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METODI BADEI

METODI BADEI, sistemai prinsiphoe, ki jarayoni ejodi asarhoi adabiyot va sanatro idora mekunand. Kategoriyai Metodi badei okhiri solhoi 20 asri 20 paydo shuda, yake az mafhumkhoi asosii nazariyai marksistki ejodi badei gardid. Ilmi marksisti hama guna sharhu tafsirhoi gayriaqlii jarayoni ejodiro inkor karda, asosan kharakteri boshuurona va bo maqsadi faoliyati ejodiro ba inobat megirad. Ham mantiqi botaniki asarhoi sanat va ham risolahoi nazarii sanatkoron in maniro taqviyat medihand. Azbaski metodi sanatkor dar muhiti muayyani ijtimoi va madani shakl megirad, bo vujudi nodir budanash, bo metodi sanatkoroni digar to andozae umumiyat dorad. Binobar on muhaqqii sanatu madaniyat metavonad sokhti umumii Metodi badeiro, ki asosi jarayonu uslubu raviyahost, muayyan namoyad. Az in ru, Metodi badeii klassisizm, romantizm, realizmi tanqidi va g. meguyand. Metodi badei dar rafti inkishofi ejodiyoti navisanda, zeri tasiri jahonbinii u tashakkul meyobad. Agar dar jahonbinii sanatkor digargunii jiddi ruy dihad, Metodi badeii u niz tagyir meyobad (mas., guzashtani A. S. Pushkin az metodi romantiki ba realisti). Ilova bar in agar jahonbinii navisanda ziddiyat doshta boshad, dar M. b. niz ziddiyatho mushohida meshavad, ki inro F. Engels dar misoli ejodiyoti O. Balzak va V. I. Lenin zimni tahlili aqoidu osori L. N. Tolstoy nishon dodaand. Dar masalai fahmishi konkretii Metodi badei, unsurhoi on va robitaash bo uslub bayni adabiyotshinosoni soveti (G. N. Pospelov, L. I. Timofeev, Yu. B. Borev va dig.) fikrhoi mukhtalif vujud dorad. Azbaski sanat az chor juzi asosi: marifati hayot, baho dodan ba on, ejodu ofarinish va tasvir namudani on tarkib meyobad, binobar on Metodi badei boyad chahor prinsip doshta boshad. Prinsipi marifatii vay muayyan mekunad, ki quvvai marifati badei ba kadom jihati hasti (mas., ba muhiti ijtimoi yo biologi) moil ast va kullu juzro dar obraz chi guna ba hamdigar tanosub medihad; prinsipi bahodihi khususiyati sistemai arzishhoi ba miyon ovardai sanatkor (dini yo dunyavi, grajdani yo ziddi siyosat) va tarzi ifodai onro (oshkoro yo pinhoni) muayyan mekunad. Prinsipi ejod tarzhoi ba obrazi badei tabdil dodani hodisahoi hayoti (haqiqat va yo gayri haqiqat) na tarhi materialii shaklhoi adabiro muayyan menamoyad. Nihoyat prinsipi alomati (semiotiki) tarzi ba zaboni adabi («kalomi bade») tabdil dodani tarhi mazkurro muayyan mekunad. Yake az khususiyathoi muhimi metodi realizmi sosialisti on ast, ki dar in Metodi badei hamai ni prinsipho barobar zuhur meyoband.

Ad.: Timofeev L. P., Osnovi teorii literaturi. E izd., M., 1966; V o-roo Yu. V„ Estetika, M., 1969; Nagan M. S., Leksii po marksistsko-leninskoy astetiks, JI., 1971; Pospelov G. N., Problemi istoricheskogo razvitii literaturi, M.. 1972.

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