Malumoti ohirin

Naqqoshi

Naqqoshi (az ar. — naqshkunanda, suratgar), naqshkashi, hunari ofaridani naqsh, mahsuli ejodii sanatkoroni khalqi va kasbi, yake az namudhoi qadimii sanati amalii khalq. YOdgorihoi memori va bozyofthoi apxeoligii  Osiyoi Miyona shahodat medihand, ki Naqqoshi dar in jo zamonhoi qadim rivoj yoftaasg. Inkishofi hunarhoi memori, kulo- li, misgari, zargari, qolinbofi va kashidaduzi ba taraqqiyoti Naqqoshi niz musoidat kardaand. Namunahoi no­diri naqshunigore, ki dar natijai khafriyoti arkheologi az Tirmiz, Varakhsha, Afrosiyob, Panjakent va digar mahalho yoft shudaand, az madaniyati balandi guzashtagoni mo guvohi medihand. Dar amali naqqoshon (yodgorihoi memori, zarfkho, matoho va asbobhoi gunoguni ruzgor va gayra)-i mahalhoi mukhtalifi kishvaramon monandi va umumiyate ba nazar rasad ham, dar shahru mahal uslubi xocu Naqqoshi dorad. Odatan, ustohoi sangtarosh, kandakor, kashidaduz va gayra az tarhe, ki naqqoshon tayyor karda­and, istifoda mebarand va yo khudashon naqsh mekashand.

Masalan, dar Uroteppa usto Muhammadraufi Nosiri hamchun naqqoshi bomahorat shuhrat yoftaast. Az naqshhoi u kandakori maruf usto Abulkarim istifoda meburd. Bisyor naqqoshon, az chumla ustoho Yakub va Yusuf Raufovho, Mirmaqsud Soliev, Gafur Mansurov, Mirzorahmat Olimov va digar, bo kandakoron hamkori mekardand. Okhiri asri 19 va ibtidoi asri 20 Naqqoshi dar Osiyoi Miyona khele ravnaq yoft (makhsusan dar vodihoi Zaraf- shon va Fargona). Dar in vodiho sanati Naqqoshi ba darajae mamul bud, ki hatto sokinoni dehahoi durdasti vodihoi Zarafshon (Dardar, Darg, Zerovatk va gayra) va Hisor (dehai Rohati) baroi naqshunigori binohoi gunogun ustohoi Uroteppa, Khujand va Samarqandro davat mekardand.

Khonahoi istiqomatii tipi kuhna va masjidhoi boloobi Zarafshonro asosan naqqoshoni uroteppagi oro medodand. Namunahoi barjastatarini sanati Naqqoshii khalqi tojik dar yodgorihoi memorni shahrhoi Sa­markandu Bukhoro va Balkhu Hirot dida meshavand. Dar Panjakent us­lubi kandakori va naqqoshii ustohoi Samarqand mushodida megardad. Naqshunigori shifti khona dar rayonhoi kuhii janubi Tojikiston niz malum bud. YOdgorihoi memorni asri 19 va ibtidoi asri 20 — masjidhoi Khovaling, Baljuvon, Kangurt va dehai Chirtaki rayoni Regar bo suratho va alomathoi ramzi zinat yoftaand.

Dar dehai Yamg (payoni Vakhoni Badakhshon) khonai istiqomatie vujud do­rad, ki pesh az revolyutsiya sokhta shu­daast va dar Pomir yagona binoest, ki shifti onro bo (musavvarayu naqshho (asp, gov, mohi, odam, oftob, gulho) va navishtajoti arabi oro dodaand. Naqqoshoni tojik dar ejodi khud asosan az ranghoi lojvard, osmoni, zard, surkh, safed va siyoh istifoda mebarand. Naqqoshon ba hamvor budashi joi naqshkashi etibori makhsus medihand, chunki in holat dar jolibtar va purjilotar baromadani naqshunigor ahamiyati kalon dorad. Skheman naqsh, akhta, muyqalamhon az pashmi hayvonhoi gunogun tayyorkardashuda va ranghoi mukhtalif vositahoi asosii amali Naqqooohi ast. Naqqoshoni tojik ananahoi behtarini khunarmandonu sanatkoroni guzashtaro ejodkorona idoma doda, sanati Naqoshiro boz ham beshtar takmil medihand. Dar san- ati imruzai tojik ananahoi Naqqoshi asosan dar oroishi binohoi mada­niyu marifati (choykhona, restoran, klubho) istifoda meshavand. Oroishi choykhonahoi «Rohat», «Farogat», restorani «Tojikiston» (Dushanbe), Qasri madaniyati kolkhozi ba nomi S. Urunkhujaev (pestorani Khujand), restora­ni «Guli bodom» (Konibodom), choykhonai «Dilorom» (Isfara) va gayra namunahoi olii sanati Naqqoshii muosir meboshand.

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BOZGUY

BOZGUY, shokhai soziyu ovozi dar maqom va maqomsaroi, takrori hameshanii yayak porchai ohang. Odatan dar …