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Elementi khimiyavii Natriy

Natriy (Natrium), Na, elementi khimiyavii guruhi I sistemai davrii Mendeleev; metalli safedu nuqratobi narmu yozanda va sabukest, ki dar havo zud oksid meshavad. Raqami at. 11, massai at. 22, 9898. Natrii tabii az yak izotopi sobit 23Na iborat ast. Payvasthoi tabii Natriy—namaki osh NaCl, soda Na2G03 az qadimulayyom malumand. Natriyi metalliro soli 1807 G. Devi bo rohi elektrolizi NaOH hosil kardaast.

Natriy 2,5% massai litosferaro tashkil medihad. Vay elementi nihoyat faol ast, binobar in dar tabiat tanho dar holati payvast duchor meshavad. Namaksang NaCl, selitrai chilii NaN03, tenar­dit Na2SO*, mirabilit N8^0« • YuN20, trona NaH[C03]2 • 2N20, tanakor Na2B407 • YuN20, kriolit 3NaF • A1F3 va gayra muhimtarin mineralhoi Natriy me­boshand. Ba gayr az in, Natriy bo Sa, Sr, Va, Mg, L1 va elementhoi digar ba tarkibi bisyor alyumisilikatho dokhil meshavad. Natriy hamchui muhimtarin bioelement dar tarkibi rastaniho (buymodaron, laminariya va gayra) va hayvonot (dar plazmai khun 0,32%, ustukhon 0,6%, boftahoi mushaki 0,6—1,5%) niz hast. Zichiash 968 kg/me (‘19,7° S); T ..gudokht. 97,83° Selsiya; t jushish 882,9° Selsiya. Bugi Natriy rangi shularo zard mekunad.

Natriy dar hamai payvasthoyash +1 valenta ast. Vay bo 02-i havo bevosita payvast shuda, Na20 yo Na202 va bo ob NaOH va II2 (reaksiya bazan bo tarkish meguzarad) hosil mekunad; bo gidrogei, oksigei, galogepho, sulfur, karbon va digar ele­mentu ba osoni ba reaksiya medaroyad. Natriy dar ammiaki moe nagz hal shuda, komplekshoi ammiaki va bo bisyor metallho payvast shuda khula hosil menamoyad. Natriyro asosan dar natijai elektrolizi gudokhtai NaCi, ki omekhtai KS1, NaF, SaS12 va gayraro dorad (dar harorati 575—585° S) hosil mekunand. Natriy va khulahoi onro dar klapani muharrikhoi samolyotho ba­roi yak khel nigoh doshtani (dar doirai 450—650° Selsiya) harorat, tajhizothoi energiyai yadroi, payvasthoi Natriyro dar istehsoli antidetonatorho, mina, ranghoi gunogun, shisha, sanoati bofandagi, masolehi binokori, materialhoi suratgiri, dabbogi va gayra vase istifoda mebarand. Azbaski Natriy metalli khele faol ast, binobar in hangomi bo on kor kardan khushyor budan darkor ast. Makhsusan ba ob hamroh shudani Natriy khatarnok ast, zero in boisi tarkishu sukhtor shuda metavonad.

Adabiyot: S i t t i g M., Natriy, ego proiz­vodstvo, svoystva i primenenie, Moskva, 1961; Ripan R., Ch e t ya n u I., Neorga­nicheskaya khimiya, tom 1,- Moskva, 1971.

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