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KhORAZMI Muhammad ibni Muso (Al Khorazmi)

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KhORAZMI Muhammad ibni Muso (780, Kheva —850, Bagdod), hayatshinos, riyozidon, muarrikh va jugrofidoni asrhoi miyonai Sharq. Aslan eroninajod budaast. Az javoni ba omuzishi ilmhoi zamonash pardokhta, baroi takmili donish avval ba Hinduston va bad ba markazi ilmi khilofati abbosi — sh Bagdod raft. Dar on jo ba «Bayt-ul-hikmat»-i Mamun dokhil shuda, hamrohi bisyor olimoni tabiatshinosu riyozidon ba faoliyati ilmi mashgul shud. Dar natijai tarjumai osori falsafi, riyozi, tibbi, hayatshinos va g. (az zabonhoi yunoniyu suriyoi va pahlaviyu sanskrit) bo tashabbusi Mamun (Bayt-ul-hikmat» ba markazi ilmii buzurge tabdil yoft, ki dar on Khorazmi, Abulvafoi Buzajoni, Ishoqi Ibodi, Ahmadi Fargoni, Abulabbosi Nayrezi, Abujafari Khurosoni, Abulfathi Isfahoni va pisaroni Ibni Shokir — Muhammad, Ahmad va Hasan barin olimoni mashhur ananai tadrisu talimro davom doda, ba halli bisyor masalahoi ilmhoi daqiq kushidand va dar asarhoyashon ba kashfiyoti buzurgi ilmi noil shudand.

Avvalin asari Xorazmi «Surat-ul-arz» meboshad. Dar on roje ba mahali joygirshavii shahrho, kuhho, daryoho, bahrho va jaziraho malumoti farovon ovarda shudaast; inchunin jadvali arzu tuli shahrhoe doda shudaast, ki dar pasi khati istivo (ekvator) joy giriftaand. Asari digar «Zichi Khorazmi» bo nomi «Zichi Mamuni» niz mashhur ast. Dar on Xorazmi aqidahoi hayatshinosi mashhur Abuabdulloh ibni Ibrohimro sharhu tafsir namuda, zimni on jadvali sinus va tangensro ilova kardaast, ki on jadvali khordai Batlimusro ivaz namudaast. Dar asar masalahoi harakati Oftob va Moh barrasi shuda, usuli muayyan kardani surati harakati jirmhoi muniri osmoni, andozahoi Oftobu Moh peshnihod shudaast. Dar davrai Xorazmi badi «Zichi shahriyor», ki dar ahdi Sosoniyon tartib doda shuda bud, tarjumai «Almachasti»-i Batlimus ba inkishofi ilmi hayat musoidat kard. Ravishhoi makhsusi rasadbandi ba vujud omadand, rohu usulhoi arifmetikiyu geometri va trigonometrii musohiba beshtar istifoda meshudand. Usturlobero, ki qabl az islom sokhta shuda bud, hayatshinoson takmil dodand. On amalan to zamoni G. Galiley istifoda meshud. Tarzi istifoda va amali onro Xorazmi dar «Amal-ul-ustur-lob» nom asarash nishon dodaast. Asbobi digari astronomiero, ki imruz bo nomi «sekstant» malum ast, Xorazmi dar mushohidai astronomii rasadkhonai «Shamsiya»-i Mamun dar Bagdod istifoda burdaast va natijahoi in mushohidaro dar asarash «Kitobu harakat-il-falak-il-ulo» jambast namudaast.

Bino ba malumoti muhaqiqi muosiri eron Muhammadi Rashshod Xorazmi hamrohi pisaroni Ibni Shokir va Ahmadi Fargoni bo suporishi Mamun darozii umumii burrishi qutrii kurai zaminro muayyan kardaast, ki on ahamiyati kaloni ilmi dorad. Onho ba vositan usturlob yak darajai doirai meridianro az nuqtai malumi sahroi Sanjar ba shim. garb bo usuli mekhaniki muayyan namuda, natijai onro ba 360 daraja zarb zada, darozii umumii kurai zaminro hisob kardaand.

Ilmi riyozi dar davrai Xorazmi dar zaminai ananahoi qadimai madaniyati bostoni taraqqi karda bud. Dar in davra maktabhoi riyozii Bagdodu Dimishq, va Qohira amal mekardand. Dar onjo masalahoi gunoguni hisob, handasa, musallasot (trigonometriya), va g. barrasi meshudand. Abdullohi Battoni kosinus va sekansro kashf karda, ba joi sinus khordai mansub ba kunjro tatbiq, namud. Abukomil (a. 8) muodilahoi kvadratiro tadqiq namuda, se guruhi buzurgiho — adadhoi sodda, resha va kvadrathoro judo kard va dar baze joyho nishondihandahoi olii nomalumro niz hamroh namud. Riyozidoni maktabhoi mazkur sinusi yak darajaro hisob karda, dar borai sektori konus va taqsimi kunj ba se qismat, burrishhoi konusi (giperbolahoi barobartaraf) kashfiyoti toza ba dast ovardand. Xorazmi dar risolaash «Kitob-ul-jam v-at-tafriq bi hisob-il-hind» avvalin bor raqamhoi hindiro dar sistemai hisobi pozisionii adadho istifoda namud. Dar asari digarash «Aljabr va-l-muqobala» halli muodilahoi kvadratiro tadqiq karda, ba ilmi algebra asos guzoshtaast. Manoi «aljabr» dar riyoziyot barqaror kardan ast, vale badi tarjumai kitobi mazkur ba zaboni lotini va dig. zabonhoi Garb bo nomn «Liber Algorizm» (kitobi Khorazmi) mashhur shud va minbad noii «Khorazmi» (lotiniash «Algorizm») dar Garb ba nomi algebra tabdil yoft.

Bino ba malumoti sarchashmahoi tarikhi Xorazmi 12 asar talif namudaast, ki bazei onho (mas., «Risolai tarikh», «Risolai musiqi» va g.) to ba zamoni mo narasidaand. S. 1983 bo qarori YuNESKO 1200-umin solgardi zodruzi Xorazmi qayd karda shud. Ba in munosibat yak qator asarhoi u dastrasi khonandagon gardidand.

Afkori tabiiyu ilmii Xorazmi ba nazariyahoi naturfalsafii Umari Khayyom, Nasiruddini Tusi, Giyosuddini Koshoni, Bahouddini Omili va Ali Qushchi barin nobigahoi ilmu hikmati Sharq tasiri ziyode rasonda, takoni buzurge baroi rushdi afkori ilmii davrai Ehyon Garb gardidaast.

Ad.: Yushkevich A. P.. Istoriya matematiki v srednie veka. M.. 1961; Khorezm i Mukhammad al-Khorazmi v mirovoy istorii i kulture, D.. 1983: Tambov G., Mukhammad ibni Musa Al-Kho-rezmi, D. 1983.         M. Hazratqulov.

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