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MAVJHO

MAVJHO, vobasta ba vaqt tagyir yoftani tartibi fazovii maksimumu minimumhoi buzurgihoi fiziki, mas., fishor, zichii modda, shiddatnokii maydonhoi elektriyu magniti; lappishhoi pahnshavanda. Dar fizikai muosir namudhoi zerini Mavjhoro tadqiq mekunand: mavjhoi sathii chandir (holati khususii onho Mavjhoi sadoi), mavjhoi elektromagniti (az jumla, shuoafkanii harorati, rushnoi, gammashuoi, shuohoi rentgeni, radiomavjho, mavjhoi de-Broyl) va g. Vobasta ba shakli sathi fazahoi barobar (fronti Mavjho) Mavjhoi sathi, kuravi, silindri (Mavjhoe, ki sathi fazahoi barobari onho muvofiqan sferaho va silindrho meboshand) va g. mavjudand. Muvofiqi orientasiyai hamvorii lappish nisbat ba samti pahnshavi mavjhoi kundalang va mavjhoi barqad vujud dorand. Agar lappish qad-qadi samti pahnshavi ba vujud oyad, Mavjhoi hosilshuda barqad va agar lappish ba samti pahnshavi perpendikulyar boshad, Mavjhoi hosilshuda kundalang nomida meshavand. Mas., Mavjhoi sathi ob, Mavjhoi elektromagniti dar muhiti izotropi Mavjhoi kundalang buda, Mavjhoi sadoi barqad meboshand. Mavjhoi kundalangi pollrizasilshuda va polyarizasiyanashuda mavjudand (nig. Polyarizasiyai rushnoi). Lappishhoi garmonikie, ki pahn meshavand, Mavjhoi sinusondavi yo monokhromati (nig. Rushnoii monokhromati) nom dorand. Kharakteristikahoi asosii Mavjhoi monokhromati darozii mavj X va davri lappish T meboshand, ki ba hamdigar bo tanosubi T = —aloqamandand (in jo s — surati pahnshavii Mavjho). Du mavj hamon vaqt kogerenti nomida meshavand, ki agar farqi fazai onho vobasta ba vaqt betagyir monad. Tasiri mutaqobilai du yo ziyoda mavjhoe, ki dar hamon yak punkti fazo vomekhurand, ba prinsipi superpozisiya tobe meboshad; agar Mavjho kogerenti boshand, hodisai interferensiya ba vujud meoyad. Mas., tashakkuli mavjhoi iston hangami tasiri mutaqobilai Mavjhoi hamvori rostu (inikosshuda bo hodisai interferensiyakh mavj sharh doda meshavad. Agar dar rohi pahnshavii Mavjho moneae qismi frontro nigoh dorad, ba vujud omadani difraksiyai Mavjho mumachin ast. Mavridi ba hududi du muhit aftidani mavj qismhoi az hudud aks gashta, yak qismash ba digar muhit meguzarad. In hodisaho muvofiqan inikos va shikasti Mavjho nomida meshavand (mas., nig. Shikasti rushnoi). Kunji shikast ba nishondihandai shikast vobasta ast. Agar muhiti duyum anizotropi boshad, shikasti du karatai shuo ba amal meoyad. Khususiyati muhite, ki majmui Mavjhoi gunogunbasomad dar on pahn meshavand, hodisai nisbat ba yakdigar «qafomonii» Mavjho— dispersiyai mavjhoro bois megardad. In hodisa, az jumla dar on zohir megardad, ki buzurgii surathoi fazavi va guruhii Mavjho az yakdigar farq mekunand. Pahnshavii Mavjho bo intiqoli energiya aloqamand ast, binobar in baroi ba vujud ovardani Mavjho yagon kor ijro kardan lozim meoyad. Baroi hangomi intiqoli Mavjho kam kardani sarfi energiya mavjbarhoro kor mefarmoyand. Agar jisme dar muhit bo surati beshtar az surati fazavii Mavjho dar in muhit harakat kunad, Mavjhoi makhsus paydo meshavand. Mas., hangomi bo surati beshtar az surati fazavii rushnoi harakat kardani elektron shuoafkanii Vavilonu Cherenkov va hangomi bo surati favqussado harakat kardani samolyot mavji zarbati ba amal meoyand. Agar manbai Mavjho va mushohid nazdik shavand (dur ravand) effekti Dopler ruy medihad, ki bo on mas., laganshi surkhi spektrhoi galaktikaho sharh doda meshavad. Prosesskhoi mavjho dar tabiat va tekhnika vase pahn shudaand. Tadqiqi onho baroi inkishofi minbadai ilmhoi fvzika va tekhnika muhim ast.

Ad.: Gorelik G. S., Kolebaniya i volni, 2 izd.. M., 1059; Krasilnikov V. A., Zvukovie i ultrazvukovie volni v vozdukhe, vode i tverdikh telakh, E izd., M.. 1060.

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