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Narmbadanho

Narmbadanho, mollyuskho (Mollusca, az lot. moliuscus— narm), yak navi hayvonhoi bemuhraero guyand, ki qarib 130 hazor namudro darbar megirad. Narmbadanho ba 7 sinf taqsim meshavand: shikampoyho, monoplakoforho, Narmbadanhoi zirehakdor, Narmbadanhoi  bezirehak, Narmbandhoi dutabaqa, belpoyho va sarpoyho.

Takhmin mekunand, ki saravlodi Narmbadanho kirmdon kamazon khordor budand. Narmbadanhoi hafriyoti az davrai kembriy malumand. Dar in davra shikampoyho, Narmbadanhoi dutabaqa, sarpoyho va gayra zindagy mekardand. Dar davrahoi paleozoi va mezozoy beshtar sarpoyho pahn shuda budand. Inkishofi shikampoyho va Narmbadanhoi dutabaqa az davrai mezozoy cap shudaast. Gunogunii sokhti gushmohi va imkoniyati muqarrar namudani on bo mururi zamon dar guruhhoi gunoguni Narmbadanho, tagyiryobii onho baroi halli masalahoi alohidai tahanvuli olami hayvonot ahamiyati kalon dorad.

Narmbadanho dar bahrho, obhoi shirin va dar khushki zindagi mekunand. Badani Narmbadanho dutarafa simmetri buda, az cap (baze namudhoi Narmbadanho yo umuman cap nadorand va yo cap doshta boshand ham durust shakl nagiriftaast), tana, poyho va gushmohi iborat ast. Dar cap surokhii dahon, dar aksari Narmbadanho boshad inchunin muylabi hassos va yak juft chashm joygir shudaast. Tana hijobe dorad, ki dar kovokii on galsama (dar Narmbadanhoi  khushkigard shush), uzvhoi hissi khimiyavi (dar osforidiyaho), tanosul, ikhroj va gaira joygir shudaand. Baze shikampoyho kovokii hijob nadorand. Dar in hol hijob va gushmohi kamu besh takhfif shudaast.

Sokht, darajai inkishof va funktsiyai poi Narmbadanho gunogun buda, ba tarzi zindagii onho vobasta meboshad. Baze Narmbadanho poy nadorand* Poi shikampoyhoi shinokunanda (masalan, Narmbadanhoi  belpoy) ba yak yo du uzvi shinovari va poi sarpoyho ba qif, ki inchunin vazifai uzvi harakatro ijro mekunad, tabdil yoftaast. Gushmohii baze Narmbadanho  (Narmbadanhoi zirehakdor) az 8 lavhacha, gushmohii bazei digarashon (Narmbadanhoi dutabaqa) boshad, az du tabaqai pahlui iborat ast; gushmohii Narmbadanhoi boqimonda yaklukht meboshad. Gushmohi az namakhoi kislotai karbonat iborat buda, asosi organiki dorad va chun uzvi muhofizatkunanda va takyagohi khizmat mekunad. Nai ruda az qismhoi pesh, miyona a qafo iborat ast. Qismi peshi nai ruda dahonu jogho, halq, gadudkhoi obi dahon va surkhrudaro, qismi miyona medayu jigarro va qismi qafo rudai qaforo dar bar megirand.

Narmbadanho ba vositai ktenidiyaho (galsamahoi avvalin) nafas megirand. Aksari Narmbadanhoi juft (monoplakoforho) va Narmbadanhoi zirehakdor boshand yakchand juft ktenidiya dorand. Dar aksari shikampoyhoi obi faqat yakto ktenidiyai chap boqi mondaast; Dar Narmbadanhoi dutabaqa boshad, yak chuft ktenidiy ba du chuft galsama tabdil yoftaast. Dar Narmbadanhoe, ki dar khushki zindagi mekunand, ba joi galsama shushi havoi (uzve, ki az hisobi kovokii hijob ba vuchud omadaast) vujud dorad. Sistemai gardishi khuni Narmbadanho kushod yo qarib sarbasta (dar sarpoyho) meboshad. Dilashon dar khaltai nadidili joygir buda, odatan yak qismi kovokii duyumini badan (tselom)-ro ; tashkil medidhad. Vay az medachai dil va yak chuft peshdil iborat ast; dar aksari shikampoyho faqat yak peshdili chap mavjud ast. Monoplakorforho va baze sarpoyho duchufti peshdil dorand. Uzvhoi ikhroji Narmbadanho az yak chuft gurda iborat meboshad;  dar monoplakoforho vay 5—6 va dar baze sarpoyho (masalan, zavraqcha)  du  chuft va dar aksari shikamnoyho faqat yakto (gurdai chap) ast. Sistemai asabi monoplakoforho va Narmbadanho zirehakdoru bezirehak az kamonaki saru du juft tanai shikami va pahlui, ki bo bandhoi kundalang boham payvast shudaand, iborat ast; sistemai asabi Narmbadanhoi boqimonda boshad az girehhoi juft-juft bo khathoi rost va kundalang bo ham payvastshuda hosil shudaast. Vazifai azoi hisro dar aksari Narmbadanho muylabchahoi cap, chashmho va uzvhoi muvozanat ijro mekunand.

Narmbadanho bo rohi jinsi afzoish mekunand. Bazei onho judojinsa, digarashon khunso meboshand. Sarpoyho va aksari shikampoyho daruni va Narmbadanhoi boqimonda beruni bordor meshavand.

Dar ITTIHODI ShURAVI namudhoi gunoguni Narmbadanho zindagi mekunand. Az jumla dar faunai Tochikiston Narmbadanhoi khushkigard (qarib 90 namudi shikampoyho az 36 jins va 15 oila) va Narmbadanhoi obhoi shirin (48 namudi shikampoyho az 14 jins va 10 oila, 13 namudi Narmbadanhoi dutabaqa az 7 chins va 4 oila) va Narmbadanhoi obhoi shurtam (az oilai Rug- gulidae va Pyrgohidrobia, sinfi shikampoyho) hastand. Dar bayni Narmbadanho hayvonhoi baroi odam foidabakhsh va zararnok bisyorand. Ba Harmbadanhoi foidabakhsh ustritsa, kalmar, midiya va gayra misol shuda metavonavd. Az baze Narmbadanho sadaf, marvorid va digar ashyoi qimatbaho megirand. Dar dunyo har sol qarib 7,5 mln sentner Narmbadanhoi gunogunro medorand, ki az onho konserva va digar mahsuloti khuroki tayyor mekunand. Baze Narmbadanho (masalan, kirmi kishti) ba inshooti zeriobi va kishi bazei digarashon (masalan, tuqumshulluk) ba rastaniho zarar merasonand. Yak qator Narmbadanho gelmintozi odam va chorvoro ba vujud meorand. Baroi bo Narmbadanhoi zararovar muboriza burdan zahrhoi khimiyavii makhsus — mollyuskotsithoro istifoda mekunand. Tasvir dar sahifahoi 96—97.

Ad.: Jadin V. I., Mollyuski presnikh i solonovatikh vod ITTIHODI ShURAVI, Moskva— Leningrad, 1952; Likharev I. M., R a m m el- mey s t e r V. S., Nazemnie mollyuski fauni ITTIHODI ShURAVI. Moskva—Leningrad , 1952; Izatulloev 3., Materiali k izucheniyu nazemnikh mollyuskov Gissarskogo khrebta i sopredelnikh rayonov Tadjikistana, «Izv. AN Tadjikskoy SSR», otdel biologicheskikh nauk, 1970, №2; Viktorov D. P. i drugie Biologiya: Uchebnoe posobie dlya slushateley podgotovitelnikh otdeleniy vuzov, Moskva, 1981.

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