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FARGONAGIHO

FARGONAGIHO, nomi khalqiyati qadimi eronizaboni viloyati tarikhii Fargona, ajdodi bevositai tojikon. Tarikhi tashakkuli Fargona ba yakchand marhala taqsim meshavad. Marhalai avvali on ba davrai okhiri asri birinji root meoyad. Qabilahoi qadimi vodii Fargona dar okhiri hazorai 2— avvali hazorai 1 to melod ba dehqoniyu chorvodori mashgul budand. Boshishgohi madaniyati Chust ba onho taalluq dosht. Ba in madaniyat safoloti munaqqash khos ast. Qabilahoi chusti az jihati antropologi ba tipi bahrimiyonazaminii najodi evropoi mansub budaand. Takhmin mekunand, ki onho ba guruhi qabilahoi eroninajod mansub buda, ba yake az zabonhoi guruhi zabonhoi sharqii eroni gap mezadaand. Barobari onho dar havolii Fargona, aa jumla dar dashti Qayroqqum, qabilahoi dashtnishini mansubi madaniyati Andronovo zindagi mekardand, ki aksar chorvodor budand. Az asri birinji sar karda dar Fargona aholii du kyumpleksi mukhtalifi khojagiyu madani zindagi mekard. Minbad qabilahoi sahronishin, (ehtimol, qabilahoi eronizabon) qisman muqimi shuda, ba hayati qabilahoi ziroatkori fargonagi dokhil shudaand. Marhalai duyumi tashakkuli Fargona ba davrai madaniyati Eylatal (asrhoi 7—4 to melod) rost meoyad. Aholii ziroatkori in davra avlodi bevositai qabilahoi chusti bud. Vale qiyofai onho jiddan tagyir yoft va dar in nohiya shumorai odamoni tipi pomiru fargonagii evropoisurat khele afzud. Dar ayni zamon dar vodihoi baynikuhii Fargona qabilahoi sakoiho maskun shudand. Onho bo tasvri ziroatkoron qisman muqimi shuda, ba hayati khalqiyati oyandai Fargona dokhil gashtand. Madaniyati khosi zirodtkorii in davra dar madaniyati moddi, pesh az hama dar safoloti munaqqash (az rui rangu tobish on az safoloti madaniyati Chust farq mekard) zohir gardid. Jarayoni etnikie, ki dar davrai ba avji taraqqiyot rasidani davlati Davon (asri 2 to melod—asri 3 melodi) ba amal omadand, boisi tashakkuli khalqiyati fargonagi gardidand. Va in khalqiyat iqtisodiet, madaniyat va zaboni khosi khudro dosht. Ba hayati on inchunin guruhhoi alohidai qabilahoi bodiyanishini eronizaboni sakoi va badtar usunhovu yujiho, ki qisman dar hududi Fargona zindagi mekardand, dokhil shudand. Davrae, ki az miyonai hazorai 1 milodi to tashakkul yoftani khalqiyati tojikro dar bar megirad, marhalai makhsusi tarikhi Fargonaro tashkil medihad. Dar jarayoni etnikii in marhala khiyoniyon va haytoliyon ishtirok doshtand. Shumorai aholii mugulsurat khele afzud. Turkhoe, ki az Khoqonii turk ba Osiyoi Miyona omada, dar Fargonai Shimoli maskun shuda budand, ba jarayoni etnikii Fargona tasiri muayyan rasondand. Turksuratshavii aholii mahallii Fargona ogoz yoft, ki onro bozyofthoi epigrafii khati runi sobit namudand. Barobari in guruhhoi sugdiyoni az zulmi arabho ru ba gurez nihoda ba Fargona omadand va dar natija shumorai aholii eronizaboni Fargona afzud. Ba jarayoni etnikii Fargona arabho niz to andozae tasir rasondaand. Muvofiqi malumoti sayyohi khitoi Syuan Szan (630) aholii Fargona ba zaboni makhsusi eroni gap mezad, ki on az zabonhoi khalqhoi hamsoya farq mekard. Inro sayyohi digar Khoy Chao (728) niz tasdiq kardaast. Az in barmeoyad, ki dar asrhoi 7—8 zaboni fargonagi az digar zabonho va pesh az hama az zaboni sugdi farq mekardaast. V. A. Livshis tangai mansubi asrhoi 5—6-ro yoft, ki dar rui on kalimahoi «Shohi Fargona» va nomi shoh sabt shudaast. U in bozyoftro avvalin namunai khati Fargonai Qadim va daleli bahsnopaziri mavjudiyati zaboni makhsusi fargonagi mohisobad.

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Dar natijai hamsoyagii bisyorqarna va omezishi aholii eronizaboni muqimi ziroatkor bo aholii bodiyanishin va bad turkzabonho umumiyati khalqiyati Fargonai asrhoi avvali milod shakl girift. On dar rafti muborizai ziddi arabho boz ham beshtar quvvat girift va muttahid gardid. Minbad dar Fargona zaboni tojiki pahn shud. Dar ahdi Somoniyon qismi ziyodi khalqiyati Fargona barobari sugdiyon, bokhtariho, takhoristoniho, sakoiho va khorazmiyon dar tashakkuli khalqiyati tojik roli kalon bozid. Qismi boqimondai Fargona minbad ba tarkibi etnikii khalqiyati uzbek dokhil shud.
Adabiyot: Zadneprovskiy Yu. A., Ob etnicheskom sostave naseleniya drevney Fergani, KSII MK, v. 61, Moskva 1956; Livshis V. L., Pismsnnost drevney Fergani, NAA, 1968.
Yu. A. Zadneprovskiy.

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