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Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilevich

LOMONOSOV Mikhail Vasilevich LOMONOSOV Mikhail Vasilevich (19. 11. 1711, dehai Denisovka. ho­lo Lomonosovo, gub. Arkhangelsk — 15. 4. 1765, Peter­burg), avvalin olimi tabiatshinosi rus, ensiklo­pedist, yake az asosguzoroni khimiyai fizikavi, shoir, rassom, muarrikh, asosguzori zaboni adabii hozirai rus, tarafdori ravnaqi ilmu maorifi vatanii rus. Solhoi 1731—35 dar Akademiyai slavyanii) yunoniyu lotinii Moskva va Universiteti nazdi AF Peter­burg, 1736—41 dar Germaniya dar universitethoi Marburg va Freyberg tahsil namudaast. Az yanvari 1742 adyunkti sohai fizikai AF va az soli 1745 yakumin professor (akademik) sohai khi­miya. Soli 1748 bo tashabbusi Lomonosov avvalin laboratoriyai tadqiqoti ilmii khi­miya tashkil karda shud. Lomonosov farqiyati mafhumhoi «korpuskula» (mole­kula ) va «element» (atom J-po nishon dod. Lomonosov dar asari khud Mulohizaho dar borai sababi garmi va khunuki» (1744) dar natijai harakati mekhanikii zarrahoi modda ba vujud omadani garmiro asosnok kard, ki dar kushkihoi avvalini tartib dodani nazariyai kinetikii gazho asri 19 istifoda shudaast. U dar asari «Tajribai nazariyai elastikii havo» (1748) ba harakati zarrahoi gazho vobasta budani khususiyati elastikii onhoro sharh dod. S.oli 1748 qonuni  baqoi massaro kashf kard. Soli 1756 oid ba suzishi metall dar zarfi sarbasta tadqiqot guzaronida roli oksigenro dar prosessi suzish isbot kard. Lomonosov yak qator asbobhoi baroi tadqiqi sohai khimiyai fizikavi istifodashavanda (viskozimetr, refraktometr)-ro ikhtiro kard.

Lomonosov dar fakultai Ust-Rudisi (nazdikii Peterburg), ki bo tashabbusi u sokhta shuda bud, tekhnologiii istehsoli shishai rangaro kor karda baromad. Doir ba elektr dar atmos­fera bo hamkorii G. V. Rikhman tadqiqot guzaronida, khodisahoi barq va fajri shimoliro sharh dod.

Sahmi arzandai Lomonosov dar sohai optika, ilmhoi astronomiya, geofizika va geografiya niz kam nestand. Lomonosov «gulbai binishi shabona»-ro (1756— 58) ikhtiro kard va chande pesh az V. Gershel teleskopi inikoskunandai oinaviro (be oinai ilovagii hamvor) sokht. Vay 26 may 1761 dar Venera mavjud budani atmosferaro hangomi az kursi Oftob guzashtani on muayyan kard.

Lomonosov ba ravnaqi geologiya va minera­logiya, inkishofi sanoati metallurgiya dar Rossiya diqqati jiddi doda, bisyor jinshoi kuhiro tadqiq, kardaast. Paydoishi organikii khok, angishtsang, torf, varaqsangi suzanda va neftro sharh dodaast. Dar asarhoi «Oid ba qabathoi zamin» va «Asoshoi yakumini metallurgiyai madankorkuni» (1763) qonuniyatnokii evolyusiyai tabiat, khosiyatkhoi metallhoi gunogun va rohhoi korkardi onhoro nishon dodaast. Lomonosov dar omukhtani tarikhi taraqqiyoti Ros­siya va khalqi on sahmi arzandae guzoshtaast. Dar in bora asarhoi u «Tarikhi Rossiyai Qadima az ibtidoi khalqi rus to vafoti knyazi buzurg Yaroslavi yakum yo khud to soli 1054» (qismhoi 1—2, 1766) va «Solnomai mukhtasari avlodhoi Rossiya» (1760) shahodat medihand.

Khizmati Lomonosov dar sohai adabiyot va zaboni rusi niz buzurg ast. Vay ham bo osori ilmii nazari va ham bo asarhoi badeiash dar takmil va inkishofi sheri rus hisssa guzoshtaast. «Maktub dar borai qoidahoi shernavisii rusi» (1739), qasidan «Anqar giriftani Khotin» (1739), dostoni epikii notamomi «Pyotri Kabir» (1760), fojiahoi «Temur va Selim» (1750), «Demofont» (1752) va «Grammatikai Russiya» (1755) ba qalami Lomonosov taalluq dorand. V. G. Belinskiy ba ejodyyoti adabiyu badeii Lomonosov bahoi baland doda, uro «Pyotri Kabiri adabiyoti rus» nomida bud.

Lomonosov ba hodisahoi tabiat materialistona baho doda, hamaguna aqidahoi gayriilmi va fahmishi dinii hodisahoi tabiatro inkor kardaast. Bo tashabbusi u soli 1755 Universiteti Mosk­va tashkil shud, ki dar on na tanho dvoryanho, balki raznochinho niz huquqi donishomuzi doshtand. Lomonosov azoi fakhrii AF Shvesiya (1760) va AF Bolonki (1764) intikhob shudaast. Soli 1965 AF SSSR ba behtarin korhoi ilmii ilmhoi tabiatshinosi va jamiyati du medali tilloi lomonosovi tasis namud. Shahr dar viloyati Leningrad, jarayone dar uqyonusi Atlan­tika, qatorakuhhoi zeriobi dar uqyonusi Yakhbastai Shimoli nomi Lomonosovro dorand.

As.: Poli. sobr. soch., t. 1—10, M.— J1., 1950—59; Izb. trudi po khimii i fizi­ki, M., 1961.

Ad.: 3apadov A. V., Otes russkoy poezii. O tvorchestve Lomonosova. M., 1961; O s imi M., Dorulfununi nakhus- tini mo, D., 1061. R a s k i i, N. M., Khi­micheskaya laboratoriya M. V. Lomonoso­va, M.— L., 1962; Morozov A. A., .Lo­monosov (5 ied), M., 1965.

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