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Litiy

LYTIY (lot. Libhium), Li, elementi khimiyavii guruhi I sistema» davrii Mendeleev; raqami at. 3, massai at. 6,941, metalli ishqori. Soli 1817 khimiki shved A. Arfvedson kashf kardaast. Litiyi tabii az 2 izotopi sobit Li (7,42%) va 7Li (92,58%) iborat ast. Litiy metalli sabuk, narm, yozanda, rangash safedi nuqratob, gud. 180,5° S, t jush« 1317° S, zichiash 534 kg/m* (20°S). Litiy dar payvasthoyash yakvalenta. Hangomi dar oksigen yo havo sukhtan oksid (Li20) hosil mekunad.

LitiyBo aksari nometallho — galogenho (bo iod hangomi garm kardan), sulfur va karbon (hangomi garm kardan), nitrogen, fosfor (dar sharoithoi makhsus) va g. payvast meshavad. Az ob va kislotaho gidrogenro khorij mekunad. Metallid va payvasthoi organikii sershumor hosil mekunad. Litiy dar qishri Zamin 3,2 • 10-%-ro tashkil medihad. Dar tarkibi ziyoda az 150 mineral (spodumen, lepidolit, petalit, ambligonit va g.) mavjud ast. Payvasthoi Litiyro dar natijai korkardi gidrometallurgii konsentratho (mahsuli boy gardonidashudai madanhoi Litiy) va Litiyi metalliro bo rohi olektrolizi khloridhoi Litiy va kaliy dar harorati 400—460° S hosil mekunand. Litiy dar metallurgiya (hosil kardani khulaho), energetikai yadroi (izotopi Li yagona manbai sanoatii istehsoli tritiy meboshad), tekhnika, sanoati silikat va g. istifoda meshavad. Litiy ba tarkibi organizmhoi zinda dokhil meshavad. Muayyan karda shudaast, ki Litiy qobiliyati ustuvorii rastanihoro nisbat ba bemori baland mekunad, faoliyati fotokhimiyavii khloroplasthoro dar bargi rastani va sintezi nikotinro metezonad.

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