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Naqliyoti avtomobili

Naqliyoti avtomobili, naqliyotest, ki tavassuti on bor va pas­sajir mekashonand. Naqliyoti avtomobili okhiri asri 19 taraqqi kard. Soli 1900 dar jahon 11 hazor, 1940 46 million, 1950 70,4 million, 1968 190 million avtomobil bud. Dar Rossiyai torevolyutsioni Naqliyoti avtomobili sohai mustaqil nabud. Soli 1913 dar Rossiya 8,8 hazor avtomobil (asosan avtomobili sabukrav) bud.

Dar SSSR Naqliyoti avtomobili badi paydo shudani sanoati avtomobilii vatani taraqqi kard. Gardishi bori Naqliyoti avtomobili dar SSSR soli 1970 nazar ba 1913 89 marotiba afzud. Baroi taraqqii bosurati  avtomobilhoi mukammalu puriqtidor va tezgard, narkhi arzoni borkashoni va sokhtmoni rohho imkoniyat dodand.

Dar Tojikiston Naqliyoti avtomobili badi galabai Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sotsialistii Oktyabr taraqqi kard. Avvalin avtomobil ba Dushan­be soli 1926 omad. Soli 1929 dar respub­lika sokhtmoni rohhoi avtomobili ogoz yoft. Ibtidoi solhoi 30 khojagii avtomobilii respublika baso vusat yoft. Dar barobari afzudan va behtar gardidani rohho parki avtomo­bili ham vase shud. Dar ibtidoi panjsolai 2-yum parki avtomobilii res­publika 4,6 marotiba, dar okhiri panjsolai 2-yum 32 marotiba afzud, Tuli rohhoi sangfarshi respubli­ka soli 1940 nazar ba 1929 282,2% ziyod gardid. Soli 1940 rohi avtomobilii Pomir sokhta shud. Naqliyoti avtomobtlli RSS Tojikiston bo kashondani bor va passajironi dokhili respublika mashgul ast. Berun az respublika ham bor kashonda meshavad (Dushanbe — Tirmiz, Khorug—Ush, Panjakent—Samarqand, Uroteppa—Khavost, Leninobod—Toshkent va gayra). Dar dokhili respublika qarib 88% (1974) bor bo Naqliyoti avtomobili kashonda meshavad. Vazni qiyosii on dar gardishi bori naqliyoti avtomo­bili mamlakat taqriban 0,9%, ammo dar hajmi umumii borkashonii avtomo­bili 0,8%-ro tashkil mekunad.

Soli 1970 hajmi borkashoni nazar ba 1940 31 marotiba va gardishi bor 34 ma­rotiba afzud. Dar respublika borro asosan moshinhoi parki avtomobilii Vazorati naqliyot va khojagii rohi RSS Tojikiston mekashonand. Ba rayonhoi shimolii respublika Tresti av­tomobilii Leninobod, ba rayonhoi janub Tresti avtomobilii Dushanbe va ba VABK Tresti avtomobilii Pomir khizmat merasonand. Soli 1955 borkashoni markazonida shud. Soli 1968 khojagihoi avtomobili purra ba usuli navi baplangiri va havasmandonii iqtisodi guzashtand. Tamomi markazhoi rayon va mahalhoi kalo­ni aholinishin bayni khud aloqai avtomobili dorand (gayr az baze rayonhoi kuhi, ki dar zimiston ro­hi agbaho mahkam meshavand). Passajironro asosan avtomobilhoi Av­toparki istifodai umum mekasho­nand. Hozir aholii Tojpkpston az avtobus beshtar istifoda mebarad.

Soli 1980 dar respublika tavassuti avtobushoi istifodai umumi 197,7 million nafar passajir kashondaand.

Adabiyot: Orlov B. P., Razvitie tran­sporta v SSSR, Moskva, 1963; Prokofev I. I. Anisimov A. P., Ekonomika avtomobilnogo transporta, Moskva, 1965.

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BOYS Meri Nora Elizabet

BOYS Meri Nora Elizabet (2.8.1920, Dorjiling, Hinduston – 2006, London, Angliya), olimi eronshinosi Britaniyai Kabir. …