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Nashriyahoi sporti

Nashriyahoi sporti, gazeta, jurnal, byulleten va digar nashriya­hoi makhsusi davri, ki vazifai asosiashon targibi fizkultura va sport ast. Nashriyahoi sporti vasilai mudimmi operativona pahn namudani akhboroti ommavii sohai tarbiyai jismoni va sport ba shumor meravand. Dar Rossiyai torevolyusioni dar solhoi gunogun beshtar az 100 gazetayu jurnalhoi sporti nashr shudaand, ki aksari onho bo tiraji kam mebaromadand. Yakumin nashriyai vatani «Ejenedelnik dlya okhotnikov do lo­shadey» (Moskva, az 1823) bud. Az soli 1842 dar Moskva jurnali «Konevodstvo i kon­niy sport», az 1859 dar Peterburg «Shakhmatniy listok» chop shudand. Okhiri asri 19 dar shahrhoi Kiev, Odessa, Riga, Saratov, Tula Nashriyahoi sporti ba vujud omadand. Dar gazetayu jurnalhoi sporti goyahoi sporti burjuazi, siyosati hukumati podshohi dar sohai tarbiyai jismoni targib karda meshudand. Jurnalhoi «Samokat» (az 1894), «Russkiy sport» (az 1909) az jumlai nashriyahoi bonufuz budand.

Dar SSSR Nashriyahoi sporti unsuri sistemai tarbiyai kommunistist. Programmai KPSS (1961) va qarori KM KPSS «Dar borai chorabinihoi minbadai inkishofi fizkultura va sport» (1966) vazifahoi asosii Nashriyahoi sportiro muayyan namudand. Rohbarii bevositai Nashriyahoi sporti ba zimmai Komiteti fiz­kultura va sporti nazdi Soveti Vazironi SSSR guzoshta shudaast. Dar SSSR Nashriyahoi sportii markazi (gazetayu jurnalhoe, ki organhoi Komiteti fizkultura va sporti nazdi Soveti Vazironi SSSR, VSSSS, DOSAAF-i SSSR va digar tashkilothoi markazi, inchunin federatsiyahoi sportii umumiittifoqiand), respublikavi (organhoi komitethoi sportii respublikavi, komitethoi ittifoqi kasaba, inchunin DOSAAF va federa­tsiyahoi sporti) va mahalli (ilova ba gazetahoi viloyatiyu shahri, byulletenhoi barnomahoi musobiqahoi sporti va gayra) mavjudand. Avvalin nashriyahoi davragii soveti oid ba fizkultura va sport solhoi 20 [dar Moskva jurnalhoi «Sport» (1918), «Iz­vestiya fizicheskoy kulturi», «Teo­riya i praktika fizicheskoy kultu­ri», «Fizkultura i sport», «Fizkultaktivist» (1927—31), dar Le­ningrad «Vseobuch i sport» (1922— 24), «Spartak» (1924—39), dar Kiev «Krasniy sport» (1922—23), gazetai «Krasniy sport» (hozira «Sovets­kiy sport») va gayra ba vujud omadand. Solhoi 30 dar Ukraina, Gurjiston, Armaniston, yak qator shahrhoi Sibir va Ural inguna gazetayu jurnalho paydo shudand. Solhoi 20—30 qarib 40 Nashriyahoi sportii davragi va gayra az chop baromadand.

Soli 1976 13 gazetai umumiittifoqi va respublikavi ba 11 zaboni khalqhoi SSSR chop shud, ki tiraji yakvaqtai onho ziyoda az 5 million nuskharo tashkil medod. On sol beshtar az 20 jurnal (umumiittifokiyu respublikavi) bo tiraji yakvaqtai taqriban 2 million nuskha nashr gardid. Masalahoi fizkulturayu sport inchunin dar sahifahoi gazetahoi markazi va jurnalhoi «Turist», «Krilya Rodini», «Konevodstvo i konniy sport», «Ri­bovodstvo i ribolovstvo» va gayra inikos meyoband. Nashriyahoi sportii davlati dar digar mamlakathoi sotsialiste, ki dar onho qarib 100 gazetayu jurnalhoi sporti va gayra, az jumla dar Respublikai Demokratii Germaniya — taqriban 40 nomguy, RSChS — 20, RKhP — ziyoda ae 10 nomguy bo tiraji ommavi nashr meshavand, toraft vusat meyoband.

Dar mamlakathoi kapita­liste Nashriyahoi sportii davlati vujud nadorand, gazetayu jurnalhoi sportiro nashriyothoi judogona, ittifoqhoi sporti, klubho va gayra intishor mekunand. Dar yak qator mamlakatho (maesalan, ShMA, Fransiya, Angliya, RFG, Yaponiya, Italiya) nashriyahoi bisyori davragi mavjudand, ki odatan kharakteri elonu akhboroti va tijorati doshta, beshtarinashon bo tira­ji nihoyat kam mebaroyand.

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BOLDIREV Aleksandr Nikolaevich

BOLDIREV Aleksandr Nikolaevich (29.5.1909, Sankt- Peterburg -1993, hamon jo), sharqshinos-eronshinosi rus, doktori ilmhoi filologiya (1954), …