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Khususiyathoi biologii odam

Khususiyathoi biologii odam. Or­ganizmi odam az bisyor jihat ba organizmi hayvonoti muhrador va makhsusan shirkhur monand ast. Az jumla chun hayvonhoi muhrador, aso­si skeleta Odamro sutunmuhra tashkil medihad. Odam du dast va du poy, sis­temai sarbastai dilu pag, sistemai asabi naychagi dorad.

Badani Odam az rui prinsiphoi simmetriyam dutarafa sokhta shuda, alomathoi metameriyaero zohir menamoyad, ki ba hamai hayvonhoi muhrador khos ast. Chun namoyandai sinfi shirkhurho Odam jihathoi khosero dorost: pusti u sokhti makhsus dorad, qishr yo dermai pust khele nagz taraqqi kardaast, ba miqdori ziyod gadudhoi ravganu araqjudokuny, inchunin muy dorad, harorati badanash yakkhelu doimist, ba vositai shush nafas mekashad, sokhti dilash chorkameragist, eritrosithoyash yadro nadorand, kudakro makkonida kalon mekunad.

Sistemai asab va uzvhoi hissi hamai shirkhurho nagz inkishof yof­taand. In bud, ki onho zinda mondand va minbad taraqqi kardand.

Odam boshad, az sababi nagz taraqqi kardan va differensiasiya shudani qishri magzi sarash nisbat ba digar shirkhurho dida khele pesh raftaast. Rost budani qomat va rost gashtan, baroi tayyor namudan va istifoda burdani oloti mehnat kholi budani dast, ba haddi oli taraqqi kardani vositahoi robitayu munosibati baynihamdigari va baze jihathoi sokhti dandonu jogho, gadud va di­gar uzvhoi khurokhazmkuni az khislathoi khosi anatomiyu fiziologii Odam meboshand.

Az boze, ki istifoda burdani dast hamchun vositai takya va rohgardi bas shud, skeleti po va mushakhoi on khele taraqqi kardand. Ba tufayli rost shudani qomat ustukhoni kos vase va baquvvat gasht; hamai uzvhoi daruni ba rost roh gashtan muvofiq shudand; sistemai gardishi khun murakkabtar gardid. Ba darajai baland inkishof yoftani mushakhoyu uzvqoi ovoz boisi ba vujud omadani nutq gardid, ki on hamchun vositai munosibati baynihamdigari faqat ba Odam khos ast.

Magzi sari Odam az magai sari go­rilla se marotiba vaznintar meboshad va hol on ki khudi gorilla nazar ba Odam se barobar kalon ast. Ba tufayli ba darajai baland tashakkul yoftani sistemai asab Odam baroi inkishofi minbada va beintihoi aqlu idrokash zamina dorad.

Hamai odamoni hozira ba yak namud (Homo sppiens) mansub buda, ba yakchand najodi asosi taqsim meshavand. Alomati asosii Homo sapiens barkhilofi aqidai irtijoii najodparaston baroi hamai odamon yakkhel ast. Do­ir ba zamon va makoni paydoishi najodho yakchand farziya vujud do­rad: muvofiqi baze az onho najod dar yak mavzei tarikhi paydo shuda­ast.

Az rui farzili digar boshad, az 2 to 4—5 chunin mavaeho vujud doshtand. Dar davrahoi paleolit va mezolit ba har 3 kilometr2 bazur yak nafar Odam rost meomad. Dar davrai ne­olit in miqdor taqriban 10 marotiba afzud. Solhoi 1000 aholii rui Zamin ba 275 million, solhoi 1500 ba 450 million va solhoi 1600 ba 500 million rasid. Solhoi 1800 vay 1 milliard va soli 1980 az 4 milliard ham guzasht.

Ehtimol gominidkho dar nohiyahoi tropiki tashakkul yofta boshand.

Dar oyanda boshad, Odam makoni zisti khudro vase namuda, dar chulu biyobon, qutbho va kukhiston sokin gar­did. Bo vujudi on qismi ziyodi oda­moni hozira dar jangalhoi tropiki va nohiyahoi iqlimashon mutadil sokinand.

Yake az jikhathoi khosi munosibati Odam bo muhit shakli komilan na­vi mutobiqshaviest, ki dar jarayoni on ham muhit va ham munosibati khudi odamon tagyir meyobad. In pro­sess be digarshavii tashkilai morfofunksionalii Odam ba amal meoyad. Dar natijai muddati duru daroz ba tabiat tasir namudani Odam muhiti nav — «muhiti masnu»-e bunyol gardid, ki dar navbati khud ba tarafhoi gunoguni hayoti Odam tasir merasonad.

In prosess khususan dar sharoiti inqilobi ilmiyu tekhniki vobasta bo industrializasiyai min­bada, afzudani hajmu miqdori shahrho va tashakkuli ekosistemahoi masnu va muhit az miyonai asri 20 cap karda ba yake az masalahoi muhimmi zamona tabdil yoft va pro­blemai komilan nav — problemai «Odam va biosfera»-ro pesh ovard.

Samti dimorfizmi jinsi (gunogunii alomathoi mardu zan), biomorfizm va tashakkuli janin dar hamai guruhhoi najodi Homo sapi­ens yakkhela ast. Tafovuti jinsi az khudi tavallud cap karda zohir megardad. Az jihati morfologi dimor­fizmi jinsi dar jussa, tanosubi arkon (masalan, nisbatan vasetar bu­dani kosi zanho va baraks vase­tar budani kitfi mardon), surati inkishofi baze qismhoi badan masalan, teztar inkishof yoftani qabati ravgani zeri pusti zanho va mushaku ustukhoni mardon), khususiyathoi mikrostruktura (diametri torhoi mushak, andoza va miqdori umumii huchayrahoi ravgan va gayra), inchunin baze jihathoi gietokhimiyavi aniq namudor meshavad. Ba gayr az in tafovuti jinsi dar bisyor alomathoi fiziologi va biokhimiyavi niz zohir megardad.

Jidathoi khosi inkishofi fardii Odam on ast, ki dar ovoni kudaki nisbatan sust mesabzad va dar davrai balogat sabzishi u surat megirad. Baze maymunho, masalan, shimpanze niz ba hamip tariq inkishof meyoband, vale dar onho fosilai bayni davrahoi kudaki va balogat nisbatan kutoh meboshand. Binobar in chunin qonuniyati sabzishro ba marhilai muayyani tahavvuli primatho va khususan gominidho khos shumoridan mumkin ast, ki dar tashakkuli onho daroz shudani davrai tarbiyai fardhoi javon maqomi kalon dosht.

Chunin navi sabzish ba oda­mi hozira niz khos meboshad, harchand ki surati inkishofi inu on guruhi odamon va makhsusan fardhoi judogona mumkin ast ba in qonuniyat chandon rost naoyad. Ba sifati meyori sinni biologi ozmoishhoi gunoguni morfologi, fiziologi, biokhimiyavi az jumla ozmoishhoe, ki darajai inkishofi skelet («sinni skeleti»), sistemai dandonho («sin­ni dandonbarori») inkishofi jinsi, statusi gormoni, baze nishonahoi faoliyati olii asab (onho ba sinnu sol vobastaand), inchunin sistemahoi dilu pag, mushak va uayraro istifoda mebarand.

Hamai in nishonaho taqriban dar yak vaqt vobasta ba yakdigar pasu pesh tagyir yof- ta, baroi az qad tez yo sust shudani inkishofi organizm sabab shuda metavonand. Ba surati inkishof va az on jumla sinni biologi omilhoi bisyore, ba monandi omilhoi irsi, ijtimoiyu maishi va gayra tasir merasonand.

Chunonchi dar zimni muoinai dugonikho muqarrar karda shudaast, ki dar muayyan kardani sinni skeletu dandon, miqdori sekre­siyai jinsi, sinni hayzi avvalin va gayra omilhoi irsi maqomi kalon dorand. Az had tez shudani jarayoni inkishof va afzudani tanu jussa barin hodisote, ki dar tuli sadsolai okhir dar bisyor mamlakatho mushohida meshavad, yak nav inhirofi mikroevolyusiyae meboshad, ki dar hududi tahavvuli tarikhii Ho­mo sapiens ifoda meshavad va shoyad az in pesh ham vujud doshta boshad.

Hamai in tagyirot dar mahalkhoi gunogun va davrahoi gunoguni tahkhavvuli odamizot bo surati harkhela sodir gashtaand. Chunin hodisahoi mikroevolyusioni shoyad sababhoi genetiki doshta, dar natijai omekhtashavii najodhoi gunoguni Odam, tagyiryobii basomadi genho va monandi inho ba amal meoyand, har chand, ki paydoishi onkho ba yak qator omilhoi digar, az chumla omil- hoi ijtimoiyu iqtisodi niz vobastaast.

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