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KhORIJIYa

KhORIJIYa (az ar. —berun shudan), avvalin firqai islomro guyand, ki dar jarayoni muborizai Ali ba muqobili Muoviya baroi khilofat paydo shuda bud. Dar ibtido Xorijiya manfiati ommai vasei khalq, khususan dehqononro ifoda mekard va talimoti nisbatan demokratii jamoai islomiro targib menamud. Firqai mazkur barobarii hamai musulmonon, az jumla aholii gayriarabro talab mekard. Talimoti Xorijiya roje ba khilofat va imomat az talimoti ahli sunnat va shia ba kulli farq mekunad. Ba aqidai Khorijiya khalifayu imom hamchun peshvoi dini va siyosii jamoai islomi yo davlat boyad intikhobi boshand va haman dindoron novobasta az aslu nasab huquqi intikhob doshta boshand. Xorijiya talim medod, ki jamoai har yak mahal metavonad baroi khud khalifa (imom)-ro intikhob namoyad, az takht benasib sozad va hatto ba qatl rasonad. Ahli Xorijiya tanho du khalifai avval – Abubakru Umarro qonuni donista, Usmonro etirof namekardand. Ali ba aqidai ahli Xorijiya tanho to davrai muboriza bo Muoviya qonuni donista meshud. Baze az khorijiyon aqida doshtand, ki gulomoni islomro qabulkarda boyad az gulomi ozod shavand, zero musulmon gulom shuda nameta vonad. Talimoti dinii Xorijiya baroi isboti nazariyai siyosii khorijiyon khizamat mekard. Onho namoz, ruza va dig. marosimhoro daqiq anjom doda, ba masalahoi akhloqi beshtar tavajjuh doshtand. Khorijiyon natanho pokii jismoni, balki pokii manaviro ham talab namuda, qatiyan ziddi Gunahkori, shukuhu hashamat, tafrehu vaqtkhushi (musiqi, raqsu bozi, istemoli mashrubot) mebaromadand. Dar natijai targibi chunin goyahoi talimoti Xorijiya dar ilohiyoti islom — kalom rukni muhim oid ba tanosubi etiqodu amal (be taqviyati amali porso etiqod besamar ast) ba vujud omad. Muvofiqi on shakhsoni gunohi kabira sodirkarda va ba haqqoniyati etiqodi khud shakovarda barobari kofirand va bar ziddi onho jihod ravost. Qatli murtadon prinsipi mamuli dinii Xorijiya elon gardid. Xorijiya nisbat ba adli zardushtiya, masehiyat va yahudiya betaassubi zohir menamud.

Zimni muboriza baroi khilofat va tasodumoti bayniqabilavi okh. a. 7 harakati Xorijiya az Iroq ba digar mamlakathoi arab intishor yoft. Vale Umaviyon muborizai berahmonaro bar ziddi khorijiyon purzur karda nd. Dar natija qisme az ahli Xorijiya alalkhusus shahriyon az muboriza dast kashidand va faoliyatashonro bo targibi prinsiphoi asosii Xorijiya mahdud namudand. In guruh bo nomi ibodiya mamul ast.

Namoyandai okhirini Umaviyon Marvoni II (hukmr. 744—750) dar natijai janghoi shadid khorijiyonro shikast doda boshad ham, khurujhoi sershumori khorijiyon dar nimchaz. Arabiston iqtidori Umaviyonro kohond va nihoyat boisi shikasti khilofati Umaviya gardid. Vale nizoi dokhili boisi tafriqai Xorijiya va paydoishi firqahoi azraqiya, sufriya, hamziya gardid. Minbad dar mahalhoi gunogun firqahoi ahnasiya, ajoradiya, bayhasiya, iboziya, maymuniya, mukarramiya, shaibiya, yazidiya va g. az Xorijiya paydo shudand.

Ad.: Belyaev B. A., Musulmanskoe sektakstvo, M.. 1957; An-Naubakhti. A l-Khasan ibn Musa, Shiitskie sekti, M.. 1973; Islam Kratkiy spravochnik, M., 1983.            A. Sharifov.

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