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KhIMIYaI ORGANIKI

KhIMIYaI ORGANIKI, ilmest, ki moddahoi organiki (payvasthoi karbonro bo elementhoi digar) va qonunhoi tabadduloti onhoro meomuzad. Karbon bo aksar elementho payvast hosil mekunad. Dar Ximiyai organiki har yak karbogidrid qatori genetnki dorad. Qatori genetikiro dar natijai ba in yo on guruhi funksionali, ki khosiyati khimiyavii in moddahoro muanyan mekunad, ivaz kardani atomi karbogidridi mazkur hosil mekunand. Masalan, khloridi metil SN3SI, spirti metil SN3ON, metilamin SNZNH2, nitrometan CNzNO2 va gayra ba qatori genetikii metan mansuband.

ximiyai-organiki
Khimiyai organiki tarikhi bisyorsola dorad. Hanuz to asri 4 m. odamon az shirai angur sharobu sirko tayyor karda, baze moddahoi tabiii organikiro chun doruvor istifoda meburdand; rimiho ba charbu sobun tayyor mekardand. Vadtar (asri 4 m.) usuli ba nayshakar tayyor namudani qand malum gardid. Dar natijai istifodai usulhoi bugroni boshad az nabotot yak qator ravganhoi efiri, spirti chub (spirti metil), kislotai sirko va yakchand moddahoi digar judo karda shudand.
Dar SSSR oid ba Khimiyai organiki dar insttuthoi tadqiqoti ilmii Akademiyai Fanhoi SSSR, Akademiyai Fanhoi respublikahoi ittifoqi, donishkadahoi oli va gayra tadqiqot mebarand. Dar RSS Tojikiston masalahoi Khimiyai organiki az soli 1945 (badi dar nazdi filiali tojikistonii Akademiyai Fanhoi SSSR tasis yoftani laboratoriyai ilmi) tadqiq meshavand. Dar inkishofi Khimiyai organikii Tojikiston sahmi V. I. Nikitin arzanda ast. Tahti rohbarii u dar asosi asetilen sadho moddahoi organiki sintez karda shudand. Olimoni tojik alhol doir ba khimiyai, neft, khimiyai angishtsang, sintezi panvasthoi qatori diasetileni, nakhhoi khimiyavi, payvasthoi tabii va gayra tadqiqot mebarand.
M. Samiev.

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