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Neki va badi

Neki va badi kategoriyahoi tuuri akhloki, ki shaklhoi mutaqobilai (musbatu manfii) raftoru amoli odamon va hodisadhoi ijtimoiro ifoda mekunand. Dar tarikhi etika az qadim tamoyuloti materialisti va idealisti dar tabiri mohiyati Neki va badi ba ham zid budand. Materializm in mafhumhoro bo talabot va manfiathoi insoni, qonunhoi tabiat, khohishu niyati odamon (naturalizm), lazzat va ranju azob, khushbakhti va badbakhtii shakhs (gedo­nizm, evdemonizm) va ahamiyati ijtimoii faoliyati fardho baroi hayoti yakjoya vobasta mekunad. Idea­lizm Neki va badiro mahsuli irodai ilohi va ruhi mutlaq medonad.

Tanho falsafa va etikai marksistii mafhumhoro ba zaminai haqiqatan ilmi, ijtimoiyu tarikhi guzoshta, Neki va badiro bo ziddiyathoi voqeii jamiyat va inikosi makhsusi onho dar shuuri akhloqii davra, sistemahoi jamiyati va sinfhoi muayyan vo­basta kard. Fahmishi mukhtalif do­ir ba mazmuni konkretii Neki va badi niz az hamin iborat ast. «Tasavvuroti oid ba khayru shar az yak khalq to khalqi digar, az yak asr to asri digar on qadar bisyor tagyir meyoft, ki aksar vaqt bo yakdigar tamoman zid meomad» (Engels Fridrikh, Anti- Dyuring, Dushanbe 1975, sahifai 193). Ammo dar in mafhumho yak andoza mazmuni umumi niz boqi mondaast; onho khamesha dar shakli baho va dasturi akhloqi masalahoi amalii subekthoi ijtimoiro dar hozira yo oyandai dur ifoda. mekardand.

Ideyai neki, navishta bud Vladimir Ilich Lenin, talaboti odamro dar voqeiyat inikos menamoyad, «yane olam insonro qone namegardonad va inson qaror medihad, ki bo amali khud onro tagyir dihad» (Acar, jildi 38f sahifai 215). Dar akhloqi kommunisti ahamiyati Nekb va badi manoi barham dodani istismor, nobarobarii ijtimoi va inkishofi hamatarafai shakhsro dar jamiyati besinf ifoda mekunad.

Adabiyot: Arkhangelskiy L. M.. Ka­tegorii marksistskoy etiki, Moskva, 1963.

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Инчунин кобед

BOQIEV Rustam Khudoynazarovich

BOQIEV Rustam Khudoynazarovich (tavallud 21.1 1978, shahraki Somoniyoni nohiyai Rudaki), varzishgari tojik, gushtingir, Ustodi shoistai …