Malumoti ohirin

MANSUBA

MANSUBA (ar.  — tainot, chize barpo kardashuda, tadbiri kor, nayrange soz kardan yo fitnae angekhtan), 1) dar shohmotbozii mohirona, tadbiri nayrangomez. Vaziyati (shakli) ba tavri suni barpo kardashudai koloy (muhrahoi) shatranj dar rui mat, ki odatan yake az tarafho (safedho yo siyohho) boyad suporishero ijro kunad (mas., shohi harifro mot kunad, hamai koloho yo okhirin koloi boqimondai uro kushad, boziro koim kunad va g.). Mansubahoe ham hastand, ki az bozihoi nodiri garibi oliyaho (grossmeysterho), ustodon va behbozon ba miyon omadaand. Khususiyati asosii Mansubaho: quvvaho taqriban barobarand, shohi safed boyad ba yak bozi noiloj mot shavad, vale navbati bozi az ust, vay bo kishthoi payopay ba on yak bozi imkoniyat namedihad va pas az chand bozii mohironai alo va zebo harifro maglub menamoyad. Mansuba az jihati shumorai kolo se vav ast: andakkolo, ki kamtar az 10 pora dorad, «miyona, ki az 10 to 19 pora ast va bisyorkolo, ki beshgar az 20 pora kolo dorad. Az jihati shumorai bozi (dovho) du nav ast: andak-bozi, ki to 5 dov ba qism merasad va bisyorbozi, ki az 6 dov beshtar ast.

Mansubaho ham misli khudi shatranj, tarikhi qadimi doshta, bo in bozii asrorangez hamesha hamqadam budaast. Malum nest, ki avvalin Mansubahoro ki, kay va dar kujo orostaast. Dar zamoni Sosoniyon (220—642) shatranj dar bayni tabaqoti jamiyat shuhrati tamom dosht. Vale dar natijai havodisi nosozgori tarikh az Mansubahoi on ruzgor nomu nishone boqt namondaast. Qadimitarini Mansubaho, ki to zamoni mo rasidaand, ba asrhoi 8—9 taalluq dorand. Dar in davra shatranj dar Mashriqzamin, khususan dar Khuroson va Movarounnahr, pavnaqi tamom dosht, avvalin oliyaho va Mansubsozoni shatranj Abdulhofizi Shatraiji, Zayrob Katopi Khorazmi, Jobiri Kufi, Abuljafari Ansori, Naimi Khodim, Abubakr Muhammadi Suli, Adli buda, bo onho dar yak vaqt adabiyoti farovoni doir ba shatranj ba miyon omad. Dar okhiri asri 10 Abulfathi Sijzi dar asosi risolayu kitobho va rivoyathoi qadimi bo nomi «Kitobi shatranj» asari purqimat ofarid, ki dar on beshgar az 250 Mansubaho ovarda shudaast. Arabho Mansubahoro bo bozii shatranj ba Arabiston va az on jo asri 11 ba Avrupo burdand va davrai navi takomuli Mansubaho ogoz gardid. Osori ziyode ba zabonhoi evropoi ba vuchud omad, ki muhimtarinashon kitobi shohi Ispaniya Alfonsa X «Mansubaho va qoidahoi shatranj» (1283) ast. Mansubakhoi on kitobho aksaran az osori shatranjiyon va Mansubhosozoni Sharq iqtibos gardidaand va iddae az on on bo taqozoi zamon tagyiru takmil yoftaand (kolohoi ziyodati dur, joi bazei onho ivaz va adadi bozi kam karda, vale zarofat va latofati Mansubahoi peshtara nigoh doshta meshud). Dar natijai takomuli minbadai shatranj dar asrhoi 15—16 (digar shudani tarzi harakati farzin, fil, piyoda ba vujud omadani qalagiri va g.) Mansubaho ham khele takmil yoft. Az Mansubaho mafhumhoi hozirai masala (asri 16), etyud (a. 19) ba vujud omadand.

Yake az Mansubahoi qadim ki khalqhoi eroninajod, kimoti Dilorom nom dorad, bo tasvir va tafsirhoi gunogun karib dar hamai mamlakathoi dunyo mashhur ast. Har khalq onro az oni khud mepindorad va mutobiqi zistu zindagi va urfu odati millii khud rivoyate ham dorad. Shakli mamultari on Mansubaho, ki dar beshtari kitobho dida meshavad, in ast: Guyo podshohe bo shakhse shatranj mebokht ba in shart, ki agar bibarad, hazor dinor mesitonad va agar boy dihad, kanizaki sohibkamoli khud Dilorom va aspi behtarinashro, ki niz Dilorom nomida bud, ba u dihad. Podshoh ba vaziyate aftod, ki qoilon boyad mot shavad. Kanizak Dilorom, ki boziro nzaora mekard, ba in mazmun taronae ogoz kard:

Shoho, farasi khesh ba nokom madeh, Sarrishtai khud ba mardumi om madeh. Khokhi, ki Dilorom zi dastat naravad, Du puh bidehu aspi Dilorom madeh.

Shoh zud az matlab pay burda, du ruh bidodu boziro burd va hazor dinor bisitond. Halli in M: 1. Ph8+4- Sh : h8 2. Fl(5 + 111*8 3. R8 + Sh : 8 4. g7 + IIIg8 5. Ah6X. (Fil dar on zamon se khona meraft va az boloi muhra mejahid). In Mansubaho bo mururi zamon dar asari tagyirot nazar ba shakli qadimii khud khele sodda shudaast.

Hamagi to zamoni mo 700 Mansubaho omada rasidaast, ki onho az mahorata baland, hisobi daqiq va donishi amiqi Mansubhosozon darak medihand va bo asboiyu nafosat, zarofatu ajobati khud ba khonanda zavqu halovati estetiki mebakhshand. 2) Nomi bozii haftumi nard.

Ad.: Gijisii E , S shakhmatami cherez vena i strani, Varshava, 1964, Myakh. Yudovich, Rasskazi o shakhmatakh, M., 1959; Kollektiv, Shakhmati, M., I960; Linder I. M., U istokov shakhmatnoy kulturi, M., 1967.

I. Rahmatov.

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