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FARHANGHOI «ShOHNOMA»

FARHANGHOI «ShOHNOMA», farhanghoi tafsiri va duzabona, ki dar bazei onho tamomi kalimahoi «Shohnoma», dar bazeashon qisme az onho (intikhoban) sharhu tafsir va tarjuma shudaand. Muhimtarin farhanghoi makhsusi «Shohnoma» inhoyand: 1) «Farhangi etimologii forsi-lotini»-i Y. A. Vullers (Vullers J. A., Lexicon Rersico-Latinum Etimologicum… t. 1—II, Vonnae ad Rhenum, 1855—1864; ba zaboni lotini). Murattib dar tafsiri kalimot az farhanghoi mutamadi dar asrhoi miyona talifshuda istifoda kardaast.
2) «Farhangi «Shohnoma»-i Firdavsi (Slossar zu Girdousis- Shahname…, 1935; nashri duyumi stereotipiash 1965), talifi eronshinosi nemis Frits Volf (1884 —1043). Az muqavdima (12 sahifa), 911 sahifa matni asosi (dar du sutun tarjumavu tafsiri kalimaho) va zamimai «Fehristnomai mutobiqati kalimahoi «Shohnoma»-i nashri T. Makan, Y. A. Vudlers va J. Mol iborat ast. In farhang tamomi kalimahoi «Shohnoma»-i Firdavsiro, ki dar nashrhoi T. Makan (jildhoi 1—4. Kalkatta, 1829), Y. A. Vullers (jildi 1,1877; jildi 2, 1679, j. 3, 1884) va J. Mol (jildhoi 1—7, 1838—78) mavjudand, dar bar megirad. Kalimaho dar farhang ba tartibi alifboi arabiasosi tojiki joy doda shudaand. Muallifi farhang dostonhoi asli vd farivu ilhoqii «Shohnoma»- ro bo nishonahoi makhsus va raqamho — «Debocha»-i «Shohnoma»-ro bo harfi «E», hajviyai Firdavsiro ba sulton Mahmud bo «S», bo shumorahoi 1 to 50 dostonhoi asli zikri hukmronii shohonro (az Kayumars to Yazdigurd) ishora kardaast. Aa farhangi Volf dar bayti chandumi yagon dostoni «Shohnoma» va ba kadom shakl omadani kalimaro yoftan mumkin ast.
3) «Farhangi «Shohnoma», talifi Rizozodai Shafaq (nashri yakum, Tehron, 1942, nashri duyum 1972). Shafaq farhangi khudro bar asosi chopi Berukhimi «Shohnoma» (jildhoi 1—10, Tehron, 1934—36) tahiya kardaast. Nashri yakumash mukhtasar (miqdori kami kalimaho tafsir shudaand), nashri duyumash nisbatan purratar meboshad. Az muqaddima (malumot dar borai Firdavsi va «Shohnoma»-i u) va matni asosi iborat ast. Manbai Shafaq dar tasnifi asar farkhangi Volf budaast. Dar farhangi Shafaq kalimaho va istilohoti «Shohnoma» bazan galat va az manii asli dur tafsir shudaand.
4) «Vojanomak», talifi Abulkhusayni Nushin (chopi Tekhron, biduni nishondodi soli nashr). Farhangi mukhtasarest, ki sharhu tafsiri kalimahoi dushvorfahmi «Shohnoma»-ro dar bar megirad. Dar asosi chopi «Shohnoma» (jildhoi 1— IX, Moskva, 1960—71) tahiya shudaast. Az jihati sokhtu tarkib, tarzi tafsiri kalimaho az farhanghoi digar farq mekunad. Bisyor kalimahoe, ki dar on sharh yoftaand, dar farhanghoi Volf, Shafaq ba nazar namerasand, chunki «Shohnoma»-i chopi Moskva az tamomi chophoi peshinai «Shohnoma» purratar va mukammaltar ast. Nushin dar tafsiri khud etimologiyai kalimahoro purra va bovaribakhsh ovardaast. Baroi isboti fikr ba gayr az abyoti «Shohnoma» az manobei digar baytho yo porahoi mansur ba sifati shohidi lugavi naql kardaast. Nushin kalimahoro bisyor daqiq manidod namudaast. «Vojanomak» baroi matnshinosii «Shohnama» dasturi muhimest.
5) «Farhangi «Shohnoma», farhangest, ki dar on kalimoti «shohnoma» ba aboni turki tarjumavu tafsir shudaand, talifi Abdulqodiri Bagdodi (ogozi talifi asar 1656). In asarro K. Zaleman nashr karda ast (Leksicon Sahnamianum… ed. S. Saleman, Retropoli, 1895).
6) Yakchand farhanghovu lugathoi mukhtasar dar sharhi baze kalimavu tabiroti «Shohnoma» zimni nashrhoi gunoguni on omadaast. Masalan, dar nuskhahoi «Shohnoma», ki dar Lakhnav (1846), Bambay (1881— 89) va digar joyho chop shudaand, zamimai «Farhangi alfozi nodir va istilohoti garibi «Shohnoma» joy doda shudaast. Hamin guna farhang dar nashri Tehroni «Shohnoma» (1901—05) omadaast. Muhaqqiqi eroni Muhammad Dabiri Siyoqi, ki «Shohnoma»-ro az rui nashri T. Makan bo tashehu tahiya ba tab rasonidaast, dar raviyai Volf asare bo nomi «Kashf-ul-abyoti «Shohnoma» (jildhoi 1—2, Tehron, 1970— 72) ofaridaast, ki sharhu tafsiri kalimahoi dushvor va manidodi abyoti «Shohnoma»-ro dar bar megirad.
Adabiyot:
M. Dilovarov.

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