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MILLAT

millatMILLAT (ar. —ummat, qabila, khalq), shakli olii umumiyati tarikhiyu etnikii odamon ast, ki dar asosi umumiyati hayoti iqtisodi, Umumiyati zabon, territoriya, khususiyathoi hayoti madani, shuur va psikho­logiya tashakkul meyobad. Nazariyai haqiqatan ilmii Millatro avvalin bor marksizm-leninizm ofarida, farqiyati kullii onro az najod, qabila va khalqiyat nishon dod (nig. Lenin V. I., As., j 1, sah- 163—164). Asosguzoroni kommunizmi ilmi Millatro kategoriyai tarikhi donistaand. Onho qonuniyati paydoishi Millatro dar zamoni kapitalizm az jihati ilmi asosnok namuda, onro «mahsuli noguzir va shakli noguziri davrai bur­juazii taraqqiyoti jamiyati» meshumorand. (Lenin V. I., As., j 21, sah. 63). Dar rafti tashakkuli Millat umumi­yati hayoti iqtisodi hamchun asosi moddi va sharti zarurii paydoishi khosiyathoi digari on roli halkunanda mebozad. Umumiyati hayoti iqtisodi meyori asosii farqiyati kullii Millatho meboshad. Mas., asosi hayoti iqtisodii Millathoi kapitalistiro molikiyati khususi, asosi hayoti iqtisodii Millathoi sosialistiro boshad, molikiyati jamiyati budani vositahoi istehsolot tashkil medihad. Dar tashakkuli Millat alomathoi digari on niz roli kalon mebozand. Tanho zabone nishonai Millat buda metavonad, ki tarkibi lugavii khudro az hisobi lahjahoi gunogun boy namuda, ba manfiati jamiyatii khalq khizmat karda tavonad. Millatro be territoriyai yagona niz tasavvur namudan mahol ast. On yake az omilhoi muhimi tabiiyu geo­grafii ba vujud omadani umumiyati etnikii Millatho meboshad. In omilho boisi tashakkuli hayoti manavii Millat— shuuru psikhologiya, kharakteru ananahoi milli va dar yak millati muayyan muttahidshavii odamonand. Dar jamiyati antagonisti umumiyati milli ziddiyathoi dokhili (sinfi)-i Millatro istisno namekunad. Dar dokhili har yak Millati burjuazi du millat — Millati sinfhoi istismorkunanda va Millati sinfhoi istismorshavanda va vobasta ba in dar dokhili har yak madaniyati milli du madaniyat mavjud ast (Lenin V. I., As., j- 20, sah- 8—9). Millathoi sosialisti bar khilofi Millathoi burjuazi az zulmuistismori sinfi, ziddiyathoi dokhili ozod buda, ittifoqi sinfi korgaru dehqon asosi boetimodi inkishofi onho meboshad. Partiyai Kommunisti, ki bo talimoti marksizm-leninizm musallah ast, quvvai peshbarandai onho meboshad. Dar tashakkuli Millat ro­li davlati milli niz kalon ast. Davlat umumiyati hayoti iqtisodii Millathoro ustuvor gardonda, faoliyati siyosii onhoro dar hayoti jamiyat baland mebardorad. Paydoishi Millathoi guno­gun bo sharoithoi konkretiyu tari­khi, muborizai millii ozodikhohi va bunyodi davlathoi milli aloqamand ast. Ammo Millat dar surati nabudani davlati milli ham tashakkul meyobad. Mas., dar zamoni hokimiyati podshohi ba khalqhoi ukrain, belo­rus, gurji va arman hamin qonuniyat khos bud. Baroi ba Millathoi komil tabdil yoftani khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona boshad, yak qator zaminaho — umu­miyati kamu beshi iqtisodi, territoriyavi va zaboni vujud doshtand. Le­kin mustamlikadoroni podshohi va Hokimoni mahalli bo rohi bozdoshtani inkishofi hayoti iqtisodiyu manavi va dar bayni in khalqho afrukhtani otashi adovatu dushmani ba taraqqiyoti mutadili hayoti millii onho khalal rasonidand.

Galabai Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sosialistii Oktyabr zulmi chandinasrai milli, ijtimoi va khusumatu dushmanii khalqhoi mazlumro abadi nest karda, baroi istiqloliyati haqiqii onho roh kushod. Dar natijai digargunihoi kul­lii ijtimoiyu iqtisodi va siyosiyu manavie, ki khalqi soveti bo rohbarii Partiyai Kommunisti ba amal ovard, Millathoi sifatan navi tipi so­sialisti tashakkul yoftand. Dar rafti tabdili Millathoi kapitalisti ba Millathoi sosialisti alomathoi asosii onho mazmunu mundarijai sifatan nave paydo mekunand, ki ba talabotu manfiati khalqho muvofiqand.

Prosessi tashakkuli Millathoe, ki rohi gayrikapitalistii taraqqiyotro tay kardaand, dar barobari qonuniyathoi umumi boz yak qator qonuniyathoi khususi niz dorand. Darajai pasti inkishofi quvvahoi istehsolkunanda, munosibathoi istehsoli, mutashakkili, shuurnokii omma va shiddati muborizai sinfi va g. bo­isi paydoishi in khususiyathoi khos gardidaand. Millati tojik, misli yak qator khalqhoi digari dar guzashta qafomonda, dar asosi yorii hamatarafai iqtisodi, siyosi va manavii khalqhoi vatanamon, pesh az hama khalqi rus tashakkul yoftaast. Dar davrai sokhtmoni sosializm mafhumi «umumiyati hayoti iqtisodii Millatho manoi haqiqii khudro paydo kard. Terr-hoi milli az manbai jangu jidol va mahdudiyati khalqho ba arsai dustiyu barodari va hamkoriyu yorii baynihamdigarii onho tabdil yoft. Dar rafti sokhtmoni kommunizm hududhoi milli ahamiyati peshinai khudro gum khohad kard. Ba amal ovardani rev. madani va galabai ideologiyai marksisti-lenini madaniyati shaklan milliyu mazmunan sosialiston Millatho, jahonbinii marksistii onhoro ba vujud ovard. Dar SSSR avvalin bor dar tarikhi insoniyat yagonagii hayoti iqtisodi, siyosiyu ijtimoi va ideologii Millathoi gunogun ba amal omad. Inkisho­fi minbadai on hayoti manavii onhoro besh az pesh intervasionali megardonad. In tamoyul na tanho qismi tarkibii qonuniyati internasionalikunonii hayoti moddi va manavii millatho, balki zaminai obektivii taraqqiyoti Millathoi sosialisti, ba ham nazdikshavi va nihoyat vahdati onho niz meboshad. Sokhtmoni kommunizm mubodiloti moddiyu manavi, dar tamomi sohahoi hayoti jamiyat aloqamandii Millathoi sosialistiro purzur namuda, mahdudiyati milliro barham medihad. Dar mamlakati mo umumiyati navi tarikhi—khalqi soveti tashakkul yoft. In na umumiyati navi milli, balki umumiyati navi njtimoiyu intornasionali va tarikhiest, ki sa­babi ba jamiyati besinf guzashtani Millat megardad. Holo dar mamlakati soveti prosessi bo in yo on Millat yakshavii guruhhoi khurdi etniki, khalqhkhoi mayda va odamoni alohida davom dorad. Inkishofi bosurati minbadai in qonuniyat ba rafti obektivii sokhtmoni kommunizm vobasta ast. Marksizm-leninizm talim medihad, ki tanho dar sura­ti galabai purrai kommunizm vahdati harjonibai Millatho imkonpazir ast.

Millati kommunisti darajai olitarini umumiyati insoni buda, mafhumhoi «millat» va «sinf»-ro istisno menamoyad.

Ad.: Marks K. va Engels F., Manifest» Partin i Kommunisty, As. mun., j. 1, D., 1963; Marks K. i En­gels F., Debati po polsnomu voprosu v Frankfurte, Soch., t. 5; hamon muall., O razlojenie feodalizma i vozniknovenii-nasionalnikh gosudarstv, Soch., t. 21;«G. Lenin V. I., «Dustoni khalq chist va onho ba muqobili sosial- demonratho chi tavr mejangand? As., j. 1; hamon muall., Mulohizahoi tanqidi oid ba masalai milli. As., j. 20; Bagoutdinov A. M., K voprosu o konsolidasii tadjikskoy nasii, Stalinabad, 1957; Sobirov K., Tadjik­skaya sosialisticheskaya nasiya — detishe Oktyabrya, D., 1967; Sujikov M., So­sialno-ekonomicheskie problemi nasionalnoy konsolidasii, Alma-Ata, 1968; Kaltakhchyan S. T., Leninizm o sush­nosti nasiy i puti obrazovaniya inter­nasionalnoy obshiosti lyudey. M.. 1976; Davlatkadamov X., Sosialno­klassovie osnovi sblijeniya sosialis­ticheskikh nasiy. D., 1976, nig. niz ba ad. mad. Masalai milli va Millatchigi.

S. Jononov.

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