Malumoti ohirin
Home / Ilm / Naturfalsafa

Naturfalsafa

Naturfalsafa (az lot. natuga —tabiat va falsafa), falsafai tabiat, tabiri nazarii tabiat. Naturfalsafa tabiatro ba tavri yaklukht mavridi tadqiq qaror medihad. Oda- tan baron Naturfalsafa tabirn gayritajribi va mujarradi hodisahoi olam khos ast. Dar ibtido Naturfalsafa baroi tashakkuli falsafa roli muhim bozid va az asotiru takhayyuloti mavqum bevosita ba justujui asosi moddii hodisoti olami hasti kushid. Binobar in Naturfalsafaro metavon shakli avvalini falsafa nomid. Naturfalsafa muddati ziyode dar tarikhi ilm binobar kofi nabudani tajribahoi ilmi va tadqiqi tabiat shakli asosii tahlili naza­ri ba hisob meraft.

Faylasufoni qadimi Hindu Chin va Yunon fikrhoi jolibi diqqate bayon namuda budand, ki baroi tadqiqu sanjishhoi oyandai ilmi tako­ni qavi dodand. Masalan, farziyai De­mokrit va Epikur dar borai az atomho iborat budani olam dar ta­rikhi falsafa va umuman ilm, aha- miyati bagoyat buzurgero molik bud. YO khud, qabl az in, andeshai naturfaylasufoni maktabi Milet — Fa­les, Anaksimandr, Anaksimen bo vujudi az mazmuni asotiri ozod nabudani takhminhoyashon oid ba nakhustmodda qimati ziyode dosht, zero baroi digargun shudani tasavvuroti kosmologi az miyon ba vujud ovard.

Fikrhoi doir ba sokhti Koinot, bahamnayvastagii ajromi samovi va

hamohangi» onho hamchup sozi musi- qy (Pifagor), abadiyat» Koinot va zamon (Arastu) va yak sil sil a fikr- hoi bnkri az tarafi namoyandagoni falsafa» tabiat dar Yunopi Qadnm peshpihodshuda tahkursii inkishofi minbadai falsafa va tabiatshinosi gardidand.

Dar asrhoi miyona dar Sharqi islomi dar barobari zinda gardidani afkori bezavoli yunoniyon va pesh az hama Aflotunu Arastu Naturfalsafa mazmuni amiqtar girift. Andeshahoi Zaka­riyoi Rozi, Abunasri Forobi, Abualii Sino, Aburayhoni Beruni, Umari Khayyom va digar dar borai tabiat (modda, harakat, zamon, makon, nafs, gardishi falak va hokazo) az mazmunhoi materialisti sarshor budand.

Barobar» inkishofi kapitalizm dar Evropa ilmhoi tabii ravnaq yoft va ba onho beshtar shavq paydo gardid. Dar zamoni Ehyoi Evropa afkori J. Bruno, B. Telezno, T. Kampanella va digar Naturfalsafaro boz ruhi toza bakhshid. Aqidahoi panteizmi naturalisti va gilozoizm inkishof yoft. Olimoni in davra ba tabiat hamchun yak uzvi tom nazar namuda, prinsipi ayniyati olami kabir va olami sagirro pisandida budand. Qati nazar az bovarii tabiatshi- noson va olimoni in davr ba irfon, alkhimiya va amsoli in dar afkori onho oid ba inkishof, muborizai zidho va gayra  unsurhoi muhimmi dia­lektiki bayon gardidaand.

Dar asrhoi 17—18 dar Evropa ilmhoi tajribii tabiatshinosi ravnaq yofta, tarzu usuli matematikiyu me­khaniki beshtar mavridi tavajjuh qaror girift. Binobar in zarurat ba Naturfalsafa hamchun usuli omuzishi tabi­at az bayn raft. Dar asri 19 namoyandai falsafai klassikii nemis F. N. Shelling Naturfalsafaro boz ba maydoni falsafa jilvagar kard. Shelling komyobihoi ilmhoi tabiatshinosi, az jumla kashfiyoti L. Galvin, A. Volt, A. Lavuaze, R. Broun va digarro az nazari idealizmi obek­tivi tahlilu jambast kard. Muvofiqi aqidai idealistii Shelling ziddiyati qutbho asosi tafriqai tavhidi ibtidoii tabiat meboshad, shaklhoi olitarin boshand ba hamon shaklhoi oddi ba saviyai baland irtifo yoftaand. In fikrho magzi dialektiki doshta, vale ba idea­lizm va ilohiyot asos yofta budand. Karl Marks va Fridrikh Engels muvaffaqiyat va norasoihoi Naturfalsafaro nishon doda, dar asri 19 ba on ru ovardanro qadame ba qafo medonistand, zero dar in davra materializmi dialektiki ba tabiri hodisahoi tabiat vasilai tavonoe shuda, Naturfalsafa digar az uhdai tabir va tadqiqu jambasti kashfiyothoi ilmi baromada nametavonist.

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

boldastho

BOLDASTHO

BOLDASTHO (Chiroptera), yak qatori jonvaroni shirkhor. Boldastho qobiliyati parvozi durudarozro dorand. Poyhoi peshi onho ba …