Malumoti ohirin
Home / Ilm / Nafaskashi

Nafaskashi

Nafaskashi, nafasgiri, prosessi murakkabi fiziologii az muhiti beruna oksigenro furu burdan va gazi karbonatu obro khorij kardani hayvonot va rastanihoro guyand. Nafaskashi ba oksidshavii moddahoi organiki (ravganho, angishtobho va safedaho), ki dar natijai on energiyai baroi organizm zarur chudo me­shavad, asos yoftaast.

Nafaskashii hayvonot va odam. Organizmhoi yakhujayragi va bisyorhujayragi bo tamomi sathi badani khud nafas mekashand. Nafaskashii hayvonot va odam az chunin davraho iborat ast:Nafaskashii b e r u n i mubodilai gazho bayni muhiti berunayu shush; mubo- dilai gazho baypi shush (alveolaho) va khun; intnqoli gazho ba vositai khun (az shush ba boftaho kashonidani oksigen va az boftaho ba shush burdani gazi karbo­nat) ; mubodilai gazho b a y n i  khunu boftaho; Nafaskashii daruni (azkhudshavii oksigen va hosilshavii gazi karbonat dar hujayraho). Intiqoli gazho ba vositai khun (yane funksiyai nafasgirii khun) ba qobiliyati oksigen va gazi karbonatro payvast karda kashondani baze moddaho (aso­san gemoglobin) vobasta ast. Dar odam, shirkhurho va parrandaho oksigenro jabbidani khun va az khud khorij shudani gazi karbonat dar alveolahoi (pufakchahoi intihoi shokhahoi tunuki bronkhho, ki bo turi kapillyardo ihota shudaast) shush ba amal meoyad. Miqdori havoero, ki dar 1 daqiqa ba shush dokhil meshavad, hajmi daqiqavii nafasgiri (QDN) menomand. Hajmi daqiqavii nafasgirii odami kalonsol, dar holati orom nishastan yo bistari budan, taqriban 5— 8 litr meshavad. Hangomi Nafaskashii mutadil odam har dafa qarib 500 millilitr havoro furu burda, hamon qadar havoro berun mebarorad. Dar yak daqiqa oda­mi kalonsol 14—16 marotiba nafas megirad. Nafaskashi ba kashishkhurii mushakhoi nafasgirii qafasi sina va di­afragma vobasta buda, dar zeri tasiri impulshoi markazi Nafaskashi, ki dar magzi cap voqe ast, ba vujud meo­yad. Faoliyati markazi Nafaskashiro nimkurahoi kaloni magzi cap idora meku- nand.

Nafaskashii  rastaniho. Rastaniho niz chun hayvonot hangomi Nafaskashi oksigenro furu burda, gazi karbonatro khorij menamoyand. Nafaskashii rastaniho prosessi fermentativi buda, dar on asosan fermenthoi degidraza (gidrogenro az substrat ba oksidazaho meguzaronad), oksidaza (gidrogenro ok­sid namuda, ob hosil mekunad), kar- boksilaza (karboni oksidshuda dar namudi gazi karbonati ozod judo me­shavad) ishtirok mekunand. 60—65% energiyae, ki hangomi Nafaskashi judo mesha­vad, baroi khudi rastani sarf shuda, boqimondaash ba sifati energiyai garmi berun meravad. Dar baze rastanihoi darajai past va darajai oli gazi karbonat az hisobi oksigeni dar molekulai baze payvasthoi organiki buda khorij meshavad. Chunin prosess turshshavi yo Nafaskashii anaerobi nom dorad. Nigared niz. Fo­tosintez.

Adabiyot: Marshak M. E., Regulyasiya di­khaniya u cheloveka, Moskva, 1961; Fiziologiya cheloveka, Moskva, 1986; Rubin V. A., Kurs fiziologii rasteniy, Moskva, 1971.

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

BOZOROV Shavkat Sharifovich

BOZOROV Shavkat Sharifovich (tavallud 16.3.1958, Dushanbe), iqtisoddon-menejeri tojik, d. i. iqtisodi (2001). Khatmkardai Instituti khojagii …