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MISR

misrMISR, Respublikai Misri Arab RMA -davlat dar Sharqi Nazdik, qismi shimolu sharqii Afrika va nimjazirai Sinoi Osiyoro ishgol kardaast. dar Garb bo Libiya dar janub bo Sudon, dar Shimolu Sharq bo Isroil va bo terr., ki soli 1947 TDM baroi barpo namudani davlati arab judo karda bud, hamsarhad meboshad. Dar Shimol onro bahri Miyonazamin va dar Sh. b. Surkh khalijhoi Sues va Aqab ihota kardaand. Masohati 1001, 4 hazor km. Aholiash 42 mln nafar, (1980). Poytakhtash shahri Qohira (6,8 mln nafar) az jihati mamuri ba 25 muhofaz (guberniya) taqsim meshavad.

Sokhti davlati. Muvofiqi konstitutsiyai hozira (11 sentyabri 1971 qabul shudaast) sardori davlat prezident meboshad, ki uro aholi ba muhlati 6 sol intikhob mekunad. organi olii qonunbaror-Majlisi khalqi. Majlisi khalqi plani generalii tarakqiyoti iqtisodiyu ijtimoii M. byujeti davlatiro tasdiq, doir ba masalahoi muhimi iqtisodi va siyosi qonun qabul mekunad. soveti vaziron va prezident davlatro idora menamoyand. Organhoi mahallii idorakuni – sovethoi khalqii muhofaz, shahr, qishloqho. Sistemai sudi: Sudhoi instansiyai 1 va 2 (markazi va mahalli), sudi olii konstitutsioni.

Tabiat. 96 % terr, Misrro biyobonu nimbiyobon tashkil medihand. Zaminhoi kishtshavanda faqat dar va deltai d. Nil (qarib 3% terr mamlakat) voqeand. Qismi ziyodi mamlakatro pushtakkuhhoi balandiashon az 300 to 1000 metr ishgol namudaand. Vodi Nil dar bayni pushtakuhhoi sanglokhu charidori biyobonhoi Libiya az Arabiston joy giriftaast, ki tuli on dar hududi Misr 1200 km, barash 1-3 km dar Janub va 20-25 km dar Shimol. Sarvathoi zerizamini: fosforit, madani ohan, angishtsang, madani mangan, neft, va g bisyor ast. iqlimash asosan biyobonist. Harorati miyonai yanvar 11-12 S dar Shimol 15-16 S dar janub harorat ibl 25-26 S, dar Shimol 30-34 S dar Janub. Dar qismi ziyodi terr. Borishoti molona qarib 100 mm meboshad.

boshad. Binobar in kishtzorho ba tavri suni obyori karda meshavand. Daryoi Nil manbai yagona va asosii ob meboshad. Badi sokhtani dargoti balandi Asvon dar janubi mamlakat obanbori kaloni Nosir (hajmash 164 mlrd m3) ba vujud omad. Zakhirai obhoi zerizamini kalon ast, ki az on qisman istifoda mebarand. Ba tufayli iqlimi khushk zamini Misr kamhosil va nabototash nagz inkishof nayoftaast. Olami hayvonoti deltai Nil gunogun va nihoyat boy, khususan parranda, mohi bisyor ast.

Aholi. Dar Misr asosan arabho (98%), inchunin anglisho, fransaviho, armaniho, yunoniho va digar millatho zindagi mekunand. Zabo­ni davlati — arabi. Dini davlati— islom (sunni). Qarib 97% aholi dar vodii Nil, mintaqai kanali Asvoi va vozoho zindagi mekunad, ki dar in jo zichii miyonai aho­li dar 1 km2 1000 nafar meboshad. Shahrhoi kalon: Qohira, Iskandariya, Port-Said, Ismoiliya, Asvon va g.

Ocherki tarikhi. Misr yake az avvalin markazhoi tamaddun meboshad (nig. maqolai Misri Qadim). Misr az g 395 (badi tanazzuli imperiyai-m) ba muzofoti Vizantiya tabdil yoft. Ibtidoi asri 7 qismi ziyodi aholii Misr dini masehiro qabul kard. Solhoi 639—642 Misrro arabho zabt namuda, ba Khilofati arab hamroh kardand. Hanuz dar asri 7 qismi ziyodi aholii mahallii Misr dini islomro qabul kard, dar ayni zamon zaboni arabi niz pahn gardid. Okhiri asri 8 — ibtidoi asri 9 dar davrai tanazzuli khilo­fati Lbbosiyon Misr sokhibikhtiyor gar­did. Dar davrai hukmronii sulolai Fotimiyon (909—1171) Mm az jihati iqtisodi va siyosi khele purquvvat shud. Soli 1171 Hokimiyat dar Misr ba dasti Salohuddin (asosguzori sulolai ayyubiyon) guzasht. Dar davrai hukmronii Ayyubiho (1171— 1250) qismi ziyodi zaminhoi davla­ti ba iqtoho tabdil doda shudand. Daromad az iqtoho chun tuhfa ba feodalhoi khurd va miyona baroi khizmati harbi doda meshud. Sultonhoi Ayyubiho az mamluqho (gulomoni sarboz) gvardiyaho tashkil namudand. Solhoi 1217—21 Ayyubiho hujumi salibdoronro ba Misr zada bargardondand. Soli 1250 harbiyoni olirutbai mamlukho hokimiyatro ba dast girifta, armiyai puriqtidor tashkil kardand. Davlati mamlukho dar ibtidoi asri 15 hujumi Temurro zada gardond, ammo badtar az zarbai istilogaroni turk shikast khurd. Soli 1517 sultoni turk Salimi I Mmro ba imperiyai Usmoniya hamroh kard.

Okhiri asri 17 imperiyai Usmoniya ru ba tanazzul nihod, ki on ba mamlukho dar ibtidoi asri 18 baroi az nav barqaror namudani hokimiyati siyosi dar Misr imkoniyat dod.

Okhiri asri 18 qushunhoi Fransiya Misrro istilo kardand, vale maglubiyati onho az kupzunhoi Angliyayu Turkiya dar Misr ba rasman barqaror shudani imperiyai Usmoniya ovarda rasond.

Soli 1805 Muhammadali ba sari hokimiyat omad. Bo maqsadi az tobeiyati vassali ozod kardani mamlakat soli 1831 ba muqobili Turkiya lashkar kashid, dar in jang qushuni turkho shikast khurd. Dar ahdi Ismoilposho (solhoi 1863—79 hukmron bud) Misr dar hududi imperiyai Usmoniya ba mukhtoriyati nisbatan vasei dokhili sohib shud. Ba Misr dokhil shudani kapitali Angliya va Fransiya az yak taraf, ba taraqqiyoti iqtisodii Misr kumak rasonda boshad, az tarafi digar ba sust shudani mavqei burjuaziyai milli ovarda rasond. Soli 1879 dar Misr nakhustin tashkiloti millii siyosii «Vatan» barpo shud, ki on shiori «Misr baroi misriyon»-ro ba miyon guzosht. 9 sentyabri 1881 qismhoi garnizoni harbii Qohira bo sardorii polkovnik Ahmad Arabiposhsho shurish bardoshta hukumati millii progressivi tashkil kar­dand. Ammo soli 1882 hukumati milli sarnagun karda shud, dar on Misr rasman qismi tarkibii imperiyai Us­moniya hisob yobad ham, rejimi istilogaroni anglis jori gardid. Dekabri 1914 Misr protektorati Britaniya elon karda shud.

Revolbtsiyai Kabiri Sosialistii Oktyabr dar Rossiya ba khele avj giriftani muborizai ozodikhohonai millii Misr tasiri kalon rasond. Soli 1918 tashkiloti millii burjuazii «Vafd» bo talabi ba Misr dodani istiqloliyat marakzi imzojamkuni tashkil kard, ki on ba shurishi kaloni ziddi anglisho tab­dil yoft.

Solhoi 1918—19 dar Misr avvalin guruhhoi sosialisti va kommunisti tashkil shudand, ki sonitar ba Partiyai sosialistii Misr (az soli 1922 — Partiyai Kommunistii Misr, PKM) muttahid gardidand.

Avji Harakati ozodikhohii milli Britaniyai Kabirro baroi bekor kardani protektorat (fevrali 1922) va Misrro hamchun «davlati mustaqilu sohibikhtiyor» etirof namudan majbur sokhta boshad ham, ammo qushuni anglisho az Misr barovarda nashudand; kapitali Angliya to in dam dar iqtisodiyoti Misr hukmron bud. 19 apreli 1923 konstitusiya qabul karda shud, muvofiqi on Misr monar­khiyai konstitusioni gardid, ki parlamentash az du palata iborat bud.

Dar intikhoboti parlamenti soli 1923 «Vafd» galaba kard. Vafdchiyon dar oyanda chandin (1928, 1929, 1936) marotiba hukumat tashkil kardand, va­le dar natijai muqobilati Brita­niyai Kabir ba istiqloliyati purrai milli sohib shuda natavonistand. Yanvari 1942 ba Misr hujumi fashiston tahdid mekard. Doirahoi hukmron baroi dar Misr guzaronidani tabadulloti fashisti tayyori didand. Dar chunin sharoit Britaniyai Kabir shoh Farrukhro majbur kard, ki ikhtiyori hokimiyatro ba vafdchiyon dihad, chunki onho koalisiyai ziddigitleriro dastgiri mekardand. 26 avgusti 1943 bayni Misr va SSSR munosibathoi diplomati ba roh monda shudand. Soli 1945 Misr azoi TDM shud. Dar jangi Falastin armiyai Misr shikast khurd, ki on az tanazzuli tartiboti monarkhisti shahodat medod. Tashkiloti mahfii «Ofiseroni ozod», ki dar armiya tashkil shuda bud, bo sardorii jamol Abdunnosir faoliyati khudro purzur kard. Soli 1950 partiyai millii burjuazii «Vafd» boz hukumat tashkil kard. 15 oktyabri 1951 parlament oid ba bekor kardaii shartnomai (soli 1936) asoratovari bayni Misr va Angliya qonun qabul kard, javoban ba avji harakati millii ozodikhohona shoh bo fishori Britaniyai Kabir dar mamlakat holati favquloda elon kard, Hukumati «Vafd» az sari hokimiyat dur karda shud. Dar sharoiti muborizai siyosii dokhili tashkiloti harbii «Ofiseroni ozod» ba armiya takya namuda, 23 iyuni 1952 tabadduloti revolyusioni guzaronid. Soveti rohbariyati revolyusiya (SRR) tamomi hokimiyatro ba dasti khud girift, ki ba hayati on rohbaroni tashkiloti «Ofiseroni ozod» dokhil shudand. General Muhammad Naqib rasman sardori SRR tain shud, ammo dar asl rohbari on Jamol Abdunnosir bud. Dar asosi qarori SRR az 9 sentyabri 1952 doyr ba islohoti agrarii Misr qonun qabul karda shud. 18 iyuni 1953 hokimiyati mutlaqi ba tavri rasmi barham doda shuda Misr respublika elon gardid. Zarurati minbad inkishof dodani islohoti resvolyusioni az sari hokimiyat dur kardani Naqibro talab kard.

Soli 1956 Nosir prezident intikhob shud. 19 oktyabri 1954 dar bobati az khoki Misr barovardani qushunhoi Angliya shartnoma (qushunhoi Angliya tanho mohi iyuni 1956 purra az khoki Misr barovarda shudand) ba imzo rasid. 26 iyuni 1956 prezident Nosir dar borai millikunonii shirkati kanali Sues dekret barovard, ki on dar iqtisodiyoti Misr baroi tashakkul yoftani sektori puriqtidori davlati ibtido guzosht. Javoban ba on hukumathoi Britaniyai Kabir va Fransiya bar ziddi Misr tajovuzi imperialisti (1956) tayyor kardand, ki onro davlati Isroil cap kard. SSSR va digar davlathoi sosialisti va tamomi quvvahoi sulhdustti jahon muborizai khalqi Misrro bar ziddi tajovuzkoron dastgiri namudand. Dekabri 1956 qushunhoi Anglpyayu Fransiya va marti 1957 qushunhoi Isroil az Misr purra barovarda shudand. 15 yanvari 1957 doir ba «misrnkunonii» bankhoi khoriji, idorahoi sugurta, shirkathoi savdoi beruna, korkhonahoi sanoati, naqliyot va g. qonun baromad. 29 yanvari 1958 dar Moskva oid ba hamkorii iqtisodii bayni Misr va Ittifoqi Soveti shartnoma basta shud, ki on dar muborizai Misr baroi istiqloliyati iqtisod ahamiyati kalon dosht. 1 fevrali 1958 Misr va Suriya muttahid shudand va barpo gardidani Respublikai Muttahidai Arab (RMA) elon karda shud.

Rohbaroni revolyusiyai Misr kushish mekardand, ki burjuaziyai milliro baroi tashkili iqtisodiyoti zamonavi istifoda barand. Ammo onho medonistaid, ki kapitalistoni kalon baroi hokimiyati siyosi muboriza mebarand. Binobar in bo maqsadi sust namudani mavqei burjuaziyai kalon soli 1960 millikunonii banki «Misr» va «Banki milli»-i Misr elon karda shud. Soli 1961 oid ba milli kunonidani 149 bank, shirkatho va korkhonahoi kaloni sanoati qonun baromad. 28 sentyabri 1961 bo tashabbusi burjuaziyai kaloni Suriya ofiseroni harbi tabadullot kardand, ki dar natijai on Suriya az hayati RMA baromad.

Kongressi millii quvvahoi khalqi 30 iyuni 1962 Khartiyai amaliyoti milliro qabul kard, ki on programmai siyosii taraqqiyoti RMA gardid. Dar on rohi kapitalistii taraqqiyot rad va takid karda shuda bud, ki tanho sosializm peshrafti iqtisodiyu ijtimoiro tamin karda metavonad. Dar asosi qarori Kongressi millii quvvahoi khalq mohi oktyabr 1962 dar borai barpo namudani tashkiloti siyosii ommavi — Ittifoqi sosialistii Arab (tasisash 1963) qaror baromad. To ibtidoi soli 1965 qarib 90% hisai korkhonahoi kaloni RMA ba ikhtiyori davlat guzasht, ziyoda az 800 korkhona az on jumla bo ishtirok va yorii SISR sokhta shud. Az 1960 bo yorii SSSR sokhtmoni kompleksi gidroenergetikii azimi Asvon ogoz yoft.

Shiddat yoftani faoliyati zararovari burjuaziyai milli rohbariyati RMA-ro majbur sokht, ki mavjudiyati sinfho va muborizai sinfiro etirof kunad. Marti 1964 konstitusiyai navi muvaqqati qabul gardid, ki on RMA-ro Respublikai sosialistii demokrati elon namud. To mohi may 1964 mahbusoni siyosi — kommuniston va digar arboboni chap az habskhonayu konslagerho ozod karda shudand. 5 iyuni 1967 Isroil ba RMA hamla kard. Dar muboriza baroi qat namudani tajovuzi Isroil va bartaraf kardani oqibathoi on Ittifoqi Soveti va digar davlathoi sosialisti ba Misr yorii harbi, siyosi va iqtisodi rasonidand. YOrii pulii Arabistoni Saudi, Quveyt, Libiya va digar davlathoi arab ahamiyati kalon dosht.

30 marti 1968 Nosir «programmai 30 marti» revolyusioniro elon kard, ki on safarbar kardani tamomi quvva va vositahoi mamlakatro baroi bartaraf namudani oqibathoi tajovuzi Isroil va minbad mukammal kardani islohoti ijtimoiyu iqtisodi peshbini mekard. 28 sentyabri 1970 prezident Nosir vafot kard. Hamon sol Anvar Sodot prezidenti RMA intikhob shud. 27 iyuli 1971 Kongressi millii Ittifoqi sosialistii Arab (ISA) Programmai amaliyoti milliro qabul kard, ki on taraqqiyoti minbadai iqtisodiyoti Misr, mahvi besavodi, muborizai ziddi tajovuzi sionisti va g-ro peshbini mekard.

1 sentyabri 1971 Misr bo Libiya va Suriya Federasiyai Respublikahoi Arabro tashkil namud. 11 sentyabri 1971 dar Misr referendum barpo shud, ki on konstitusiyai navro maqul donist. Mamlakat nomi Respublikai Misri Arabro girift (RMA). Konstitusiyai soli 1971 RMA-ro «davlati demokratii sosialisti dar asosi ittifoqi quvvahoi khalqi mehnatkash» elon kard. 27 mohi may 1971 dar Qohira Shartnomai dusti va hamkorii SSSR va RMA ba imzo rasid. Oktyabri soli 1973 armiyai Misr dar amaliyothoi jangi yaroq va tekhnikai sovetiro istifoda karda, az kanali Sues guzashta sohili sharqii onro ozod namud. 21 dekabri bo maqsadi yaktarafa namudani nizoi Sharqi Nazdik dar Jeneva konferensiyai sulh davat karda shud. Ammo solhoi 70 Misr dar siyosati dokhiliyu berunaro bo Garb nazdikshaviro pesh girift, az orientasiyai sosialisti dast kashid, siyosati «liberalikunonii iqtisodiyot» va «darhoi kushod»-ro guzarond, ki dar natija kori Kovferensiyai Jeneva vayron shud. Sentyabri 1975 hukumati Misr bo miyonaravii ShMA oid ba masalai nimjazirai Sivo bo Isroil sozishnomai sekarati bast. Noyabri 1977 prezident Sodot ba Yerusalimi zabtshuda raft.

Guftushunide, ki sentyabri 1978 dar Kemp-Devid (ShMA) ogoz yofta bud, 26 marti 1979 bo bastani ba nom shartnomai Misru Isroil ba okhir rasid. In shartnoma chunin masalahoi muhimro hal karda natavonist: ozod namudani tamomi zaminhoi az tarafi Isroil ishgolshudai arab, etirofi huquqi khalqi arabi Falastin baroi tashkil kardani davlati khud. Basta shudani shartnomai separati ba muborizai khalqi arab baroi bartaraf namudani oqibathoi tajovuzi Isroil zarbai kalon rasond. Shartnomai Kemp-Devidro qarib hamai mamlakathoi arab rad kardand. Dar natija Misr dar holati judoi mond. Ligai Davlathoi Arab (LDA) qaror barovard, ki azogii Misr dar LDA mavquf guzoshta shavad. Dar Gavana dar Konferensiyai mamlakathoi ba blokho hamrohnashuda dar borai az harakati mamlakathoi ba blokho hamrohnashuda khorij kardani Misr komissiyai makhsus barpo karda shud. Konferensiyai islomii sarvaroni mamlakathoi musulmon niz dar borai az tashkiloti davlathoi islomi muvaqqatan barovardani Misr qaror qabul kardand. Dar in tamomi davlathoi arab munosnoathoi diplomatiashonro az Misr kandand, ba Misr yorii puli va furushi neft qat gardid. Marti 1976 bo tashabbusi prezidenti RMA amaliyoti shartnomai dusti va hamkorii bayni SSSR va Misr qat gardid. Rohbariyati Misr siyosati bo Garb va rejimhoi reaksionii arab nazdikshaviro pesh girift.

Dar solhoi minbada khiyonati Sodat vaziyati Misrro taboh kard. Aholii khalq toraft vaznin meshud. Dar natija muborizai ziddi rejimi Sodot sol ba sol avj megirift. Misr boshad nihoyat jandarmi ShMA gardid, ki dar Sharqi Nazdik manfiati imperialnetonro himoya mekunad. Dar khudi dokhili mamlakat taqibi namoyandagoni peshqadamu taraqqiparvar avj girift. Faqat dar yak mohi sentyabri soli 1981 dar Misr ziyoda az dah hazor kas habs karda shud. Dar chunin vaziyati shadidi siyosi yak guruh harbiyoni dinparast, ki niyat doshtand dar Misr ham misli Eron respublikai islomi tasis namoyand, hangomi paradi harbi bakhshida ba jashni ozodshavii qismi Sivo 6 oktyabri soli 1981 Sodotro tirboron karda kushtand. Noibi rezident X. Muborak 12 oktyabri 1981 ba joi Sodot prezident shud. Vale vay ham elon kard, ki Misr siyosati Sodotro davom khohad dod. Muborizai ziddi tarafdoroni Sodot boz avj girift va alhol davom dorad.

Partiyahoi siyosi va ittifoqhoi kasaba. Partiyai millii demokrati (tasisash 1978). Partiyai hukmron, ki asosan az namoyandagoni sinfhoi doro iborat buda, siyosati Sodotro ba amal mebarorad. Partiyai sosialistii mehnat (tasisash 1978), partiyai burjuazi. Partiyai sosialisthoi liberal (tasisash 1976), partiyai burjuazi. Partiyai millii progressivi (tasisash 1976), namoyandagoni quvvahoi taraqqiparvari Misrro muttahid menamoyad.

Iqtisodiyot. Dar natijai revolyutsiyai 1952 va dar amal jori namudani chorabinihoi muhimi ijtimoiyu iqtisodi Misr, ki rohi taraqqiyoti gayrikapitalistiro pesh girifta bud, az mamlakati qafomondai agrari ba yake az davlathoi mutaraqqii agrariyu industrialii Sharqi Nazdik tabdil yoft. Az soli 1957 sistemai planii taraqqiyoti iqtisodiyot jory karda shud. Qarib 85% iqtidori istehsolii sanoat dar ikhtiyori sektori davlati bud.

Az soli 1952 dar Misr ba islohoti agrari cap karda, zaminhoi ziyodati ba dehqononi bezamin va kamzamin taqsim karda doda meshud. Zaminhoi vaqfi musodirashuda (zamini muassisahoi dini) ba dehqonon doda shud. Davlat ba kooperativhoi khojagii qishloq ba tavri yori qarz, tukhmi, moddahoi khimiyavi, nuri va g. dod. Ittifoqi Soveti va digar mamlakathoi sosialisti ba taraqqiyoti iqtisodiyoti Misr yorii kalon rasondand.

Sohai asosii khojagii qishloq kishti pakhtai mahinnakh meboshad. Istehsoli pakhtai mahinnakhi Misr soli 1979 ba 482 hazor tonna rasid. Dar iqtisodiyoti Misr sholikori ahamiyati kalon dorad.

Soli 1978 Misr 2511 hazor t sholi istehsol kard. Az sababi nabudani charogohho chorvodori dar Misr khele sust taraqqi kardaast. Okhiri soli 1979 dar Misr in kadar chorvo bud (ba hisobi hazor cap): 5180 gov, 2600 gusfand. Mohi asosan az bahri Miyonazamin, kulho va d. Nil girifta meshavad.

Soli 1979 16,3 mlrd kVt. s. quvvai elektr istehsol karda shud. Soli 1979 28 mlv t neft istikhroj gardid. Az sanoati sabuk bofandagi beshtar taraqqi kardaast.

Markazi asosii metallurgiya — Kheluan. Kombinati metallurgii Kheluan sanoatro bo takhtapulod tamin menamoyad. Dar Nak-Hammadi bo yorii iqtisodi va tekhnikii SSSR zavodi alyuminiy sokhta shud.

Tuli rohi ohan 6,9 hazor km (1978), rohi avtomobilgard — 27 hazor km. Bandarhoi asosi: Iskandariya, Port-Said, Sues. Misr ba khorija asosan pakhta va birinj barovarda, az khorija ozuqavori, moshin va g. megirad. Vohidi pul — funti misri.

Nigahdorii tandurusti. Soli 1968 ba 1000 nafar aholi tavallud 38,2, favt 16,2, favti kudakon ba 1000 kudaki navzod 68,0 nafarro tashkil dod. Darozii umri mardon ba hisobi miyona 51,6 va zanho 53,8 sol meboshad, Az bemorihoi siroyati va paraziti tifi hasbador, paratif, varaja, gepatit va g. beshtar pahn shudaast. Soli 1968 dar Misr 175 bemorkhonai doroi 68 hazor kat (2,16 kat ba 1000 nafar aholi) bud. Dar dehot 375 markazi nigahdorii tandurusti kushoda shudaast. Soli 1969 16,2 hazor dukhtur, 2 hazor dukhturi dandon, 5,4 hazor farmasevt va 20 hazor kormandi miyonai tib kor mekard.

Maorif va muassisahoi ilmi. To revolyutsiyai 1952 qarib 90% aholii kalonsol besavod bud. Badi revolyusiya talimi hatmii ibtidoii bepul jori karda shud, ki dar natijai on besavodi to 62% kam shud (1970). Soli tahsili 1969/70 dar maktabhoi 6-sola ziyoda az 3,6 mln talaba takh-

Ruboiyotu fardiyot faroham omadaast. Yak masnavii mukhtasarai orifona va chande asarhoi nasri ham dorad. Dar ashori M. I. masalahoi muhimi ijtimoi inikos yoftaand. Devonash soli 1967 dar Eron ba tab rasidaast.

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SADUDDINI SAYDI HIRAVI

SADUDDINI SAYDI HIRAVI —(soli tavalud nomalum —vafot 1364), shoiri fors-tojik. Jarayoni zindagii Saduddini Saydi Hiravi …