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Naqliyoti rohi ohan

Naqliyoti rohi ohan, naqliyoest (parovoz, teplovoz, elektrovoz va gayra), ki tavassuti on bor va pas­sajir mekashonand. Naqliyoti rohi ohan barobari taraqqii kapitalizm paydo shud. Soli 1825 dar Angliya avvalin rohi ohan Stokton-Darlington sokhta shud. Dar Rossiya boshad, nakhustin rohi ohani Pe­terburg—Sarskoe Selo—Pavlovskro soli 1837 sokhtand. Soli 1851 sokhtmoni rohi ohani Peterburg—Moskva ba okhir rasid.

Soli 1980 dar SSSR tuli rohi ohani 141,8 hazor kilometr az on jumla 43,7 hazor kilometr rohi ohani elektrikonida bud.

Rohhoi ohani asosii SSSR, ki markazi mamlakatro bo Donbass, Ural, Sibir, Sharqi Dur payvast mekunand, inhoand: rohi ohan  Moskva — Gorkiy—Perm, Sverdlovsk—Omsk, Moskva — Arzamas — Qazon — Sverd­lovsk—Omsk—Novosibirsk—Krasno­yarsk—Tayshet—Irkutsk—Chita—Kha­barovsk—Vladivostok va gayra Solhhoi 1960—70 magistralhoi nav sokhta shudaand: Abakan—Tayshet, Makat— Uzen va gayra. Soli 1974 sokhtmoni rohi ohani Baykalu Amur Ust-Kut — Komso­molski Amur (3200 kilometr) ogoz yoft. Rohhoi ohani SSSR bo rohhoi ohani baynalkhalqii 25 mamlakati Evropa va Osiyo payvast meboshand. Soli 1980 dar SSSR tavassuti rohi ohan 3728, 2 million tonna bor, 3569 million passajir kashonda shud.

SSSR az jihati  hajmi boru passajirkashoni dar jahoi joi yakumro megirad. Dar natijai aznavsozii tekhniki dar naqliyoti rohi ohani SSSR elektrovozu teplovoz jori kar­da shud. Dar sokhtmoni rohhoi ohan relshoi vaznin, shpalahoi ohanu beton va gayra istifoda karda shudand; rohhoi ohani asosi bo avtoblokirov­ka va dispetcheri markazi mujahhaz gardidand. Dar natijai aznavsozii tekhniki arzishi aslii borkashoni dar solhoi 1950—70 qarib du marotiba kam shuda, samarai mehnat bo­shad dar hamin davra qarib 3,4 marotiba afzud.

Sokhtmoni rohi ohani Tojikiston dar solhoi avvali Hokimiyati Soveti ogoz yoft. Soli 1925 bo tashabbusi Par­tiyai Kommunisti va Hukumati So­veti sokhtmoni rohi ohani Samsonovo— Tirmiz—Dushanbe cap shud. In ro­hi ohan dar sharoiti nihoyat dushvor, dar sharoiti narasidani ob, masnuot va ozuqavori sokhta meshud. Dar in sokhtmon hazorho zaminkan, sangchin va duredgaron kor mekardand. 7 noyabri 1925 ba vokzali Tir­miz avvalin poezd omad. Soli 1926 rohi ohan to Jarqurgon — nakhustin stansiyai rohi ohani Tirmiz—Dushanbe davom doda shud.

Dar noyabri 1927 rohi ohan to dashti vodii Surkhon rasid. Zimistoni solhoi 1927—28 dar seyaki uchastka rohi ohan khobonda shud. Stansiyai nav — Shur­chi ba istifoda doda shud. 11 sentyabri 1929 ba sh. Dushanbe nakhustin poezd omad.

Rohi ohani Tojikistonro bo digar respublikavu nohiyahoi mamlakat payvast. Uchastkahoi rohi ohani terretoriyai Tojikiston ba hayati rohi ohani Osiyoi Miyona dokhil ast. Darozii rohi ohani barash muqarrari 255 kilometr, darozii rohi ohani kambar 386 kilometrm meboshad. Hozir ka­rib tamomi borho bo teplovozho kashonda meshavand, ki in samarai mehnatro baland bardoshta, arzishi aslii borkashoniro kam kard. Sifati borkashoni behtar gardida, vagonhoi havoyashon muntazam tozashavanda ba istifoda doda shudand. Surati poezdhoi passajirkash khele afzud. Rohi ohani kambar, ki Dushanbero bo vodii Vakhsh va viloyati Kulob mepayvandad, faqat baroi borkasho- nii dokhili respublika khizmat merasonad va ba sababi rivoju ravnaqi naqliyoti avtomobili ahamiyati khudro besh az pesh gum mekunad. Tavassuti rohi ohan kambar ba vodii Vakhsh suzishvori, muri, chubu takhta va gayra mekashonand. Soli 1970 bo rohi ohan kambar 836 hazor tonna bor kashonda shuda bud. Dar hamin davra hajmi korhoi naq- liyoti taqriban 1,7 marotiba afzud.

Adabiyot: Jeleznodorojniy transport SSSR v dokumentakh Kommunisticheskoy Partii i Sovetskogo pravitelstva, Moskva, 1957.

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