Malumoti ohirin

MONAVIYa

MONAVIYa talimoti diniest, ki asri 3 dar Sharqi Nazdik paydo shuda, bo nomi asosguzorash Moni mashdhr gardidaast. Monaviya ba zudi dar Khurosonu Movarounnahr, Khitoy .L Sharqi Nazdik vase pahn gardid. Monaviya yak shakli dualizmi dini buda unsurhoi zardushtiya, masehiyag va gnostisizmro ba ham payvastaast.

Az rui talimoti Monaviya dar olam du quvvan azalii ba ham zid — nuru zulmot, khayru shar vujud dorand. Par olami nur khudoyu farishtaho dar olami zulmot devu iblis hukmronand. Muvofiqi talimoti Monaviya nur bo neki va zulmot bo badi munosibat dorad. Rukh samarai nur, mabdai neki, jism (modda) samarai zulmot, mabdai badi ast. Rukh asiri jism meboshad. Ba talimoti Monaviya to darahae takhminkhoi dialektikii soddalavhona khos ast, ki dar taqidi doimi budani muborizai bayni zidho va dar aloqamandi vujud doshtani onho padidor ast. Mazmunu mohiyati tarikhi jahoniro muborizai doimii nur va zulmot, rukh va modda, neki va badi tashkil medihad. In muboriza bo sukhtori olam anjom meyobad, ki dar natijai on rukh az jism (modda) judo meshavad. Olam dar nazari monaviyon tajassumi bakht meboshad. Odam niz vujudi mushtarak buda vazifador ast, ki ba nur yori rasonad. Monaviya zuhdu taqvo, benikohi va mani khurokvori (istemoli mohi, gusht, sharob va g.)-ro targibu kizb, duzdi, sarvatmandi va molikiyati khususiro mahkum mekunad. Talimoti monaviyon yak nav etirozi ijtimoi bud. Vale Monaviya ommai khalqro na ba muborizai faol, balki ba gushanishini davat mekard. Chunin tarzi fahmishi manoyu maqsadi hayot az unsuri pessimisti kholi nabud. Dar Garb Monaviya bo masehiyat omekhta shuda, shakli bidatro girift. Monaviya dar asri 8 dar saltanati Uygur dini hukmron gardid. Dar asrhoi 8—9 Monaviya ba taqibi sakhti payravoni islom duchor omad. Monaviya ba tashakkuli ideologiyai yak qator firqahoi masehi (pavlikianho, qatarho, molokanho) va mazhakiya musoidat kardaast.

Ad.: Pigulevskaya N. V.. Goroda Irana v rannem srednevekove, M.. 1956; Dyakonov M. M.. Ocherk istorii Drevnego Irana, M., 1961. A. Sovinoe.

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Инчунин кобед

SATO

SATO, asbobi musiqii torist, ki bo kamoncha menavozand. Sato dar bayni tojikoi, uzbekho, eroniyon, afgonho …