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MAKTABI BEDIL

MAKTABI  BEDIL, raviyai adabie dar adabiyoti asrhoi 18—19 va avvali asri 20 tojik, ki dar Osiyoi Miyona ba amal omada prosessi adabii in davrahoro faro girift. Bedil bo istedodi favqulodai buzurgi khud ananahoi adabiyoti klassikii fors-tojikro omukhta, vobasta ba tahqiqi voqeiyati Hinduston pahluhoi goyavii in adabiyotro ba tarzi khos inkishof dod. Dar ejodiyoti Bedil janbai ijtimoiyu akhloqi va falsafiyu marifatii adabiyot ba tarzi toza va bo kamoli ejoz vusat paydo kard. Prinsipi tahqiqi badei va sistemai khosi tasviri badeii voqeiyat dar surati hambastagii shaklu mazmun arzi vujud karda, mohiyati falsafiyu estetikii metodi badeii Bedilro tashkil dodaast. Ana hamin holat «tarzi Bedil»-ro ba «kayfiyati ejoz» rasonidaast, ki fahmidan va sharh dodani ashori vay az khonanda fazlu hunari makhsusro talab mekard va az in ru, dar bayni payravoni shoir yak maktabi alohidaro ba vujud ovard. Diqqati shoironu adibon beshtar ba khamon gazalhoi Bedil ravona gardidaast, ki dar onho marifati sufiyonai voqeiyat ba tarzu uslubi nav jilvagar shuda bud. Az in ru, payravoni Maktabi Bedil ikhlosmandii khudro nisbat ba in shoiri buzurg bo rohi mukhammas bastan ba gazalhoi tasavvufii vay va yo dar bobati navishtani gazalkhoi mafhumi bedilona zohir namudaand. Dar asri 16 shokhahoi Maktabi Bedil ba tavri ravshan judo nashuda budand.

maktabi-bedilDar nimai yakumi asri 19 ba gazalhoi sufiyonai Bedil va tarzi bedilonai tasvir beshtar namoyandagoni adabiyoti dinii feodali tavajjuh doshtand. Ammo dar adabiyoti peshqadami in davr, ki tasviri realistii hayot va mudokhilai shoiron ba voqeiyati zindagi vusat paydo karda bud, binobar hanuz kashf nagardidani mokhiyati progressivii ejodiyoti Bedil, ragbat ba osor va uslubi dushvorpisandai u nisbatan sust shud. Ba hamin tariq, to nimai duyumi asri 19, ba taqozoi nuzuli hayoti madani va pobandi ideologiyai dini islom gardidani tafakkuri badei, inchunin ba sababi khanuz noraso va mahdud budani fahmi bedilshinosi, Maktabi Bedil dar inkishofi afkori ijtimoiyu adabi chandon roli progressivi bozida natavonist. Vaqte ki dar nimai duyumi asri 19 ba munosibati ba Rossiya hamroh shudani Osiyoi Miyona dar hayoti iqtisodi va manavii khalqhoi in sarzamin digarguni ruy doda, vobasta ba inkishofi jarayoni nav dar adabiyot muborizahoi mafkuravi tezutund gardid, Maktabi Bedil ba tarzi nav vusat yoft va shokhahoi gunoguni nav ba tavri khos jarayon girift. Minbad osori Mirzo Bedil tavajjuhi namoyandagoni guruhhoi gunoguni ijtimoiro ba tarafi khud kashid, ki onho az ziddiyathoi dokhilii ejodiyoti in mutafakkir baroi mustahkam kardani mavqei ideologiashon istifoda namudaand.

Ba in mani ideologhoi sinfi hukmron dar bayni khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona etibori ziyod paydo kardani in shoiri dushvorpisandro ba nazar girifta, ashori «muntakhabi» uro na tanho dar madrasaho, balki dar maktabho, hatto ba talabagoni gayritojik mekhonondand va dar in mavrid ruhoniyoni islom Bedilro ba sifati shoiri mistiki islomiya tablig menamudand. Ziyoda az in murakkabii taran bayoni Bedilro bisyor muboliga karda, pashi rohi ommavi gardidani osori shoiri buzurgro giriftani meshudand. Qati nazar az in guna mahdud kardani ejodiyoti shoiri mutafakkir, Maktabi Bedil va mutoliai osori sersohai u dar bayni ziyoiyon va ravshanfikroni kishvarhoi Osiyoi Miyona besh az pesh vusat meyobad. Ahmadi Donish dar tarikhi afkori adabii tojik avvalin shuda asrori buzurgii Bedilro kashf namud va dar bedilfahmi inqilobi fikri ba amal ovard. Donish ba mutoliai gazalhoi «Muntakhab»-i Bedili kone nashuda, bo qudrati balandi tafakkuri khud hamai osori manzumu mansuri in adibro, az yak taraf, dar zimni kitobat mutolia va targib karda boshad, az tarafi digar, oid ba muhimtarin qismathoi osori Bedil sharhho navishta, baroi durust fahmidani manohoi daqiq va sudmandi shoir dasturho peshnihod kard.

Lekin, chunon ki ustod S. Ayni qayd kardaast, «… khud na dar nazm va na dar nasr uslubi uro tahlil namekard va hamsuhbatoni khudro az taqlid kardani u man menamud» (Kull., jildi. 11, kitobi 2, sah. 116). Az tarafi Ahmadi Donish bo unvoni «Abulmanoni» («padari maniho») ba tozagi kashf shudani Bedil sababi ziyodtar shudani bedilkhonon gardida, bahsu munoqishahoi guruhhoi gunoguni ijtimoiro dar atrofi ejodiyoti Bedil boz ham tezutund kard. Dar bayni namoyandagoni ideologiyai hukmron va adabiyoti diniyu feodali oid ba mazmuni goyavii ejodiyoti Bedil ikhtilofi aqida va nosozihoi fikri ba amal omada, qisme az onho Bedilro ba dahrangi aybdor mekardand, qismi digare kushish mekardand, ki uro hamchun shakhsi dindori mutaassib muarrifi kunand. Munosibati namoyandagoni ideologiyai dinii feodali vusati Maktabi Bedilro dar hayoti ijtimoi va adabi mahdud nakarda, baraks, tavajjuhi adiboni peshqadam va taraqqikhohro nisbat ba ejodiyoti Bedil besh az pesh ziyodtar namud va az in jost, ki mudokhilai onho ba osori adibi buzurg dar shaklu namudhoi gunogun zohir gardidaast.

Yak qismi namoyandagoni raviyai peshqadami Maktabi Bedil bar khilofi muqallidoni nouhdabaroi Bedil, dar ashori khud mazmunhoi tasavvufiro sarfi nazar karda, dar zimni bomuvaffaqiyat payravi kardani uslubi bedili, etiroz va fikrhoi tanqidii khudro ba muqobili nosozihoi zamon va tartiboti hayoti feodali ifoda mekardand (Iso-makhdum); az misra va baythoi balandmanii Bedil ba vajd omada, dar zimni on tarafhoi chuqurtar va shurangeztari hissiyoti botinii insonro bo jilvahoi toza tarannum kardaand (Tugral). Baze shoiron, misli Savdo, holati zohirii sistemai obrazho va vaznu qofiyai ashori Bedilro ba tavri hajvi istifoda karda, az yak taraf, ba muqallidoni behunari u tamaskhurkunii shuhrati sheri Bedilro muhofizat namuda boshand, az tarafi digar, ba etibori shuhratmandii sheri Bodil nerui emosionalii hajvu tanqidhoi ijtimoii ashori khudro purzur gardonidaand. Qismi digare az adiboni peshqadami Maktabi Bedil jihathoi shaklii uslubi bediliro tadrijan tark karda, az manihoi balandi on dar afkori ijtimoii tanqidi va akhloqiyu eststikii khud istifoda kardaand. Dar in bobat roli Ahmadi Donish va payravoni u kalon ast.

S. Ayni, ki dar omuzish va tahqiqi osori Bedil khidmati shoistae kardaast, roje ba tasiri in shoiri mutafakkir sukhan ronda menavisad: «Az shoironi tojiki Osiyoi Miyona Sarir, Sirat, Iso (bukhoroi), Asirii khujandi, Javharii uroteppagi Bedilro bomuvaffaqiyat taqlid kardaand… Asiri ham dar nazm, ham dar nasr va ham dar mazmun bomuvaffaqiyat taqlid kard. Nazm va nasri u az tanqidi ulamoi rasmi va urfu odati feodalizm pur bud… Zufarkhoni Javhari… ba sifati yak shoiri soveti ham az jihati shakl va ham az jihati mazmun khele chizhoi ommafahm doda boshad ham, dar lirika to okhiri umrash dar payravii Bedil sobit mond» (Kulliyot, jildi 11 kitobi 2, sah- 110—117). Dar okhiri asri 19 va ibtidoi asri 20 bedilkhoni harakteri ommavi girift. Muvofiqi akhboroti S. Ayni dar Madrasahoi Bukhoro, Samarqand va Khujand az havaskoroni bedildust davrahoi alohida tashkil karda va ba atrofi yagon bedilshinos gun shuda, bedilkhoni mekardand.

Dar Khujand va Uroteppa hatto dar choykhonaho «Kulliyot» yo devoni gazaliyoti Bedil yoft meshud, ki bosavodoii bedildust dar davrai choynushi bedilkhoni mekardand va bosavodon ba onho gush doda ba qadri fahmashon foida meburdand. Gazalhoi Bedil az tarafi hofizon — Hoji Abdulaziz va Sodirkhon bo ohanghoi purjazaba suruda meshudand. Az in jost, ki sheru gazalhoi Bedil az doirai ahli adab berun baromada, dar bayni tabaqahoi mehnati — dehqononi kambagal va hunarmandon pahn meshud va ba ahvolu avzoi hamonvaqtai onho jur megardid. Maktabi Bedil voqean baso murakkabi adabiyu ijtimoi buda, dar prosessi mavjudiyati khud shokha va jarayonhoi gunogun paydo kardaast. Dar shokha va jarayonhoi peshqadami Maktabi Bedil tadrijan pahluhoi gunoguni goyaviyu badeii ejodiyoti Bedil oshkor gardidaast, ki onho dar inkishofi afkori ijtimoiyu akhloqi va adabiyu eststikii khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona roli muhim bozidaand.

Ad.: A Aki S., Mirzo Abdulqodiri Bedil, Stalinobod, 1054; hamon muall., Kulliyot, j- II, kitobi duyum,. D., 1964; Muminov I. M.. Filosofskie vzglyadi Mirza Bedil, Tashkent, 1957; Amirqulov S., Ahmadi Donish va Mirzo Bedil, dar majm.: Masalahoi filologiyai tojik, D., 1974. S. Amirqulov.

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