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MUALLAQOT

MUALLAQOT (ar. Jami «muallaqa» bo unvoni Muzahhabot (ar. oLjJu —tilloi, zarrin) niz mashhurand, nomi haft va yo nuh manzumai adabiyoti peshazislomii arab. Olimoni asrhoi miyona va davrai nav paydoishi istilohi «muallaqa» va munosibati onro ba sher har guna sharh dodaand. Muvofiqi rivoyatho in manzumaho az sababi maqbuli khosu om budan bo khati zar sabt yofta, bar devori Kaba ovekhta meshudaand. Az in jo, istilohi «muallaqa», (ba manoi «muallaq», «ovezol», «ovekhtashuda») paydo shudaast. Vale muhaqqiqoni badina manoi digari feli «allaqa»-ro ba asos girifta, muallaqaro hamchun «payvasta», «chidashuda» tafsir kardaand, zero khudi arabho niz sanati ejodi sherro ba rishta kashidani sukhanhoi nozuku latif va dilpisand sharh doda, onro ba zebo chidani «muhra dar hamoil tashbeh medodand. Tafsiri duyum dar bayni (muhaqqiqon hamchun islohe, ki ba Muayyankunandai funksionali dakhl dorad, qabul gardidaast. Avvalho Muallaqho ba tavri shifohi intishor yofta, az tarafi roviyon khonda meshudand. Shumorai Muallaqho va muallifoni onhoro adabiyotshinosoni asrhoi miyona har khel nishon dodaand. Haft shoiri mashhuri peshazislomii arab —Imrulqays, Tarafa ibni Abd (543—569), Zuhayr ibni Abusalmo, Angara ibni Shaddod, Horis ibni Hilliza (vafot okhiri asri 6), Amr ibni Kuleum (asri 6), Labid ibni Robia (560—661) muallifoni Muallaqho ba shumor meravand. Ba qatori Muallaqho inchunin manaumahoi mashhuri shoiron Obid ibni Abras (okhiri asri 5 — avvali asri 6), Nobigai 3ubiyoni va Asho (530—629) dokhil meshavand. Dar Muallaqho, ki odatan bo bayoni khotirahoi shoir dar borai ayyomi javoni va giryavu nolai u ba yodi mahbubavu yoroni qarin, dar vasfi boshishgohi tarkshudai (mashuqa ogoz meyobad, inchunin vasfi tabiat va hayvonot (shutur, asp), tasviri zindagii dushvori kuchmanchiyon, hajvi kharifon yo qabilai dushman, khudsitoi yo fakhr az kornamoihoi hamdiyoron va digar mavzuhoi lirikiyu epiki, ijtimoiyu akhloqi iroda yoftaand. Muallaqho az lihozi badeiyat va mano, obrazhoi in sukhan asarhoi behamto va meyori shersaroivu sukhanvari ba shumor meravand. Ba Muallaqho dar asrhoi miyona sharhu taliqoti ziyode navishta shudaast. Muallaqho ba zabonhoi sharqiyu garbi, az jumla rusi, tarjuma va nashr gardidaand.

Ad.: Filshtinskiy I. M., Arabskaya literatura v srednie veka, M.. 1977;

T. Mardonov.

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