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KhUSRAVI DEHLAVI

amir-xusravi-dehlavi

KhUSRAVI DEHLAVI Yaminuddin Abulhasan Amir (1253, sh. Patyolii sohili daryoi Gang — 27. 9. 1325, Dehli), shoir va mutafakkiri forsizaboni Hinduston. Padari u Sayfuddin Mahmud bo oilaash dar arafai istiloi mugul az sh. Kesh (hozira Shahrisabz) ba Hinduston firor kard. Xusravi Dehlavi dar 20-solagi tahsili ilmhoi rasmii zamonashro ba poyon rasonda, dar darbori hokimoni Bangolayu Dehli dar vazifahoi gunogun khidmat kardaast. Xusravi Dehlavi . az 7—8-solagi ba shergui pardokhta, dar 12-solagi sherhoi pukhta guftaast. Dar sherhoi avvalinash «Sultoni» takhallus doshtaast. Zindagi Xusravi Dehlavi dar yake az davrahoi khele noorom va pur az kashmakashhoi siyosii Hinduston guzashtaast. U shohidi bevositai bisyore az in hodisaho buda, qismi ziyodi onhoro dar osori khud inikos kardaast. Shoir 52 soli hayotashro dar muhiti adabii darbor va khidmati hokimonu sultonho guzaronda, qabohati hayoti feodali va dasisakorihoi darboriyonro bo chashmi khud didaast.

Xusravi Dehlavi bo vujudi nomusoidii ruzgor va giriftorihoi muhiti darbor aa khud osori garonbahoi manzumu mansuri ziyode boqi guzoshtaast. Muallifoni sarchashmahoi adabi navisandai nihoyat sermahsul va sohibi talifoti bisyor budani uro takid namuda, merosi badeiashro ba «bahri bekanora» monand kardaand. Xusravi Dehlavi qarib dar tamomi navhoi mamuli sheri klassiki, az qabili gazal, qasida, ruboi, qita, tarjeband, tarkibband, masnavi va g. asarhoi manzumi khurdu kaloni ziyode ofarida, doir ba masalahoi tarikh, tasavvuf, nazariyai nazmu nasr, sabki adabiyu sanathoi badei, nnchunin dar fanni musiqi yak qator kitobu risolahoi purqimati ilmi talif namudaast. Xusravi Dehlavi baze sheru talifoti khudro ba zabonhoi urdu va arabi ejod kardaast va muhaqqiqoni hindu uro asosguzori nazmi urduzabon meshumorand. Xusravi Dehlavi dar tarikhi adabiyoti fors-tojik nakhustin shoirest, ki panj devoni ashor tartib doda, ba har kadomi onho sherhoi dar davrahoi gunogun ejodkardaashro dokhil karda, ba onho muvofiqi davrahoi hayotash nomi makhsus guzoshtaast. Jomi, Navoi, Mushfiqi va dig. shoiron in ananaro davom doda, 3,4 yo 5 devoni ashor tartib dodaand. Devoni yakumi Xusravi  Dehlavi— «Tuhfat-us-sigar» (1273) ashori dar sinni 16—19-solagi navishtai shoirro dar bar megirad. In devon az qasoid, tarjeot, qitaot, gazaliyot, ruboiyot va masnavii khurde iborat buda, 3000 baytro tashkil medihad. Devoni duyum — «Vasat-ul-hayot» (1285) 4401 bayt doshta, sherhoi dar 20—34-solagi ejodshudai uro faro giriftaast. Devoni seyum—«Gyppat-ul-kamol» (1297) 8800 bayt sheri az 34 to 43-solagi navishtai shoirro dar bar megirad. Aksari qasidahoi kaloni falsafiyu irfonii Xusravi Dehlavi dar in devon joy giriftaand. Dar devoni chahorum — «Baqiyai naqiya» (1318) 8360 bayt ashori dar davrai 43—65-solagi surudai u jam ovarda shudaast. Devoni panjum — «Nihoyat-ul-kamol» (1325) dar hajmi 4084 bayt murattab shuda, ashori badi s. 1318 navishtai shoirro dar bar megirad. Jami devonhoi panjgonai Xusravi Dehlavi shomili 32645 bayt meboshand. Ilova bar in boz yak silsila gazaliyoti shoir (taqr. 5000 bayt) bo sababhoi nomalume ba devonhoi u dokhil nagardidaand. Qismati asosii devonhoi Xusravi Dehlaviro gazalu qasida tashkil menamoyad. U beshtar aa 2000 gazal va 10100 bayt qasida navishtaast. Xusravi Dehlavi dar takomulu tavsiai gazal sahmi arzanda guzoshtaast. Gazalhoi Xusravi Dehlavi soddayu ravon, khushohang, rangorang va latif buda, yak qismashon ba «Shashmaqom» dokhil gardidaand. Dar gazaliyoti u masalahoi ishqu oshiqi, besubotii jahon, shikoyat az ruzgor, pandu akhloq, mazammati baze ahkomi shari, tasviri tabiat, may, hasbi hol va g. ba miyon guzoshta shudaand. Khojui Kirmoni, Imodi Faqeh, Hofizi Sherozi, Kamoli Khujandi, Kotibi, Jomi, Binoi, Vosifi, Hiloli va dig. ba gazalhoi Xusravi Dehlavi nazirayu javobiyaho navishtaand. Xusravi Dehlavi dar qasida ham ustodi barkamol budaast. U az qasidahoi Hoqoni, Sanoi, Abdulvosei Jabali, Zahiri Foryobi va Kamoluddin Ismoil ilhom girifta, balandii mahorat, nuktasanji, tozakhayoli, bakorati fikr va navpardozihoyashro dar in shakli sher jilvagar sokhtaast. Khurdtarin qasidahoi u az 33 bayt va kalontarini onho aa 250 bayt iborat buda, dar mavzuoi gunogun ejod shudaand. Aksari qasidahoi shoir madhi va falsafiyu irfoni meboshand. Ammo u qasidahoi madhiyashro na bo khohishi dil, balki az rui zarurat va ehtiyojoti zindagi guftaast. Dar qasidahoi falsafiyu irfonii Xusravi Dehlavi masalahoi akhloqiyu tarbiyavi va etiqodu mafkura dar shaklhoi bisyor jolib bo tabirhoi khubi shoirona inikos yoftaand. Shoir aqlu insof va raiyatparvariro asosi poydorii davlat va obodii mulk shumorida, sitamgari, beinsofi, mardumozori, bakhili, khashmu gazabro mazammat menamoyad, podshohonro ba adolatpeshagi va mardumro ba dustiyu rafoqat hidoyat mokunad. Khosa du qasidai u —«Daryoi abror» va «Mirot-us-safo» shuhrati khele ziyod paydo karda, dar davrahoi minbada boisi ba vujud omadani yak silsila qasidahoi javobiya gardidaand (Jomy, Navoi, Mirkhond, shoirt turk — Nafi va dig.). Jomi hatto dar sharhi yak bayti «Mirot-us-safo» risolai mukhtasare talif namudaast. Yak qator qasidahoi Xusravi Dehlavi khususiyati shikvai va tarjumaiholi dorand.

Xusravi Dehlavi dar tarikhi adabiyoti fors-tojik chun shoiri masnavisaro shuhrat yoftaast. U avvalin shakhsest, ki ba «Khamsa»-i Nizomii Ganjavi javob navishta, sababgori dar adabiyoti fors-tojik va turkizabon ba vujud omadani yak silsila «Khamsa»-hoi javobiya va ba anana daromadani «Khamsa»-navisi gashtaast.

«Khamsa»-i Xusrvi Dehlavi az 17896 bayt iborat buda, dar muddati se sol (1299 —1301) ejod shudaast va masnavihoi zerinro dar bar megirad: «Matla-ul-anvor» (3310 bayt, dar javobi «Makhzan-ul-asror»-i Nizomi); «Shirin va Khusrav» (4124 bayt, s. talifash 1299; dar javobi «Khusrav va Shirin»-i Nizomi); «Majnun va Layli» (2650 bayt, s. talifash 1299; dar javobi «Layli va Majnun»-i Nizomi); «Oinai Iskandari» (4450 bayt, s. talifash 1300, dar javobi «Iskandarnoma»-i Nizomi); «Khasht bihisht» (3352 bayt, s. talifash 1301, javobiyai «Haft paykar»-i Nizomi). Xusravi Dehlavi ba syujet, mazmunu mundarijai masnavihoi «Khamsa»-i Nizomi tagyirot darovarda, dar halli mavzu, tasviri voqeaho va khislati qahramonon raviyai digar — istifoda az syujethoi folkloru adabiyoti hind, tasviri hodisavu voqeoti Hinduston va g-ro pesh giriftaast (mas., dar «Hasht bihisht»).

Xusravi Dehlavi inchunin dar mavzuhoi tarikhi va mahallii Hind ustoi, iqlimu tabiati kishvar va oinu rusumi mardumi on dostonhoi zerinro ofaridaast: «QSiron-us-sadayn» (s. talifash 1289; 3944 bayt); «Miftoh-ul-futuh» (s. talifash 1291; 750 bayt); «Duvalroni va Khizrkhon» (s. talifash 1315—16; 4519 bayt). Asosi syujeti in doston voqeai hayoti—sarguzashtu ishqi pisari sultoni zamon musulmonzoda Khizrkhon va hindudukhtari asiraftoda Duvalronist, ki ba sababi nobarobarihoi ijtimoi va rasmu oini dini ba tavri fojiavi anjom meyobad. Maqsadi Xusravi Dehlvi dar in doston targibi dustiyu rafoqat bayni hinduvon va musulmonhost; «Nuh sipehr» yo «Sultonnoma» (s. talifash 1318; 4509 bayt) doroi 9 bob buda, dar on 8 bahri aruz va 19 vazn istifoda shudaast. Xusravi Dehlavi dar tarikhi adabiyoti fors-tojik avvalin shoirest, ki yak dostonro bo chand vazn navishtaast. Dar in doston az voqeahoi tarikhii du soli avvali hukmronii Qutbuddin Muborakshohi Khilji (hukmr. 1316—20), lashkarkashiho va imorathoi u, sitoishhoi Dehli, Hinduston, zaboni sanskrit, obu havo, gulhoyu mevaho, parrandagonu hayvonot, ilmu donish, musiqiyu surud, khubonu hunarmardoni on sarzamin, baze masalahoi akhloq, rasmu odat va aqoidi hinduho sukhan raftaast. Xusravi Dehlavi dar borai Hinduston va mardumi on bo mehru sadoqat sukhan ronda, miyoni musulmononu hinduho tafovute nameguzorad; «Tugluqnoma» (3000 bayt) voqeoti davrai saltanati Giyosuddin Tugluqshoh (hukmr. 1320—25) va baze kornamoiyu galabahoi uro dar bar megirad.

Az osori nasrii Xusravi Dehlavi gayr az porchahoi alohida inshoyu debochahoi devonhoyash, «Khazoin-ul-futuh» va «Ejozi Khusravi» nom asarhoi kalonhajm mahfuz mondaand. «Khazoin-ul-futuh» (s. talifash 1311), ki bazan bo unvoni «Tarikhi Aloi» ham zikr gardidaast, asari tarikhi buda, voqeahoi tarikhii 16 soli avvali hukmronii sulton Alouddini Khalji va lashkarkashiyu galabahoi uro dar bar megirad. Andaruni nasri on az ejodiyoti khudi Xusravi Dehlavi porchahoi ziyodi sher ba zabonhoi tojikiyu arabi ovarda shudaand. Sarlavhahoi on dar nazm va bo vaznhoi gunogun omadaand. Zabonash masnu va to andozae mushkilfahm ast. On baroi omukhtani tarikhi Hinduston dar okh. a. 13 va avv. a. 14 ahamiyati kalon dorad. Hamchunin baze muhaqiqon talifi «Afzal-ul-favoid», «Manoqibi Hind» va «Tarikhi Dehli» nom asarhoi nasriro niz ba qalami u nisbat dodaand

Xusravi Dehlavi inchunin musiqishinosu ohangsozi maruf buda, oid ba nazariyai musiqi se risola talif namuda, dar asosi omezishi ohanghoi musiqii hindi bo musiqii Osiyoi Miyona va Afgonistonu Eron yak silsila savtu ohanghoi dilnishin ofaridaast. Ikhtiroi ohanghoi musiqii «Mujir», «Sozgori», «Ushshoq», «Muvofiq,», «Gozon», «Fargona», «Zilof», «Saroparda», «Bokharz», «Tarona», «Khayol», «Nigor», «Basit», «Shohona»,inchunin asbobhoi musiqi: dilrubo, sarangi va sato (setor) ba u nisbat doda meshavand.

Osori adabii purarzish va gunogunshaklu mukhtalifmazmuni Xusravi Dehlavi| boisi barqaror gardidani poyai adabiyoti forsizaboni Hinduston va boz ham beshtar inkishof yoftani on gardidaast. U dar inkishofi adabiyoti khalqhoi nimjazirai Hind hissai kalon guzoshta, az jihati mavzu va shaklu uslub ba adabiyoti forsizaboni on diyor tozagihoi ziyode vorid kardaast. Navovarihoi u dar qita, tarjeband, tarkibband va alalkhusus, ruboi ravshan ba nazar merasad. Xusravi Dehlavi nakhustin shoirest, ki dar shakli ruboi «Shahroshub» navishtaast. Navpardozii digari u dar ruboii mustazodu muammodor, inchunin mustahkam namudani robitai mantiqii baythoi ruboi zohirgashaast. Xusravi Dehlavi muvofiqi nishondodi adabiyotshinosi Hinduston Shiblii  Numoni, ilova ba tashbehhoi tozai ofaridaash, ikhtirokunandai haft sanati navi badei meboshad. Maqomi ejodiyoti u dar aloqamand namudani adabiyoti fors-tojik bo adabiyoti forsizaboni Hinduston va ustuvor gardidani ravobiti adabiyu farhangii mardumi Movarounnahru Khuroson bo khalkhoi sarzamnni Hind niz buzurg meboshad. Ejodiyoti Xusravi Dehlavi, az yak taraf, komyobihoi adabiyoti fors-tojiki asrhoi peshinro dar khud tajassum namuda, boisi dar adabiyoti forsizaboni Hinduston nufuz paydo kardani ananahoi adabii Movarounnahru Khuroson gardida boshad, az tarafi digar, ba davrahoi badinai inkishofi adabiyoti fors-tojik tasiri amiq, rasonidaast. Nufuzi Xusravi Dehlavi dar inkishofi adabiyoti fors-tojik to andozae kalon ast, ki biduni omuzishi ejodiyoti u baze padidahoi adabii tarikhi in adabiyotro dark namudan imkonnopazir meboshad. Dar osori Xusravi Dehlavi nakhustin unsurhoi sabki hindi ba nazar merasad.

Omuzish va dastrasi khonandagon gardonidani osori u tanho badi galabai Revolyusiyai Kabiri Sosialistii Oktyabr ogoz yoftaast. Dar Ittifoqi Soveti matni ilmiyu intiqodi va ilmiyu ommavii yak qator asarhoi Xusravi Dehlavi ba tab rasonida shuda, doir ba ejodiyoti u tadqiqot ba anjom rasid. Dar in bobat olimi tojik M. Baqoev sahmi munosib guzoshtaast. S. 1975 bo qarori YuNESKO 700-solagii zodruzi Xusravi Dehlavi dar jahon jashn girifta shud. Ba in munosibat osori muntakhabi shoir dar chahor jild ba alifboi imruzai tojiki nashr gardid, ki nakhustin chopi mufassali ejodiyoti u dar Ittifoqi Soveti meboshad. Ilova bar in, navisandai tojik G. Abdullo dar zaminai dostoni «Duvalroni va Khizrkhon»-i u bo nomi “Faryodi ishq” pesae navisht, ki onro Teatri davlatii akademii dramai RSS Tojikiston ba nomi A. Lohuti ba sahna guzoshtaast,

Os.; Osori muntakhab, j-hoi 1—4, D., 1971-1975.

Ad.: Baqoev M., Hayot va ejodiyoti Khusravi Dehlavi, D., 1975.

A. Alimardonov.

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