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MOBILIZM

mobilizmMOBILIZM (az lot. mobilis —harakatkunanda), farziyai geotektoniki, ki on dar yak muddati geologi ba masofahoi khele kalon (to chandin hazor km) joyivazkunii ufuqii ma­terikhoi qishri Zamin (litosfera)-ro nisbat ba yakdigar va ba qutbho dar nazar dorad. Mobilizm ba fiksizm tamoman zid ast. Hanuz dar asri 19 oid ba harakati materikho har guna aqidaho bayon karda meshudand. Va­le soli 1912 geofiziki nemis A. Vege­ner bori nakhust farziyai az jihati ilmi kor kardashuda — «nazariyai sayri materikho»-ro peshnihod namud. Varianti hozirai Mobilizm «tektonikai navi globali» (yo «tektonikai plitaho») beshtar ba natijahoi omukhtani relefi qaru maydonhoi magnitii uqyonusho, inchunin ba malumothoi paleomagnetizm asos yoftaast. Muvofiqi in tasavvurot joyivazkunii susti (ba hisobi miyona sole 1—5 sm) plitahoi yaklukht ba amal meoyad, ki on natanho materikdoraho, balki nohiyahoi kalonu hamshafati qishri uqyonusro yakjoya bo qismhoi boloii mantiya darbar megirad. Plitaho ba du taraf — az qatorakuhhoi bayniuqyonusi ru ba mintaqahoi javoni chindor (qatorakuhhoi And, Himoloy) va silsilai jaziraho az ham judo shuda istodaaid. Dar in jo qad-qadi kafidahoi urebi serzilzila khele chuqur (to 700 km) furu nishastani tarafi peshi yake az du plitai duchorshuda ruy medihad, dar qishri materikii plitai digar az tasiri fushurdashavi chinho va rugechaho, dar pasi plitahoi harakatkunanda (nazdi qatorkuhoi bayniuqyo­nusi) boshad, aa kashidashavi riftho ba amal meoyand.

Dar asosi monandii sokhti geolo­gii qismhoi parokandashudai materikhoi erai paleozoy — Gondeana, Lavrosiyo va muvofiqati tarhi nishebihoi materikii onho chandin tajdidi paleotektoniki peshnihod karda shudaast. Chunin sokhti geologiro malumothoi paleonklimi va naleomagniti tasdiq namuda, guvohi medihand, ki dar okhirhoi erai pa­leozoy qismhoi gunoguni Gondvana ba Qutbi Janubi nazar ba hozira khele nazdik va Amerikai Shimoli dar qaribihoi Evropa voqe gardida budand. Joyivazkunihoe, ki dar davomi erahoi mezozoy va kaynozoy ruy dodaand, boisi qarib tamoman barham khurdani uqyonusi geosinklinalii Tetis va paydoishi uqyonushoi navi Hind va Atlantik gardidand.

Ad.: Kropotkin P. N., Evolyusiya Zemli. M.. 1904.

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