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MOShINSOZI

moshinMOShINSOZI, majmui sohahoi sanoati vaznin, ki baroi khojagii khalq moshin, tajhizot, apparat, asbob, ashyohoi madaniyu maishi va inchunin ba maqsadhoi mudofiavi yaroqu asliha istehsol menamoyad. Moshinsozi asosi moddii az tekhnika musallahshavii tamomi khojagii khalq ba shumor meravad. Hosilnokii mehnati jamiyati, progressi tekhniki, nekuahvolii moddii khalq va iqtidori mudofiavii mamlakat ba darajai taraqqiyoti Moshinsozi vobasta ast. Vazifai asosii Moshinsozi bo moshinhoi pursamar va asbobu anjomho tamin namudani hamai sohahoi khojagii khalq meboshad. Moshinsozi dar iqtisodiyoti mamlakat mavqei makhsusro ishgol menamoyad. Moshinsozi hamchun bazai industronii sosialistii mamlakat imkoniyat faroham ovard, ki SSSR ba yake az mamlakathoi mutaraqqii industriali tabdil yobad. Ba Moshinsozi na tanho korkardi metallho, balki sanoati istehsoli ashyo va konstruksiyahoi metalli, tamiri moshin va asbobu anjomho niz dokhil meshavand. Dar SSSR Moshinsozi sanoati moshinsozii energetiki, elektrotekhnika, dastgoh va asbobu anjomsozi, priborsozi, traktorsozi, sanoati istehsoli moshinhoi khojagii qishloq va g-ro niz dar bar megirad. Hajmi mahsuloti istehsolii Moshinsozi az jihati arzishi fondi istehsolii asosi va shumorai korgaron dar SSSR dar bayni digar sanoatho joi yakumro megirad. Moshinsozi hamchun sohai sanoat dar asri 18 ba vujud omada, avval dar Britaniyai Kabir. Evropai Garbi va badtar dar ShMA inkishof yoft. Dar Rossiya nakhustin zavodhoi Moshinsozi dar asri 18 sokhta shuda, to Revolyutsiyai Oktyabr sust taraqqi karda bud. Dar Rossiyai torevolyusioni miqdori kami avtomobilu dastgohhoi ohanburri istehsol shuda, moshinhoi resmolresi, asbobho, afzorho va digar moshinhoro az khorija meovardand. Dar solhoi Hokimiyati Soveti sanoati Moshinsozi khele taraqqi kard. Siyosati industronii sosialist, taraqqiyoti hamatarafai inkishofyobanda talabotro ba moshin va tajhizot afzun gardonid. Mahz Moshinsozi dar panjsolahoi nakhustin va badijangi zud taraqqi kard. Mas., agar dar panjsolai 1-um (1929—32) hajmi mahsuloti umumii sanoati SSSR 19,2% afzuda boshad, pas dar in solho hajmi mahsuloti sanoati Moshinsozi va korkardi metall 41,3%; dar panjsolai duyum (1933—37) tanosuban 17,1% va 23,1%, dar 3 soli peshazjangii va panjosolai 3-yum (1938—40) 13,2     va 20,7% afzud,

khajmi mahsuloti sanoati Moshinsozi va korkardi metall soli 1972 nisbat ba 1913 1040 va nisbat ba 1940 35,1 marotiba afzud. Soli 1972 mahsuloti sanoati Moshinsozi va korkardi metall dar SSSR U hissai hajmi umumii mahsuloti sanoatiro tashkil mekard. Dar ibtidoi soli 1973 khojagii khalqi SSSR doroi 4,08 mln dastgohhoi metallburri, 948 hazor moshinhoi press (mangana), dahho hazor kombayn koni angishtu madankani, borkuni, konveyerho, elektrovozu, 119,2 hazor ekskavator, 33,7 hazor skreper, 117,5 hazor buldozer, 135,7 hazor krani harakatkunanda va g. bud. Dar khojagii qishloq. 2,11 mln traktor, 656 hazor kombayni galladarav, 1,23 mln moshini borkash (ba gayr az tashkilothoi baynikolkhozii ba khojagii qishloq aloqanadoshta), 1,22 mln tukhmiposhakho va sadho hazor digar moshin va vositahoi tekhniki bud. SSSR az rui hajmi mahsuloti sanoati Moshinsozi va korkardi metall dar Evropa joi yakum va dar dunyo joi duyumro ishgol mekunad (1976). To Revolyutsiyai Oktyabr dar hududi Tojikiston Moshinsozi nabud. Yakumin zavodi Moshinsozi—arteli «Afzolhoi fuluzin seristemol» (holo zavodi «Moshinhoi tijorati») soli 1925 dar sh. Khujand sokhta shud, ki baroi korkhonahoi umumi va savdo tajhizoti tekhnologi, inchunin asbobi ruzgor mebarovard. Duyumin zavodi Moshinsozi zavodi armaturii ba nomi Orjonikidze meboshad, ki bo qarori KM PK Tojikiston soli 1930 dar sh. Dushanbe sokhta ba kor andokhta shud. Zavodi Orjonikidze baroi korkhonahoi neft, gaz va khimiya quburhoi chuyani va pulodi, deg, dvigatel va digar mahsuloti qimmatbaho istehsol mekunad, ki qarib ba 40 davlati khoriji barovarda meshavad. Sohai Moshinsozii respublika holo beshtar az 20 korkhonahoi sanoatiro darbar megirad. Korkhonahoi Moshinsozi va korkardi metalli respublika ziyoda az 13 soha buda, 9,6%-i tamomi mahsuloti sanoatii respublikaro medihad.

Sohahoi asosii sanoati Moshinsozi respublika: moshinho baroi korkhonahoi sanoati sabuku bofandagi, moshinhoi khojagii qishloq, istehsoli moshinhoi neftu gaz, elektrotekhnika (transformator, kabel va priborho), istehsoli moshinhoi sohai savdo va khuroki umumi, mahsuloti seristemol (yakhdonhoi khonagi, ashyohoi armugoni) va g. Dar Tojikiston dastgohhoi tekhnologi baroi sanoati sabuk, moshinhoi khojagii qishloq baroi obyorii zaminhoi nav, agregathoi gidravlikii kombayni galladaravi «Kolos», «Niva», transformator, kabelhoi elektri, plita va deghoi gunogun baroi korkhonahoi khuroki umumi, yakhdon (Pomir-2, Pomir-4, Pomir-5, Pomir-6) va g. qarib 20 kheli mahsuloti sanoati Moshinsozi istehsol meshavad (1977).

3avodhoi «Gidroagregat Tojikiston»-i Dushanbe va «Moshinhoi khojagii qishloqi Leninobod» (payoni Nov) va filiali on dar posyolkai Mahrami payoni Konibodom, zavodhoi kalontarini Moshinsozii sohai khojagii qishloqi respublika ba shumor meravand.

Zavodi ««Gidroagregat Tojikiston» sole 12 mln sumina asbobu anjomhoi kombayn, zavodi «Moshinhoi khojagii qishloqi Leninobod» va filiali on boshad, sole 15 mln sumina moshinhoi chekankakuni, zahburkani, obyorii moshini va g. mebarorad. Dar solhoi panjsolai 10-um hajmi mahsuloti zavodhoi Moshinsozii khojagii qishloq du barobar afzud.

Dar Tojikiston 4 zavodi elektrotekhniki (zavodhoi transformatorsozii Qurgonteppa, kabelsozii Dushanbe, «Asbobhoi ravshanndihandai Isfara» (posyolkai «KIM»), «Asbobhoi pastshiddati Adrasmon») mavjudand, ki transformatorhoi balandshiddat, pastshiddat, kabel, simhoi gunoguni telefonu telegraf, elektri, lampochkahoi elektrii gunogun va g. istehsol mekunad.

3avodi «Asbobu dastgohhoi sokhtmon»-i Regar bo mahsuloti khud ba sabukgardonidani tekhnologiyai kori sokhtmoni respublika yori karda, inchunin baroi zavodi moshinhoi pakhtachinii sh. Toshkent nasos mebarorad.

3avodhoi armaturii ba nomi Orjonikidze, «Apparathoi gaz»-i Leninobod zavodhoi kalontarini Osiyoi Miyona buda, baroi tamomi respublikahoi Osiyoi Miyona tajhizoti gaz istehsol mekunand. Sanoati Moshinsozii respublika asosan dar shahrhoi Dushanbe (50%). Leninobod, Konibodom, Kulob, Qurgonteppa va g. joygir shudaast.

Dar Tojikiston beshtar az 15 zavodi tamiri moshinhoi khojagii qishloq mavjud buda onho qarib hamai namudhoi moshinhoi khojagii qishloqro tamir karda, ba kolkhozu sovkhozho yorii amali merasonand. Dar Dushanbe zavodi makhsusgardonidashudai «Tamiri ekskavator» kor mekunad, ki doroi tajhizoti tekhnologii nav, sekhhoi rekhtagarii pulodu chuyan meboshad. Sohai Moshinsozi respublika nisbatan nav buda, bosurati baland pesh meravad. Dar  solai 9-um hajmi mahsuloti Moshinsozi 64,5% ziyod shud. Dar panjsolai 10-um az hisobi aznavsozi va takmili tekhnikii zavodhoi «Leninobodselmash», «Tojikgidroagregat», «Torgmash», zavodi armaturii ba nomi Orjonikidze va g. nisbat ba soli 1975 152% ziyod namudani hajmi mahsuloti Moshinsozi peshbini karda shudaast. Sanoati Moshinsozii respublika dar panjsolahoi minbada dar asosi sokhtmoni zavodhoi navi podshipniksozi, priborsozi va g. pesh meravad. Soli 1980 hajmi istehsoli moshinhoi khojagii qishloq, armaturahoi chuyani baroi sanoati neftu gaz va khimiya 2 barobar, tajhizoti tekhnologii sonai dastgohsozi qarib 3 barobar meafzoyad. Peshbini shudaast, ki istehsoli asbobhoi ruzgor, tajhizoti korkhonahoi sanoati sabuk, khurokvori, savdo va g. 1,5 barobar ziyod karda shavad.

Ad.: Morozov M. V., Kommunisticheskaya partiya Tadjikistana v borbe za sozdanie i razvitie mashinostroitelnoy promishlennosti, D., 1972; Falileev M., Talsun Li, Armaturniy zavod imeni Ordjonikidze, D.. ,,73. Karimov R., Frolov V., Delo v lyudi «Tadjiktekstilmasha», 1974

Sh. Bobojonov.

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SAMOSVAL, moshini khudrez, avtomobil, prisep yo nimprisepi borkashest, ki khud borashro kholi mekunad. Samosval baroi …