogoz yoftaast. Avvalin tarjumahoi ashori Nekrasov ba qalami M. Tursunzoda, A. Dehoti, J. Suhayli va digar taalluq dorand. Ejodiyoti Nekrasov ba nazmi muosiri tojik tasir dorad. Ba tufayli nazmi Nekrasov ohanghoi grajdani va asoshoi khalqiyati sheri muosiri tojik boz ham mustakhkamtar gardid.

Osnovanie: Sherho, Stalinobod. 1938; Sherhoi muntakhab, Stalinobod, 1953; Dar Ros­siya osuda kist (bobho az doston), Dushanbe 1982.

Adabiyot: Stepanov N. L., N. A. Nek­rasov. Jizn i tvorchestvo, 2 izdanie, Moskva, 1971; N. A. Nekrasov i literatura na­rodov Sovetskogo Soyuza, Erevan, 1972.

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