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MUHAMMAD

nophotoMUHAMMAD  (taqriban 570, Mak­ka— 8. v. 632, Madina), voiz (tashviqotchii din) va khodimi siyosi, muassisi islom. Avvalin tarjumai holi Muhammad nimai duyumi asri 8 az tarafi Ibni Ishoq («Hayoti rasuli khudo») tartib doda shudaast. Muhammad ba avlodi ashrofi benavoshudai Bani Hoshim (az qabilai Quraysh) mansub buda, barvaqt yatim mondaast. Muhammad avval chupon va bad korguzor (muboshir) bud. Dar Arabiston va berun az hududi on bo ahkomi dini yahudi, masekhuhi va talimothoi digari diniyu siyosi shinos gashd. Muhammad ba tojirzani boi Makka Hadisa khonador shud, ki in baroi komilan ba masalahoi diniyu akhloqi shugl varzidani u sharoit faroham ovard. Muvofiqi rivoyathoi dini taqriban soli 609 (yo 610) yake az shabhoi mohtobii mohi ramazon hangomi bedorkhobi tavassuti Jabrail vahyi ilohi ba Muhammad oshkor va kitobi (ba arabi Quron) ulvi (vay guyo dar olami ulvi tahti kursii Olloh mahfuz bud) ba u nozil gardid. Guyo Jab­rail az nomi Olloh Muhammadro uhdador namud, ki ba hamvatanoni khud amru vahyi khudovandro rasonad. Pushtibonii kheshu aqrabo, khususan Hadisa, bovarii taassubomezi Muhammadro ba haqiqati «ilokhyhi» budani talimotash qavi namud. Muhammad etiqodhoi kuhnai butparastiro rad namuda, talimoti khudoi qodiru yagonaro ba onho muqobil meguzosht. Tartibi bosuboti tavhid, shomilii etiqodi jadid, ki sarfi nazar az mansubiyati avlodiyu qabilavi barobarii hamai payravonro elon mekard, nihoyat qobiliyati favqulodai siyosiyu tashkilotii Muhammad dar bayni qisme az jamiyati Makka (asosan tabaqahoi miyona) hamovozi paydo kard. Vale tabaqai boloii jamiyati Makka talimoti Muhammadro va pisandid va ba u zid baromad. Muqobiliyati oligarkhiyai tijoratii Makka Muhammad va tarafdoronashro majbur sokht ba Yasrio (badtar — Madina) safar kunand. Ruzi az Makka ba Ma­dina kuchidani Muhammadro hujrat (ba 22 sentyabri 622-i solshumorii melodi rost meoyad) menomand. Badi hijrat dar Hijozu Naj talimoti nav intishor yoft va majusiyat aa bayn raft. Solhoi 630—631 musulmonon bo sardorii Muhammad shahri Makka va badtar qismi ziyodi nohiyahoi qadimai arabro ba tasarrufi khud darovardand Muhammad hamchun sarvari diniyu siyosi sardori davlati navi teokratii islomi shud.

Maqbarai Muhammad dar Madina joi muqaddasi islom va ziyoratgohi musulmonon gardidaast (az jihati daraja dar joi avval Kaba meistad, ki dar Makka voqe ast).

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