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Nask

Nask (Lens), jinsi rastanihoi yaksolaest az lubiyoiho. Poyaash rost yo kame kham, balandiash 20—55 sm. Bargash maydai muyakdor, gulash mayda, safed, gulobi va bunafshi ka- budcha, 1—3-toi dar bari barg joygir ast. Nask khud az khud va ba vositai hasharot gardolud meshavad. Gilofakash kutohi rombshakl, du-se, bazan yak dona dorad. Donash mudavvari barjasta, andoza va rangash dar navhoi gunogun har khel meshavad. Az rui hachmi donash Naskro ba Naski muqarrarii kalondona (5,5—9 millimetr) va mayda dona (2—5,5 millimetr) taqsim me­kunand. Dar kishvhoi bahri Miyonazamin, Osiyoi Khurd, Zakavkaziya.

Osiyoi Miyona 5 namudi Nask mavjud buda, asosan yak namud Naskii muqarari (L. culinaris) koshta meshavad.  Dar bisyor mamlakathoi Evropa, Osiyo, Afrikai Shimoli pah shuda, dar SSSR chun ziroati galladonayu khuroki chorvo dar qismi janubi evropoiyu Povoljiya va Osiyoi Miyona kisht meshavad. Namudi mazrui Nask ba du zernamud va dar yak zernamud ba khelhoi gunogun taqsim meshavad. Khelhoi zernamudi Naski maydadona dar se guruh: osiyoi, evropoi va mobaini muttahid megardand. Dar Tojikiston az soli 1945 in jonib Naski «Tojiki-95»-ro kisht mekunand. Vobasta ba nav va sharoiti sabzish davri nashvi Nask az 60 to 115 shaboruz.

Ba khunuki tobovar ast. Tukhmash dar harorati 4—5° Selsiya sabzida, navrustaash ba khunukii to —2—3° tob meorad. Naskro odatan dar shudgori gal­ladonahoi khushador mekorand. Dar navbati khud Nask chun nitroanduz ba­rov galladona, khususan gandum peshkishti khub ham meboshad. Naskro bo usuli qatorii sarosar va qatorii kambar avvali bahor mekorand. Nor­mai kishti Naski navi «tojiki-95» baroi mintaqahoi judogonai res­publika in qadar ast (ba hisobi kg/ga): dar zaminhoi lalmii borishotashon miyonai mintaqai Leninobod—50 killogramm; dar zaminhoi lalmii serborishi mintaqahoi Hisor va Kulob, khojagii gallakorii rayonhon Kuybishev va YOvon — 60 killogramm; dar za­minhoi lalmii serborishi mintaqai Garm — 75 killogramm.

Tukhmi Nask ba hi­sobi miyona ba chuqurii 3—4 santimeto kosh­ta meshavad. Doni rasidai khushki Nask az 23 to 32% safeda, to 60% ohor, to 2,5% ravgan, az 2,5 to 5% klet­chatka, vitamini V1 va V2 dorad. Bar­gu poyai sabz, peshboda va kohi Naskro baroi khuroki hayvonoti khojagii qishloq ba kor mebarand. 100 killogramm doni Nask qarib barobari 120 vohidi khuroki va 21 killogramm proteini hozim ast.

Adabiyot: Leontev V. M., Chechevisa, Leningrad, 19vv; Jukovoy iy P. M., Kultur­nie rasteniya i ikh sorodichi. Leningrad, 1971;

QosimovJ. K., Kreydik B. M., Nevzorov V. V., Ziroathoi Tojikiston, Dushanbe, 1075.

 

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