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Naqliyot

Naqliyot (ar. — vositai az joe ba joi digar kuchidan), sohai istehsoloti moddi va khizmatrasoni oid ba kashondavi bor va passajir.

Naqliyot du nav ast: dokhiliistehsoloti va istifodai umumi. Naqliyoti dokhiliistehsoloti (rohi ohan, rohhoi avtomobil, rohhoi simini oveza, konveyerho, transportyorho va gayra) ba yak yo yakchand korkhona khizmat merasonad. Naqliyot baroi kashondani ashyoi khom va masnuot ba sekhhoi istehsolot az yak sekh ba sekhi digar burdani masolehi nimtayyor va ba anbor ka­shondani mahsuloti tayyor peshbini shudaast. Naqliyoti istifodai umumi ba­roi kashondani vositahoi mehnat az yak muassisa ba muassisai digar yo az istehsolot ba rayonhoi istemolkunanda burdani mahsuloti tayyor va kashondani passajir khizmat mekunad.

Naqliyot chunin khelho dorad: naqliyoti avtomobili, naqliyoti daryoi, naqliyoti truboprovodi, naqliyoti pohu ohan, naqliyoti havoi, naqliyoti bahri.

Vositahoi oddii naqliyot hanuz dar jamoai ibtidoi paydo shudaand. Naqliyot dar davrai tabadduloti sanoati sohai makhsusi istehsolot gardpd. Dar ibtidoi asri 19 vositahoi mekhanikii Naqliyot ba vujud omadand, parokhod va pa­rovozho paydo shudand. Solhoi 30 asri 19 mamlakathoi mutaraqqii sanoati (ShMA, Belgiya, Fransiya, Ang­liya va digar)  rohi ohan doshtand. Soli 1837 dar Rossiya nakhustin rohi okha­ni Peterburg—Sarskoe Selo—Pav­lovsk va 1851 rohi okhani Peter­burg—Moskva (650 km) ba istifoda doda shud.

Dar SSSR tamomi namudhoi Naqliyot umumikhalqi buda, sistemai yagonan naqliyotro tashkil medihand. Dar solhoi Hokimiyati Soveti Naqliyot ba yake az sohahoi asosii khojagii khalq tabdil yoft.

Khizmati naqliyotii beshtari rayonhoi Tojikiston az jihati prob­lemai tekhniki khele murakkab ast (ziyoda az 9/10 territoriyai respublikaro kuhho ishgol kardaand). Shabakai rohhoi Tojikiston nihoyat vase ast (255 kilometrm rohi ohani muqarrari, 386 kilometr rohi odhani kambar, qarib 300 kilometr rohi obi, 13500 kilometr rohhoi avtomobil, az on jumla 8500 kilometr ro­hi asfaltpushu sangfarsh, 7100 kilometr rohi havoii madalli).

Soli 1925 sokhtmoni rohi ohani Samsonovo— Tirmiz—Dushanbe ogoz yoft. Ba Du­shanbe nakhustin poezd soli 1929 omad. Aloqai beruna va baynirespublikavii naqliyotiyu iqtisodi asosan tavassuti rohi ohani muqarrari, inchunin naqliyoti daryoiyu havoi ba amal barovarda meshavad. Naqliyoti avtomo­bili va rohi ohani kambar dar aloqai baynirespublikavi roli kalon mebozand. Dar dokhili respublika bor asosan bo rohi ohani muqarrari, passaji­ron bo naqliyoti havoi kashonda me­shavand. Nakliyoti avtomobili dar kashondani bor va passajironi do­khili respublika niz ahamiyati ka­lon dorad.

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