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Navruz

Navruz idi bostoni va ananavii khalqhoi eroni (badtar dar bayni digar khalqhoi gayrieroni niz jori shudaast), ki ba ruzi avvali solshumorii shamsi — 1-umi farvardin (hamal) yo 21 marti solshumorii milodi rost meoyad. Navruzro dar baze joyho «Idi sari sol» va «Idi Soli nav» niz menomand. Taqriban 3 hazor sol muqaddam payvasta ba inkishofi dehqoni paydo shuda, minbad takmil va rivoj yoftaast. Tarikhi tashakkuli Navruz bo asotiri kosmogoni oid ba tabiati muranda (dar zimiston) va zindashavanda (dar bahor) vobasta budaast. Dar ahdi Hakhomanishiyon ba hukmi anana daromada, ba idi rasmii eroniyon tabdil yoft. Aksariyati asotiru rivoyathoi bosto­ni ogozi jashni Navruzro ba Jamshed nisbat medihand. Dar Osiyoi Miyona va Eron az asri 7 to melod taqvimi avestoi jori bud. Muvofiqi in taqvim solro ba 12 mohi 30 ruza taqsim karda budand. Har 30 ruzi moh nomhoi makhsus dosht, ki yake az on ruzho bo nomi on moh hamnom bud va on ruzro jashn megiriftand. Az in 12 jashn 3-toash az sababi on ki dar in ruzho holati tabiat tagyir meyoft, muhimtar shumorida meshud. Jashni avvali bahorro Navruz, jashni avvali tiramohro Mehrgon, jashni ruzi 10-um i bah- manmoh (30 yanvar)-ro, ki panjoh ruz pesh az Navruz meomad, Sada meguftand. Jashni Navruz ayyomi barobar shudani shabu ruz, hangomi ehyoi tabiat, ogozi mavsimi bahorii kishtukori dehqoni buda, nisbat ba digaron jashnho etibori beshtare dosht. Dar borai chand ruz jashn giriftani Navruz aqidahoi mukhtalif mavju- dand. Muvofiqi malumoti Aburayhoni Beruni shohoni sosoni Navruzro shash ruz jashn megiriftand. Onho ruzi avvali Navruzro bo qabulu paziroii mardum meguzaronidand. Ruzi duyum mansabdoron va davlatmandonro qabul namuda, suhbat meorostand. Ruzi seyum mubadon (ruhoniyoni ahli zardusht), ruzi chahorum ahli darbor, ruzi panjum farzandu kheshu taboronro paziroi mekardand. Ruzi shashum, ki rasid, khudi shoh Navruzro id mekard. Baroi hamin ham jashni ruzi shashumro Navruzi Buzurg nomidaand. Boyad qayd kard, ki dar Osiyoi Miyona, Eron, Ozarboyjon Navruzro 13 ruz jashn megiriftaand va ruzi 13-um az manzili khud ba beruni shahr ba sayl mebaromadaand, ki onro holo dar «Eron «Senzdahbadar» menomand. Arabho badi istiloi Osiyoi Miyonayu Eron kushish kardand, ki jashn- hoi qadimayu ananavii khalqhoi mahallliro az bayn barand. Vale khalq ba tazyij va mamoniati ajnabiyon nigoh nakarda, Navruzro jashn megirift. Arabho noiloj Navruzro «Sunnati Jamshed» nomida, ba jashngiriash ijozat dodand. Ba ivazi haft shin (shakar, sham, sharbat, sharob, pinni, shir, shona) haft sin jori shud: dastarkhonro bo haft navi nemat, ki bo harfi sin shuru meshud, oro medodand: sirko, sabzi, sumoq, sanjit, sir, seb va sipand. Dar baze khonahoi ba joi sumoq va sipand sabza, sumanak yo sanbusa hozir mekunand. Dar ahdi Somoniyon baroi ravnaki ananahoi bostonii khalqi tojik va khalqhoi digari Movarounnahru Khuroson sharoiti musoid faroham omad. Dar in davra Navruz va Sadayu Mehrgon vase jashn girifta meshudand. Muvofiqi malumoti Abubakr Muhammedi Narshakhi Navruzro avval kishovarzon dar ruzi 1-umi farvardin, bad panj ruz mugon (otashparaston) id mekardand, ki az in ru «Navruzi kishovarzon» va «Navruzi mugon» menomidand. Aksari shoironi asrhoi 10—11 dar vasfi Navruz, Mehrgon va Sada sherho ofarida- and. Navruz dar ahdi Gaznaviyon, Salchuqiyon, Khorazmshohiyon va hatto badi istiloi mugul az tarafi khalqi mehnatkash botantana id karda meshud. Mardum ba peshvozi Navruz tayyori medidand, khonahoro rubuchin karda, toza nigoh medoshtand va oro medodand. 25 ruz pesh az Navruz dar zarfhoi makh­sus gandumu adas sabzonida, dar rui dastarkhon meguzoshtand va omadi kishti dehqoniro az rui holatu sabzishi onho peshbini menamudand. Ba istiqboli in jashn taomho, hal­voyu shirinihoi gunogun mepukhtand. Khonhoi navruziro bo haft navi meva, sambusayu nonhoi gunogun zinat medodand. Az haft darakhti me­va haft shokhcha burida, rui dastar­khon menihodand. Dar Samarqandu Bukhoro, Khujandu Hisor, Qaroteginu Darvoz, Badakhshonu Kulob va digar joyho idgohhoi makhsus vujud dosht. Harguna dilkhushiho va boziyu sayrhoi khalqi barguzor megardid (dar baze nohiyahoi khozirai Tojikiston, az jumla dar Leninobod Navruzro 21 mart ne, balki 7 mart jashn megirand). Pas ae Rev. Kab. Sotsialistii Oktyabr in jashni kuhan mazmuni nav paydo kard. Holo barodaroni uzbek, ozarboyjoni va digar khalqhoi Kavkaz mis- li tojikon 21—22 mart Navruzro tantanavor qayd menamoyand. Ruzhoi id dar shahru dehot ziyofatho barpo mekunand, meraqsand, sheru surud me- khonand, hasharho tashkil namuda, shahru dehaho, rohu juyhoro ba tartib meovarand, niholho meshinonand. Dar in jashn mardum az rui anana qabri guzashtagoni khudro ziyorat mekunand, onro ba tartib meandozand, Odamon yakdigarro bo id tabrik menamoyand, ba mehmoni taklif mekunand, javonon dar joyhoi khushmanzara sayr mekunand. Navruz dar zamoni mo ba idi ogozi nek, mehnat, idi nazm, tarabu nishot, javoni va dustii khalqho tabdil yoftaast. Omar Khayyam, Traktati, M., 1961; Ah­madov R., Navruzi olamafruz, D., 1978.

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