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Jumhurii Tojikiston

TOJIKISTON, Jumhurii Tojikiston, 14 oktyabr 1924 chun respublikai avtonomi dar hayati Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Uzbakiston tasis yoft; az 16 oktyabr 1929 Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston va az 5 dekabr 1929 dar hayati SSSR. Tojikiston dar janubu sharqi Osiyoi Miyona voqe gashta, dar janub bo Afgoniston va dar sharq bo Khitoy hamsarhad ast. Masohatash 143,1 hazor km2. Aholiash 4648 hazor nafar (1 yanv. 1986). Tojikiston viloyathon Leninobod, Kulob, Qurgonteppa, Viloyati Avtonomii Badakhshoni Kuhi va 44 rayoni mamuriro dar bar megirad. 18 shahr va 49 nohiya dorad. Poytakhtash shahri Dushanbe (aholiash 565 hazor nafar, 1986).

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Sokhti davlati, Tojikiston— davlati sosialistii korgaron va dehqonon, respublikai ittifoqii sovetii sosialisti dar hayati SSSR. Konstitusiyai jorii Respublikai Sovetii Sosialistii Tojikiston 14 apreli 1978 qabul shudaast. Organi olii hokimiyati davlati Soveti Olii yakpalatagii Respublikai Sovetii Sosialistii Tojikiston meboshad, ki ba muhlati 4 sol intikhob meshavad. Dar davrai bayni sessiyahoi Soveti Oli organi olii hokimiyati davlati Prezidiumi Soveti Olii Respublikai Sovetii Sosialistii Tojikiston meboshad. Organi olii ijroiya va amrdihanda Soveti Vazironi Respublikai Sovetii Sosialistii Tojikiston ast, ki ba faoliyati vazoratho, komitethoi davlati rohbari menamoyad. Organhoi hokimiyati mahalli Soveti deputathoi khalqii viloyati, rayoni, shahri, posyolkavi va qishloqi meboshand. Organi olii sudii Tojikiston Sudi olii respublika meboshad, ki onro Soveti Oli ba muhlati 5 sol intikhob mekunad; dar hayati 2 kollegiyai sudi (oid ba korhoi grajdani va jinoyati) va Plenum amal mekunad. Ba gayr az in, Prezidiumi Sudi oli tashkil doda shudaast. Prokurori Respublikai Sovetii Sosialistii Tojikiston az tarafi Prokurori generalii SSSR ba muhlati 5 sol tain karda meshavad.

Tabiat. Tojikiston kishvari kuhist. 93%-i hududi onro kuhho faro giriftaand, ki ba sistemahoi kuhii Tiyonshon, Hisoru Oloy va Pomir mansuband. Qarib 50%-i hududi Tojikiston dar balandii ziyoda az 3000 m voqe gashtaast. Hamvoriho dar vodihoi farokh va khamihoi baynikuhi joygirand.

Relef. Shimoli respublikaro qatorkuhi Qurama (balandiash to 3679 m, kuhi Boboiob) va kuhhoi Mugul (to1624 m), inchunin qismi garbii khami (vodi)-i Fargona ishgol kardaand. Dar qismi markazii Tojikiston qatorkuhhoi Oloy (qismi garbiash, to 5539 m), Turkiston (to 5509 m), Zarafshon (to 5489 m, kuhi Chimtarga), Hisoru Qarotegii (to 4643 m, kuhi Dukdon) va vodii Zarafshon (dar bayni qatorkuhhoi Turkiston va Zarafshon) voqeand. Dar qismi janubi garbi Tojikiston (janubtar az kuhhoi Hisoru Oloy va garbtar az Pomir) kuhhoi nachandon balandi Bobotog, Oqtog, Qarotog, Teraklitog, Sarsarak, Vakhsh, Jilontog va gayra joy giriftaand. Baze az in kuhho ba samti janub va janubi garb toraft (az 2300 m to 400—300 m) past shuda, to sufahoi hamvori sohilhoi daryohoi Panju Amu rafta merasand. Dar bayni qatorkuhhoi nomburda vodihoi Hisor, Vakhsh, Kofarnihoni Poyon, Surkhobu YOkhsu joygir shudaand. Tamomi qismi janubu sharqi Tojikiston Pomir nom doshta, on balandtarin kuhsori Ittifoqi Soveti ba shumor meravad. Balandtarin qatorkuhhoi Pomir Akademiyai Fanho (7495 m, qishloqi Kommunizm) va Pasi Oloy (7134 m, qishloqi Lenin) meboshand. Az rui khususiyati relef Pomir ba qismhoi Garbi va Sharqi taqsim meshavad. Ba Pomiri Garbi, qatorkuhhoi darozu kambari nuktez (balandiashon to 6000 m va ziyodtar) va darahoi tangu chuqur khos ast. Relefi Pomiri Sharqiro boshad, asosan vodiyu khamihoi farokhi hamvor (balandiashon az sathi bahr 3700— 4200 m) va kuhhoi teppashakl (balandiashon az sathi vodiyu khamiho to 1000—1500 m) tashkil medihand. Dar khamiyu vodiho asosan tahnishasthoi piryakhi va daryoiyu selovard joygirand.   D. Pulodov.

Sokhti geologi va sarvathoi tabii. Dar hududi Tojikiston, kuhhoi chindori Tiyonshoni Mobayni (qatorkuhoi Qurama va Mugul), Tiyonshoni Janubi (qatorkuhoi Hisoru Oloy) va Pomir, inchunin du pastkhamii baynikuhi — depressiyai Fargona va depressiyai Tojikiston joygir shudaand. Kuhhoi Tiyonshoni Mobayni dar natijai harakathoi tektonikii kaledoniyu gerseni tashakkul yoftaand. In kuhho az varaqsanghoi paleozoyi poyon, jinshoi karbonatiyu terrigenii devoni miyona — karboni poyon, jinshoi vulqonii paleozoyi bolo va jinshoi granitii todevonu paleozoyi bolo iboratand. Strukturai gersinin Tiyonshoni Janubi yo Hisoru Oloy ba mintaqahoi strukturii Turkistonu Oloy, Zarafshonu Hisor va Hisoru Qarotegin taqsim meshavad, ki har kadomi in mintaqaho bo majmui jinshoi ba khud khosi paleozoy az yakdigar farq mekunad. Dar erahoi mezozoy, kaynozoy dar hududi mintaqaho tahshinhoi platformagi jam omadaand, ki onho az harakathoi tektonikii alpi chindor shuda, boysi paydoishi rel  garbi qatorkuhhoi Pyotri Yakum va Darvozro beshahoi pahnbargi chormagz, fark, chinor, seb, olucha va giyohu buttahoi gunogun faro giriftaand. Dar domanai qatorkuhhoi Zarafshon, Hisor, Pyotri Yakum, Darvoz va kuhhoi janubu garbi Tojikiston beshahoi siraki garmser (pista, bodomi talkhak, chelon, dulona va gayra) mavjudand. Yakchand namudhoi bedu safedor, buttahoi angat, nastaran va zirk faqat dar vodii daryohoi qismi garbii Pomir meruyand. Dar mintaqai balandkuh (bolotar az 2400—2800 m), dar joyhoi sernam margzorho, margzorhoi dashti va dashthoi kamrastani joygir shudaand. Margzorho az rastanihoi khushador va giyohhoi gunogun, dashtho boshand, az khushadorhoi khushkitobovar, tipchak, jorubak va kovil iboratand. Dar Pomiri Sharqi, ki biyoboni balandkuh ba shumor meravad, asosan teresken, shibog, khori bolishtaki khirs meruyand. Dar Tojikiston giyohhoi dorui, dabbogi, rangubori, ravgani efirdor, inchunin rastanihoi mevador (az jumla subtropiki) farovonand. On joyhoero, ki rastanihoi efemeroydi meruyand, hamchun charogohi tiramohiyu zimistona va dashtu margzorhoi balandkuhro chun charogohi tobistona istifoda mebarand. Biyoboni Pomiri Sharqi charogohi doimist.

Olami hayvonoti Tojikiston 81 namudi hayvonoti shirkhur, 365 namudi parranda, 49 namudi khazanda va 7— 8 hazor namudi hasharotro dar bar megirad. Dar hamvorihoi mintaqai poyon khazandaho — susmor, kubro, mori afi, mori pechon, sangpusht, parrandaho — jur, gunjishki saksavulzor, chargi dashti, murgi tugdor (dugdog), loshakhur, khoyandaho — jayra, yurmon, mushi regzor, tavushqon, khazi dashti, dar dashthoi kushodi jan. garbii respublika jiron yo gazol va dar domanakuhho morkhur vomekhuraad. Hayvonoti tugayzorho niz khele gunogunand: kholgul, kaftor, guroz, khaz, shagol, qashqaldoq, khorpushti gushkalon, inchunin parrandaho — tazarv, bedona, murgobi va khazandaho — gurza va gayra. Dar buttazoru beshahoi kuhi gurg, khirs, guroz, silovsin, jayra, khorpusht, savsor, qashqaldoq, zargush, kallamush, parrandaho — kabk, musicha, kabutar, dar balandkuhho nakhchir, arkhar, sherpalang, sugur, parrandaho— kabki hilol, sajai tibeti, murgi humo, loshakhur, burgut, uqob va gayra zindagi mekunand. Daryo va kulu obanborhoi Tojikiston qarib 40 namudi mohi (shirmohi, gulmohi, zagoramohi, laqqamohi, simmohi, osmonmohi va gayra) dorand, ki 10 namudash shikorbob ast. Hayvonotu parrandahoi shikorbobi Tojikiston: arkhar, nakhchir, zargush, kabk, kabki hilol, murgobi va bedona. Dar kulhoi poyonobi darhoi: Vakhsh nutriya va ondatra meparvarand.

Muhofizati tabiat. Ba maqsadi muhofizat va ziyod kardani fauna va florai foidanok dar hududi respublika 3 mamnugoh («Polvontugay», «Romit», «Dashtijum») va 15 quruq («Zarafshon», «Qarotogi Panj», «Dashtijum», «Sarikhosor», «Kamarob», «Sangvor», «Childukhtaron», «Iskandarkul», «Soi Vota», «Kusovlisoy», «Zurkul», «Muzqul», «Pomir», «Almosi», «Norak») va boghoi botanikii Dushanbe, Leninobod, Khorug, inchunin St. botanikii kuhii Varzob, Stansiyai biologii Pomir (Chechekty, dar rayoni Murgob) va yakchand stasionarho — «Polvontugay», «Qabodiyon», «Rangon», «Anzob», «Kuhak», «Ganjino», «Shahriston» barpo karda shudaand.

Nohiyahoi tabii. Tojikistonii Shimoli asosan nishebii janubi qatorkuhi Qurama, qismi garbii khamii Fargona, qismi janubu sharqii dashti Mirzochul va nishebii shimoli qatorkuhi Turkistonro dar bar megirad. Hamvorihoi in nohiya az bogu kishtzorho va jo-jo az rastanihoi biyoboniyu nimbiyoboni iboratand. Domanakuhhoro shibogzorho, efemeroidhoi khushadori baland va zaminhoi koram, kuhhoi balandiashon miyonaro asosan beshahoi siraki garmser va dapggho, balandkuhhoro boshad, archazoru dashthoi seralaf faro giriftaand. Sharoiti tabii baroi pakhtakori va bogu tokdori musoid ast. Hisoru Oloy (nohiyai Zarafshon yo Kuhiston) relefi murakkab doshta, dar on khususiyati landshaft ba taqsimoti borishot va ekspozisiyai nishebiho vobasta ast. Nishebii janubi qatorkuhi Hisorro asosan beshahoi pahnbargu dashthoi seralaf va qismi digari kuhhoro archazorhoi sirak, dashtho va nimbiyobonho faro giriftaand. Tojikistoni Janubi Garbi az qatorkuhho va vodihoi farokhi baynikuhi iborat ast. In nohiyaho joyhoi garmtarini respublika hisob meshavand. Landshafti pastkuhhoro rastanihoi efemeroidi va nishebihoi balandi kuhhoro beshahoi kamdarakhti khushkitobovar, masohati ziyodi vodiyu hamvorihoro zaminhoi obi ishgol kardaand. Sharoiti iqlimii in jo baroi parvarishi pakhtai mahinnakh va digar ziroathoi subtropiki khele muvofiq ast. Nohiyai Tojikistoni Markazi (yo Qaroteginu Darvoz) qatorkuhhoi azim va vodihoi tangi baynikuhiro dar bar giriftaast. In nohiyaro az shimol qatorkuhi Oloy, az janub daryoi Panj, az garb qatorkuhi Qarotegin va az sharq qatorkuhi Akademiyai Fanho ihota kardaand. Dar nohiyai mazkur landshafgho, vobasta ba mintaqahoi balandi, ba nimbiyoboni, dashti, margzori dashti va margzori balandkuh taqsim shudaand. Pomir az rui khususiyathoi landshaft ba qismhoi Garbi va Sharqi taqsim meshavad. Dar Pomiri Garbi namudi landshaft ba miqdori borishot vobasta ast. Dar in jo landshaftho (biyoboni shibogzor, dashthoi kamalaf) az past ba bolo pasi ham ivaz meshavand; dar vodiho jo-jo buttayu darakhton meruyand. Ba Pomiri Sharqi iqlimi khele khushk va sarmoi qahratun khos ast. Landshafti in jo biyobonii balandkuhist.        D. Pulodov.

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Aholi. Muvofiqi malumoti baruikhatgirii soli 1979 dar Tojikiston 3801 hazor nafar aholi, az jumla 58,8% tojikon, 23,0% uzbekho, 10,4% rusho, 2,1% totorho, 1,3% qirgizho, 1,0% nemisho, 0,9% ukrainho va namoyandagonn millathoi digar zindagi mekard. Aholii Tojikiston bosurat meafzoyad. Shumorai on dar soli 1986 nisbat ba soli 1913 beshtar az 4,5 barobar afzud, ki in asosan az hisobi afzoishi tabii ba amal omadaast. Az jihati miqdori tavalludshudagon Tojikiston dar bayni respublikahoi ittifoqi joi avvalro ishgol mekunad. Zichii aholi dar 1 km2 ba hisobi miyona ba

32,5  kas rost meoyad (1986). Ziyoda az 85%-i aholi dar vodiho va khamihoi baynikuhi, dar balandihoi to 1600 m zindagi mekunad. Dar joyhoi hamvori vodihoi shimoli va janubii Tojikiston zichii aholi dar 1 km2 ba 50—100 va bazan ba 150 kas, dar nohiyahoi kuhy ba 5—10 kas va dar Pomir qarib ba 2 kas merasad. Az rus malumoti baruykhatgirni aholi (1979) 49,5%-i shumorai umumii aholi az mardho va 50,5 %-ash az zanho iborat ast. 58,6 %-i aholiro korgaronu khizmatchiyon va 41,4%-ashro kolkhozchiyoi tashkil medihand. Ivdustrikunonii sosialisti tafovuti bayni aholii shahru dehotro tagyir dod (aholii shahry 34%). Shahrhoi Tojikiston: Dushanbe, Leninobod, Qurgonteppa, Kulob, Khorug, Norak, Qayroqqum, Gafurov, Konibodam, Panjakent, Tursunzoda, Isfara, Uroteppa, Orjonikidzeobod va gayra.

Ocherki tarikhi. Qadimtarin osori hayoti inson dar hududi Tojikiston ba davrai paleoliti miyona mansub ast. Dar miyonai hazorai 1 to m. dar Osiyoi Miyona sokhti jamoai ibtidoi ba sokhti gulomdori tabdil yoft va qadimtarin davlathoi gulomdori — Sugd, Bokhtar va Khorazm tashkil yoftand, ki mashguliyati asosii aholii onho ziroatchigi, chorvodori va hunarmandi bud. Ba khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona tez-tez lozim meomad, ki bar ziddi istilogaroni ajvabi bahri ozodi muboriza barand. Dar asri 6 to melod Osiyoi Miyona ba hayati davlati Hakhomanishiyoi dokhil shud, asri 4 to melod onro yunonihoyu maqduniho zabt kardand. Dertar Osiyoi Miyona ba hayati davlathoi Shohii Yunonii Bokhtar, Port, Kushoniyon va gayra dokhil shud. To miyonahoi hazorai 1 melodi munosibathoi feodali tavlid yoftand. Obu zamin va digar vositahoi istehsolot moefi hozirai Hisoru Oloy gardidaand. Deopressiyai Fargona va Tojikiston dar joi furukhamidai platformahoi mozozoy — paleolen paydo shudaand (nigared Depreesiyai Fargona va Depressiyai Tojikiston). Pomir az mintaqahoi strukturii kamonshakl iborat ast, ki onhoro rugejaho az ham judo kardaand. Mintaqai kanori az tahnishasthoi bahriyu lagunagii permi bolo — palsogon va jinshoi surkhrangi neogen tarkib yoftaast. In tahnishastho dar zamoni oligosen — pliosen chindor shuda, ba rui strukturai qadimtari Tiyonshon kuchidaand. Dar Pomiri Shimoli jinshoi sinni tokembriy, paleogzoyi miyona va bolo bisyorand, ki onho dar davrahoi triasyurai mnyona chindor va bo jinshoi graniti rakhna shudaand. Pomiri Markazi az jihati sokhti geologi ba du tabaqa—poyonii tahjoi (avtokhton) va boloii begona (allokhton) taqsim meshavad. Tabaqai poyoni az jinshoi tokembriy, paleozoyi mnyona, karbon, trias va yura, tabaqai boloi boshad, az jinshoi terrigenpyu karbonatii paleozoy, taboshir va paleogen, inchunin jinshoi surkhrangi oligosenu neogen iboratand. Jinshon surkhrang qabathoi lava dorand. Dar Pomiri Janubu Sharqi tabaqahoi gafsi tahnishasthoi terrigenin permu trias, karbonatii yura, konglomerat va jinshoi effuzivii taboshir — paleogen, jinshoi surkhrangi oligosen —miosen, jinshoi granitii taboshiri bolo mavjudand, ki onho dar natijai harakathoi tektoniki gejida boloi ham va yo az ham dur shudaand. Pomiri Janubu Garbi az tabaqai jinshoi metamorfii sinni tokembriy (asosan gneyshoi gunogun, marmar) va jinshoi granitii davrai trias tarkib yoftaast. Hududi Tojikiston serzilzila meboshad.

Tojikiston sarvathoi tabiii gunogun dorad. Dar qatorkuhhoi Hisoru Oloy va Pomir surma, simob, arsen, volfram, tillo, flyuorit, buluri kuhi, sanghoi qimatbaho (lojvard, lal, turmalin, topaz, skapolit, bejoda va gayra), dar qatorkuhhoi Quramayu Qaromaeor konhoi surbu ruh, metallhoi nodir, ashyoi khomi pezooptiki, volfram, sanghoi rezakori va gayra yoft shudaand. Depresssyahon Fargonayu Tojikiston konhoi neft, gaz, angisht, varaqsangi suzanda, namaksang, masolehi binokori dorand. Chashmahoi mineralii garmu khunuki bisyore mavjudand.                   I. G. Sherbo.

Iqlimi Tochikiston kontinentii subtropikist; dar kuhho vobasta ba balandi garmi mutadil, mutadil va khunuk ast. Dar vodiyu hamvorni naadikuhi (to balandii 500 m) harorati miyonai iyul 23—30oS, yanvar az —1. to ZoS; borishoti solona 150— 300 mm. Dar domanai qatorkuhhoi Hisoru Oloy va nohiyahoi janubu garbi Tojikiston (balandihoi 500—1500 m) harorpti  iyul 23—28oS, yanvar to —5oS; borishoti solona 300—700 mm. Dar qatorkuhhoi Tojikistoni Markazi va Pomiri Garbi (balandihoi 1500—3000 m), harorati miyonai iyul 10—20°S, yanvar az —5 to —15oS. Dar balandnhoi ziyoda az 3000 m iqlimi khunuk hukmfarmost. Iqlimi Pomiri Sharqi biyobonii balandkuhist; harorati miyonai iyul 5—10oS, yanvar az —15 to —20oS va az on ham pasttar; borishoti solona 60—100 mm. Dar hududi Tojikiston harorati garmi to ba 48oS (Ayvaj) va khunuki to ba—63oS (Bulunkul) merasad.

Dar vodii Fargona tobistonu tiramoh az garb va shimol garb garmsel mevashad. Baroi nohiyahon janubi Tojikiston shamoli janubu garbi — khokbodi afgon khos ast.

Yakhbandi. Khatti barfhoi doimi dar garb va janubu garbi qatorkuhhoi Hisoru Oloy az balandni 3800 m, dar shimolu sharqi on az balandihoi 4200 —4400 m va dar Pomir az balandii 4000 m (dar shimolu garb) va 5200 m (dar nohiyahoi sharqi) meguzarad. Dar Tojikiston 8492 piryakh (masohati umumiash 8476,2 km2 yo 6%-i masohati respublika) mavjud ast. Piryakhhon kalontarin inhoyand: dar Pomir piryakhi Fedchenko (651,7 km2, tulash77 km), Grumm-Grjimaylo (160 km2,36,7km), Bivachniy (197 km2, 27,8 k.m), Garmo (153 km2, 27,5 km), Savuqdarai Kalon (69 km2, 25,2 km), Jamiyati Geografi (81,8 km2, 21,5 km), Gando (55 km2, 22,5 km) va dar satorkuhhoi Hisoru Oloy piryakhi Zarafshoni qatorkuhkuhi Turkiston (41 km2, 25 km).

Obhoi dokhili. Tojikiston daryohoi bisyore dorad. Az jumla shumorai daryohoe, ki az 10 km daroztarand, ba 947 merasad. Tuli umumii onho 28500 km meboshad. Daryoho asosan ba havzai daryohoi Amu, Sir va Zarafshon mansuband. Faqat dar Pomiri Sharqi daryohoi khurdi Qarojilga, Oqchilga, Muzqul ba kuli bastai Qarokul merezand; daryoi Markansu boshad, bahavzai daryoi Tarim taalluq dorad. Havzai daryoi Amu 3/4 hissai masohati respublikaro ishgol mekunad. Ba daryoi Amu va boloobi on — Panj daryohhoi Gund, Bartang, Yazgulom, Vanj, Surkhob (Qizilsu), Vakhsh va Kofarnihon merezand. Ba daryoi Sir (196 kamash dar hududi Tojikiston) az nishebii shimoln qatorkuhi Turkiston daryohhoi Isfara, Khojaboqirgon, Qarosu, Oqsu va gayra jori meshavand. Boloobi daryoi Zarafshon va shokhobhoi kaloni on— Fon, Kishtud, Mogiyon dar hududi Tojikiston voqe gashtaand. Manbai aksariyati daryoho barfu piryakh buda, davrai obkhezii onho ba mohhoi may — avgust rost meoyad. Daryohoi Tojikiston ahamiyati irrigasioni va gidroenergetiki dorand. Az jihati zakhirai gidroenergetika Tojikiston dar SSSR joi duyumro (badi RSFSR) ishgol mekuvad.

Dar Tojikiston qarib 1300 kul (masoh, umumiashoi 705 km2) hast. Aksariyati onho dar Pomir va qatorkuhhoi Hisoru Oloy voqe gashtaand. Paydoishi kuli kalontarin — Qarokul (dar Pomiri Sharqi) tektonikist. Kulhri Sarez, Yashilkud va bisyor kulhoi digar dar natijai az kuhporaho band shudani majroi daryo ba vujud omadaand. Iskandarkul, Kuli Kalon, guruhi kulhoi Margzor kulhoi khushmanzari qatorkuhhoi Zarafshonu Hisor meboshand. Obanborhoi Qayroqqum («Bahri Tojik»), Norak, Farhod, Kattasoy, Muminobod va gayra bo maqsadi obyori va gidroenergetika sokhta shudaand.

Xok. Gunogunin khoki Tojikiston ba balandiho vobasta ast. Dar hamvorihoyu pastkuhhoi janubu garb va shimoli respublika navhoi gunoguni khoki khokistarrang mavjudand; khoki balandihoi 300—600 m khokistarrangi safedtob (gumusash 1—1,5%), balandihoi 600—900 m khokistarrangi mucharrari (gumusash 1,5—2,0%), 900—1900 m khokistarrangi siyohtob (gumusash 25—4,0%) ast. Balandnhoi 1600—2800 metrro navhoi khoki dorchini faro giriftaand; khoki shimoli Tojikiston va Hisoru Oloy dorchinii safedtob, joyhoi sernami nishebihoi janubi kuhho dorchinii karbonatdor va bolotar az on dorchinii muqarrarist. Khoki vodihoi Pomiri Garbi dorchinii safedtob, mintaqahoi balandi kuhho (bolotar az 2800 m) margzoriyu dashti, dashti va biyoboniyu dashtist; khoki zaminhoi Pomiri Sharqi biyobonii balandkuhist (dar sufahoi pasti daryoho khoki margzoriyu botloqii yakhbasta va bazan shurzaminho vomekhurand).

Nabotot. Dar Tojikiston taqriban 6—6,5 hazor namudi rastanii oli meruyad. Aksari onho giyoh va nimbutta meboshand. Buttavu darakhton 4% hududi Tojikistonro faro giriftaand. Taqsimoti rastaniho ba mintaqahoi balandi vobasta ast. Hamvorihoi qismi shimoli va janubu garbii Tojikiston (to balandii 500 m) ba mintaqai biyobon mansuband. Dar in jo asosan shibog va shuragiho va dar tugayzorhoi poyonobi daryohoi Vakhsh, Panj, Kofarnihon, Surkhob (Qizilsu) turonga, sanjid, nay, qamish, sarnay va gayra meruyand. Nabototi balandihoi 500—700 m az efemeroidho (asosan geshahoi qadpast, jorubak) va efemerho nborat ast. Dar domana va nishebihon pasti kuhho (balandihoi 700—900 m) rastanihoi kalonkhusha, efemeroidho, gandumak va gayra mesabzand. Dar miyonakuhho (az 1200 to 1800 m va az 2300 to 2800 m) buttavu darakhton bisyorand. Tojikiston ziyoda az 150 namudi buttavu darakhtonro dar bar megirad. Qarib nimi beshaho archazor ast. Archazor asosan dar qatorkuhi Turkiston va kamu besh dar qatorkuhhoi Qurama, Zarafshon, Hisor va dar nishebihoi balandi kuhhoi janubu garbi Tojikiston voqe gashtaand. Nishebihoi sernami janubi qatorkuhi Hisor, sah 396-397 nest likiyati khususii feodalho gardidand. Istismori berahmonai dehqonon sababi sar zadani shurishhoi sershumori khalqi shud. Dar asri 8 dar sharoiti parokandagii feodali, Osiyoi Miyonaro arabho zabt va ba hayati Khilofati arab dokhil kardand. Istilogaron dini khud—islomro dar kishvar zuran jori mekardand. Muborizai sinfi va harakati ziddi khilofat ba hukmronii arabho dar Osiyoi Miyona khotima guzosht. Dar okhiri asri 9 va asri 10 davlati mustaqili feodalii tojikon — davlati Somoniyon tashkll yoft, ki poytakhtash Bukhoro bud. Dar ahdi Somoniyon khalqiyati tojik tashakkul yoft. Madaniyat, tijorat va hunarmandi ba darajai balandi taraqqiyot rasid. Dar asrhoi 11—12 dar Osiyoi Miyona sulolahoi Qarakhoniyon, Gaznaviyon, Saljuqiyon, Guriyon hukm rondand. Asri 13 Osiyoi Miyonaro mugulho istilo kardand (nigared Istiloi mugul). Hazorho odamon qurbon va dahho shahrho ba zamin yakson shudand. Hukmronii mugulhoro sulolai Temuriyon khotima dod. Dar ahdi Temuriyon darajai balandi taraqqiyoti madaniyat bo istismori sakhti khalqi zahmatkash dar yak vaqt jarayon dosht. Dar aasri 16 hududi imruzai Tojikistonro (misli digar nohiyahoi Osiyoi Miyoia) qabilahoi bodiyanishini uzbek zabt kardand. Dertar qismi ziyodi hududi imruzai Tojikiston ba hayati amorati Bukhoro dokhil shud. Sonitar zaminhon tojiknishini voqe dar janubi daryoi Omu az tarafi qabilahoi pashtu zabt karda shudand va minbad dar hayati davlati Afgoniston mondand. To miyonai asri 19 khalqi tojik misli digar khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona dar bayni khonihoi Bukhoro, Khuqand, Kheva va gayra parokanda mond. Dar bayni in khoniho janghoi payopayi feodali meshudand, ki iqtisodiyotu madaniyat zarari kalon medidand. Dar nimai duyumi asri 19 Osiyoi Miyona ba tasarrufi Rossiyai podshohi guzasht. Ammo in voqea muttahidii siyosii khalqi tojikro tamin karda natavonist. Nohiyahoi shimoli Tojikistoni imruza, qismi ziyodi Pomir ba Rossiya hamroh karda shudand (ba hayati general-gubernatornn Turkiston), nohiyahoi markazi va janubi dar hayati amorati Bukhoro, ki vassali Rossiya bud, mondand. Hukumati podshohi dar Osiyoi Miyona siyosati mustamlikadori meburd. Sarfi nazar az in hamroh karda shudani kishvari tojikon ba Rossiya, ki mamlakati az jihati iqtisodi va madani peshqadamtar va dar okhiri asri 19 markazi harakati revolyusionii jahon bud, ahamiyati bagoyat kaloni progressivi dosht. Tasarrufi Rossiya Osiyoi Miyonaro az khavfi istiloi imperializmi Angliya najot dod va aholii mahalliro ba harakati revolyusionii rus hamroh kard.

Revolyusiyai burjuaziyu demokratii solhoi 1905—07 va Revolyusiyai fevrali 1917 shuuri sinfi zahmatkashi tojikro bedor kard, ba boloravii harakati revolyusioni dar Tojikiston musoidat namud. Soli 1916 dar Khujand shurishi khalqii ziddifeodali va ziddimustamlikadori ogoh yofta, ba zudi dar tamomi Osiyoi Miyona va Qazoqiston pahn gardid. Galabai Revolyutsiyai Oktyabr dar Rossiya takoni purquvvate bud ba harakati revolyusionii zahmatkashoni Turkiston. Dar okhiri soli 1917—ibtidoi soli 1918 Hokimiyati Soveti dar rayonhoi shimoli Tojikiston barpo karda shud. Hanua soli 1918 dar Pomir revkom (komiteti revolyusioni) ba vujud omad. Dar okhiri avgust 1920 bo davati Partiyai Kommunistii Bukhoro dar Bukhoro shurishi musallah ogoz yoft. 2 sentyabr bo madadi qismhoi Armiyai Surkh hokimiyati amir vojgun gardid va Respublikai Khalqii Sovetii Bukhoro (RKhSB) tashkil shud. Dar Bukhoroi Sharqi (hududi hozirai rayonhoi markazi va janubii Tojikston). Hokimiyati Soveti tanho mai 1921 galaba kard. Darhol pas az barpo shudani Hokimiyati Soveti bo dastgirii imperialistoni khoriji dastahoi bosmachiyon amaliyot sar kardand. Onho bolshevikon, komsomolon, faolon va har yak shakhsero, ki Hokimiyati Sovetiro dastgiri mekard, vahshiyona mekushtand. Tamomi khalq ba muborizai ziddi bosmachiyon barkhost va dar miyonai soli 1926 ba harakati bosmachigi komilan khotima doda shud. 14 oktyabri 1924 dar natijai tainoti hududi milliyu davlatii respublikahoi sovetii Osiyoi Miyona Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston (dar hayati Resspublikai Avtonomii Soveti Sotsialistii Uzbakiston) tasis yoft. Viloyati Makhsusi Pomir, ki peshtar ba habati Resspublikai Avtonomii Soveti Sotsialistii Turkiston dokhil meshud, ba Viloyati Avtonomii Badakhshoni Kuhi tabdil doda shud va muvofiqi qarori Prezidiumi KIM-i SSSR az 2 yanvari soli 1925 ba hayati Resspublikai Avtonomii Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston dokhil gardid. Ba respublikai javoni Tojikiston, ki vorisi iqtisodiyot va madaniyati qafomondai davrai sobiqa shuda bud, muyassar gardid, ki marhalai kapitalistii taraqqiyotro aa sar naguzaronida, ba rohi digargunsozii sosialistii jamiyat qadam nihad. Sezdi 1-umi muassisoni Sovethoi Tojikiston (dekabri 1926) dar borai milli kunonidani zamin va ob, ozodii zanon, talimi umumi va gayra qarorho qabul kard. Solhoi 1925 —26 dar uezdi Khujand, ki dar hayati Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Uzbakiston bud, islohoti obu zamin guzaronida shud. Dar solhoi 1926 —29 darajai peshazjangii khojagii qishloq, barqaror gardid, dar sohai pakhtakori muvaffaqiyathoi nazarras ba dast omadand, bunyodi sanoati sosialisti guzoshta shud.

Sentyabri 1929 uezdi Khujand ba hayati Resspublikai Avtonomii Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston dokhil karda shud. Sezdi 3-umi favqulodai Sovethoi Tojikiston 16 oktyabr dar borai ba respublikai ittifoqi tabdil dodani Resspublikai Avtonomii Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston Deklarasiya qabul kard. 5 dekabri 1929 KIM-i SSSR qaror kard, ki shartnomai oid ba tasisi SSSR ba Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston niz dakhl dorad; Tojikiston ikhtiyori ba hayati SSSR dokhil gardid. Tashkiloti partiyavii viloyatii Tojikiston ba Partiyai Kommunistii (b) Tojikiston tabdil doda shud. Sezdi 1-umi Partiyai Kommunistii (b) Tojikiston oid ba sokhtmoni khojagi va madani dar respublika qarorhoi muhim qibul kard.

Dar panjsolahoi peshazjangi dar Tojikiston sokhtmoni sosialisti baso avj girift, industroni asosan ba anjom rasid. Sanoati sabuk va baze sohahoi sanoati vaznin taraqqi kard. Sinfi korgar ba vujud omad va shumorai korgaron bosurat afzud. Inchunin aznavsozii sosialistii khojagii qishloq ba amal omad. Az okhiri 1929 dar rayonhoi pakhtakor harakati ommavii kolkhozi avj girift, minbad dar rayonhoi gallakor va chorvodor niz jori shud. Dar in davra mehnatkashoni Tojikiston bo ham korii digar khalqhoi SSSR dar yak muddati kutohi tarikhi jamiyati sosialistiro asosan bunyod kardand.

Dar solhoi Jangi Buzurgi Vatani (1941—45) behtarin pisaronu dukhtaroni khalqi tojik dar front mardonavor jangidand, hojagii khalqi respublika ba talaboti jang muvofiq kunonida shud. 53 nafar mardoni shujoi Tojikiston sazovori unvoni Qahramoni Ittifoqi Soveti gardidand, 14           nafar bo ordeni Sharaf (darajahop 1, 2, 3), zibda aa 50 hazor jangovaroni tojik bo ordenu medalhoi mamlakatamon mukofotonida shudand. Dar aqibgoh mehnatkashoni Tojikiston bo mehnati qahramoionai khud ba front hamatarafa kumak rasonidand. Dar panjsolahoi 4-um va 5-um khojagii khalqi Tojikiston barqaror karda shuda va ba darajai navi taraqqiyot rasid. Dahho muassisahoi navi sanoati va stansiyahoi elektri sokhta shudand. Mahsuloti umumin sanoati respublika dar soli 1956 nisbat ba davrai peshazjangi 2,8 barobar va istehsoli quvvai elektr 4,8 barobar afzud, khojagii qishloq bosurat taraqqi kard, maydoni kishti pakhta khele vase gardid, hosilnoki baland shud, istehsoli navhoi balandsifati pakhtai mahinnakh afzud. Baroi komyobihoi kalon dar taraqqiyoti pakhtakori va digar sohahoi khojagii qishloq Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston bo Ukazi Prezidiumi Soveti Olii SSSR aa 22 dekabri 1956 bo ordeni Lenin mukofotonida shud.

Khojagii khalqi respublika va madaniyati khalqi tojik dar solhoya 60 nihoyat taraqqi kardand. Dar panjsolahoi 7-um va 8-um sohai navi sanoat — moshinsozi, elektrotekhnika va khimiya ba vujud omadand. Dar nn solho 225 muassisai kalon, sekhuuchastkaho, monandi zavoddhoi «Tojiktekstilmash», «Tojikkabel», zavodi tajhizoti rushnondihandai tekhnikii Isfara, zavodi apparathoi pastshiddati Adrasmon, zavodi nurihoi azotii Vakhsh, zavodi yakhdonhoi «Pomir», zavodi «Gidronzol», kombinati madantozakunii Anzob va gayra ba kor daromadand. Sanoat sohai asosii khojagii khalq gardid. Khususan industriyai vaznin bosurat taraqqi mekunad. Mehnatkashoni khojagii qishloq niz ba muvaffaqiyathoi kalon noil gashtand, Soli 1980 mamlakat az respublika beshtar aa 1 mln tonna pakhta girift; mahsuloti digar sohahoi khojagii qishloq niz afzud.

Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston bo ordenhoi Lenin(1956), Revolyusnyai Oktyabr (1974) va Dustii Khalqho (1972), Viloyati Avtonomii Badakhshoni Kuhi bo ordenhoi Lenin (1967) va Dustni Khalqho (1972), viloyati Leninobod bo ordeni Lenin (1959), viloyati Qurgonteppa bo ordeni Lenin (1981), shahri Dushanbe bo ordeni Bayraqi Surkhi Mehnat (1984), shahri Leninobod bo ordeni Dustii Khalqho (1986) mukofotonida shudaand   R. Masov, U. Pulodov.

Partiyai Kommunistii Tojikiston. Partiyai Kommunistii Tojikiston qismi tarkibii KPSS, yake az otryadhoi jangovari on meboshad. Avvalin guruhhoi sosial-demokrati dar shimoli Tojikiston dar davrai Revolyutsiyai solhoi 1905—07 paydo shudand. Okhiri solhoi 1917— ibtidoi 1918 dar Khujand, Uroteppa, Panjakent, Shurob, koni nefti SANTO va digar mahalho tashkilothoi bolsheviki barpo gardidand. Bahori 1918 dar nohiyahoi shimoli Tojikiston tashkiloti bolsheviki mavjud bud, ki dar safi khud 170 kommunistro muttahid mekard. Dar kori barpo kardan va az jihati goyaviyu tashkili mustahkam namudani tashkilothoi bolsheviki B. A. Ivaniskiy, D. T. Dekanov, I. A. Jdanov, N. V. Chashikhin, H. Usmonov, J. Zokirov, A. Mavlonbekov va digaron ishtirok doshtand. Tobistoni 1918 Partiyai Kommunistii Turkiston tasis yoft, ki ba hayati on tashkilothoi bolshevikii shimoli Tojikiston dokhil shudand. Mohi dekabri 1918 dar Khujand sezdi 1-umi uezdi partiya davat gardid. Ba tashkili avvalin yacheykahoi partiyavi dar Pomir komissiyahoi harbiyu siyosii KIM-i Resspublikai Avtonomii Soveti Sotsialistii Turkiston va organhoi partiyaviyu siyosii qismhoi harbi madad merasondand.

Badi galabai Revolyusiyai Khalqii Sovetii Bukhoro (1920) va poydor gardidani Hokimiyati Soveti dar hududi Bukhoroi Sharqi (1921) Komiteti Markazii Partiyai Kommunistii Bukhoro (PKB) Byuroi markazii tashkili, mohi iyuli 1923 Byuroi tashkilin Komiteti Markaziro dar Bukhoroi Sharqi tasis namud, ki on to barpo gardidani Resspublikai Avtonomii Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston vujud dosht. Faoliyati hamai tashkilothoi partiyavi dar hududi Tojikiston bo rohbari va yorii doimiyu hamajonibai Komiteti Markazii RKP(b)surat megirift. Soli 1922 PKB ba hayati RKP(b) qabul shud. Ba andozai vusat yoftani sokhtmoni khojagi va madani jarayoni ba millatho tabdil yoftani khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona purzur shuda, khudshinosii millii onho dar rohi barpo namudani davlati milli meafzud. Soli 1924 baroi taqsimoti hududi milliyu davlatii Osiyoi Miyona sharoiti musoid faroham omad. Komiteti Markazii RKP(b) chunin iqdomi neki khalqhoi kishvarro paziruft va 12 iyuni soli 1924 «Dar borai taqsimoti millii respublikahoi Osiyoi Miyona» qaror qabul kard. Mohhoi sentyabr—oktyabr taqsimoti hududhoi millii Osiyoi Miyona ba rasmiyat daromad, respublikai mukhtori Tojikiston dar hayati Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Uzbekiston tasis yoft. Tagir yoftani taqsimoti davlati va mamurii Osiyoi Miyona az nav tashkil namudani partiyahoi kommunistii kishvarro ba miyon guzosht. Byuroi siyosii Komiteti Markazii RKP(b) 11 sentyabri 1924 qaror dod, ki tashkiloti viloyatii Tojikiston ba RKP ba vositai Komiteti Markazii tashkiloti Uzbakiston dokhil meshavad. 6 dek. 1924 Byuroi tashkilii Komiteti Markazii Partiyai Kommunistii (b) Uzbakistonro barpo namud. Ba hayati on Ch. Imomov, S. M. Sokolov, Sh. Shotemur, N. Lutfulloev, B. Dadoboev, B. V. Tolpigo, Ch. A. Putovskiy, I. F. Fedko, A. Oqchurin va digar dokhil shudand. Ba zimmai Byuroi tashkili vazifai ba rasmiyat darovardani tashkiloti partiyavii respublikaiva rohbari ba faoliyati on (to davati konferensiyai partiyavii viloyatii Tojikiston) voguzoshta shud. 21 —27 oktyabri 1927 Konferensiyai 1-umi partiyavii viloyatii Tojikiston barguzor gardid, ki on faoliyati tashkiloti partiyaviro dar davomi 3 sol jambast kard va Komiteti partiyavii viloyatii tojikistonii Patiyai Kommunistii (b) Uzbakistonro intikhob namud. Tashkiloti partiyavii Tojikiston bo rohbarii Komiteti Makazii VKP(b) ba muborizai mehnatkashon bar ziddi bosmachigari, dar rohi tajdidi khojagii khalqi dar solhoi jangi grajdani kharobgardida, bunyodi avvalin korkhonahoi sanoati va markazhoi madaniyat sarvari namud. Kommuniston ba kori bartaraf kardani boqimondahoi feodaliyu boy va millatchigi, khurofot dar shuuri odamon, dar ruhi ideologiyai sosialisti tarbiya namudani mehnatkashon shuru kardand. Muvofiqi qarori Byuroi Siyosii Komiteti Makazii VKP(b) mohi sentyabri 1929 ba Komiteti partiyavii viloyatii Tojikistoi tashkiloti partiyavii okrugi Khujand hamroh shud. 25 noyabri 1929 muvofiqi qarori Byuroi Siyosii Komiteti Markazii VKP(b) Komiteti partiyavii viloyatii tojikistonii Partiyai Komunistii (b) Uzbakiston ba Partiyai Komunistii (b) Tojikiston tabdil doda shud, ki on az 7 tashkiloti partiyavii okrugi (Dushanbe, Garm, Kulob, Qurgonteppa, Uroteppa, Panjakent, Khujand) va tashkiloti partiyavii VABK iborat bud. Vay 3848 kommunistro muttahid mekard.

Sezdi 1-umi Muassisoni Partiyai Komunistii (b)Tojikiston. 6—15 iyuni 1930 dar Dushanbe barpo gardid. Vay tashkil yoftani Partiyai Komunistii (b) Tojikistonro ba rasmiyat darovard va organhoi rohbarikunandaro intikhob namud. Sezd muhimtarin vazifahoi sokhtmoni sosialistnro ba naqsha girift, rohu vositahoi ba amal barovardani onhoro muayyan kard. Partiyai Komunistii (b) Tojikiston tashkilotchiyu rohbari jangovari ommai mehnatkashon dar muboriza bahri sokhtmoni sosializm gardid. Tashkiloti partiyavi dar faoliyati khud ba Sovetho ittifoqhoi kasaba, komsomol, ba tashkilothoi ommavii dehqononi mehnatkash — «Juftgaron» (az 1929 — «Ittifoqi kambagalon») takya menamud. Dar solhoi panjsolahoi pesh az jang bo rohbarii Partiyai Komunistii (b) Tojikiston nndustronii sosialisty, kollektivonii khojagii qishloq, rev. madany ba amal barovarda, qafomonin iqtisody va madanii khalqn tojik barham doda shud. Partiyai Kommunistii (b) Tojikiston bar ziddi troskizm, opportunizmi rost, har guna namudhoi millatchigi, boyho, dinu khurofot muboriza burd. Ozod gardidani zanoni tojik, ba kori faolonai sokhtmoni jamiyati nav jalb namudani onho muzaffariyati buzurgi sosializm bud. Partiyai Kommunistii (b)Tojikiston az yorii harjonibai nazariyavi va amalii Komiteti Markazii VKP(b) muntazam bahra meburd. Solhoi 20—30 B. V. Tolpigo, M. S. Huseynov, S. K. Shaduns, G. I. Broydo, U. Ashurov, D. 3. Protopopov, Sh. Shotemur, I. Ismoilov va digaron dar korhoi rohbariku nandai partiyavii respublika budand.

Dar solhoi Jangi Buzurgi Vatani (1941—45) Partiyai Kommunistii (b) Tojikiston ba masalahoi bahri hifzi Vatan tashkilu safarbar namudani hamai neruhon iqtisodi, dar bayni aholi vusat dodani korhoi ommavii mudofiavi, bo tamomi lavozimoti harbi tamin kardani armiya va front payvasta mashgul bud. Bo rohbarin Partiyai Kommunistii (b) Tojikiston tamomi khojagii khalq dar muddati kutohtarin ba rohi harbi guzaronda shud. Baroi behtar shudani faoliyati Partiyai Kommunistii (b) Tojikiston qarorhoi Komiteti Markazii VKP(b) (az 7 oktyabri 1942) «Dar borai kori Komiteti Markazi va komitethoi viloyatii Partiyai Kommunistii (b) Tojikiston» va az 13 dekabri 1944 «Dar borai kori Komiteti Markazii Partiyai Kommunistii (b) Tojikiston» ahamiyati kalon doshtand. Partiyai Kommunistii Tojikiston ba purrayu barziyod ijro gardidani planhoi istehsolii korkhonahoi sanoati va tashkilothoi naqliyot, afzoishi mahsulnokii khojagii qpshloq, behtar gardidani kori tashkilii partiyavi va ideologi muvaffaq shud. Partiyai Kommunistii Tojikiston dar sharoiti purmashaqqati jang ba mehnatkashon nazdiktar shud. Afzoishi safhoi partiya az in khusus shahodat medihad. Dar zamoii jang tashkiloti partiyavii Tojikiston ba front 50% hayati khudro firistod. Garchand bisyor kommuniston ba front rafta boshand ham, tashkiloti partiyavi az hisobi qabuli azo va nomzadhoi nav muntazam meafzud: hamagi ba azogii partiya 17024 kas qabul shud. Adadi tashkilothoi partiyavi khele ziyod shud. Agar to 1 yanvari 1942 1047 tashkiloti ibtidoii partnyavi, 174 guruhi nomzadi va 51 gurukhi partiyavi-komsomoli boshad, to 1 yanvari 1945 tedodi tashkilothoi partiyavi ba 132, guruhhoi nomzadi ba 248 va guruhhoi partiyavi-komsomoli ba 204 rasid. Partiyai Kommunistii Tojikiston az ibtido to intihoi jang rohbari sanjidashudai omma bud.

Dar davrai badi jang Partiyai Kommunistii Tojikiston quvvai khudro ba muboriza bahri rivoju ravnaqi minbadai khojagii khalqi respublika, anjom dodani sokhtmoni sosializm ravona namud. Dar hayoti siyosi, iqtisodi va ijtimoii mehnatkashoni Tojikiston digargunihoi jiddi ba amal omadand. Kori tashkilivu ideologii tashkiloti partiyavii Tojikiston khele vusat yoft. To mohi yanvari 1958 dar respublika 2159 tashkiloti partiyavi mavjud bud. Partiya soli 1961 dar Sezdi XXII Programmai seyumro qabul karda, dar hamai sohahoi sokhtmoni sosialisti kori buzurgro vusat dod. Partiyai Kommunistii Tojikiston tamomi mehnatkashonro ba taraqqiyoti minbadai quvvahoi istehsolkunanda safarbar namud.

Dar jarayoni sokhtmoni jamiyati sosialisti Tojikiston az respublikai agrari-industriyavi ba respublikai industriyavi-agrari tabdil yoft. Dar faoliyati Partiyai Kommunistii Tojikiston qarori Komiteti Markazii KPSS az 17 dekabri 1968 «Dar borai Komiteti Markazii Partiyai Kommunistii Tojikiston oid ba ijroi qarorhoi Sezdi 23-yumi KPSS ahamiyati kalon dosht. Partiyai Kommunistii Tojikiston in hujjathoro dasturi amal karda, rohbariro ba habti iqtisodi, madani va jamiyatii respublika purzur namud. Soli 1984 60-solagii tashkil yoftani Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston va tashkiloti partiyavii on jashn girifta shud. Partiyai Kommunistii Tojikiston dar hamai marhalahoi bunyodi jamiyati nav va inkishofu takomuloti on tashkilotchii asil va rohbari kordoni faoliyati bunyodkoronai mehnatkashonn respubika meboshad. Vay dar khususi taraqqiyoti iqtisodiyot, madaniyat, «vusati kori tarbiyavi dar bayni mardum hamesha gamkhori menamoyad. Natijai hamin ast, ki faoliyati ejodi va mehnatii mehnatkashon khele afzudaast. Bo rohbarii Partiyai Kommunistii Tojikiston respublika dar dah soli okhir dar hamai sohahoi sokhtmoni iqtisodi va madani ba dastovardhoi nav noil gardid. Nerui istehsoli va ilmiyu tekhivkii on afzud. Vazni qiyosii mahsuloti umumii sanoat 55%-i istehsoli umumii mahsuloti jamiyatiro tashkil namud. Sohai agrarii iqtisodiyot niz bo surat inkishof yoft. Madaniyati shaklan milliyu mazmunan sosialisti ba poyai baland baromad.

Kommuniston, hamai mehnatkashoni Tojikiston tahriri navi Programmai KPSS, tagyirotro ba Ustavi partiya, rohhoi asosii taraqqiyoti iqtisodi va ijtimoii SSSR-ro baroi solhoi 1966—90 va dar davrai to soli 2000, ki Seadi 27-umi KPSS qabul kard, yakdilona paairuftand. Seedi XX Partiyai Kommunistii Toj. (24—25 yanv.) vaziyati kununii iqtisodiyot, madaniyat, kori ideologiro dar respublika khele amiq tahlilu jambast va peshomadhoi azimi taraqqiyoti hamai sohahoi mukhtalifi khojagii khalqro muayyan namud. Sezd ba masalahoi baland bardoshtani darajai moddivu madanii ruzgori khalq etibori jiddi dod. Faoliyati tashkilivu siyosii Partiyai Kommunistii Tojikiston besh az pesh vusat yoft.

To 1 yanvari 1986 dar hayati Partiyai Kommunistii Tojikiston 4 komiteti partiyavii viloyati, 14 komiteti shahri, 4 komiteti rayonii shahri va 37 komiteti rayonii

Dinamikai hayati miqdorii Partiyai Kommunistii Tojikiston (to 1 yanvari 1988)

Solho Azoyoni KPSS Nomzadho ba azoii KPSS  Hamai

kommuniston

1925 21-1 224 435
1930 1939 1909 3848
1940 5596 5839 11435
1950 25798 5436 31234
1960 42834 5086 47920
1970 79228 5008 84236
1975 90632 3584 94216
1986 117709 5276 122985

qishloqi, 5447 tashkiloti ibtidoii partiyavi, 4495 tashkiloti partiyavii sekhi, 3325 guruhi partiyavi mavjud bud. Shumorai umumii kommuniston 122985 nafarro tashkil kard, ki 68,9% dar sohai istehsoloti moddi kor mekunad.

Partiyai Kommunistii Tojikiston bo subotkori va gayrati tom ba navsozii hamai jabhahoi ruzgor, ki sezdi 27 KPSS peshnihod kardaast, ogoz namud. Vay dar bobati reshakan kardani besarusomoni va isrofkori, poydor sokhtani intizom, barham dodani zuhuroti Sanai sezdhoi PK Tojikiston

Sezdi 1-um 6—45 iyuni 1930
Sezdi 2-yum 7—14 yanvari 1934
Sezdi 3-aom 16—17 avgusti 1937
Sezdi 4-um 7—14 iyuni 1938
Sezdi 5-um 22—27 fevrali 1939
Sezdi 6-um 13—17 marti 1940
Sezdi 7-um 20—23 dekabri 1948
Sezdi 8-um 19—22 sentyabri 1952
Sezdi 9-um 18—20 yanvari 1954
Sezdi 10-um 26—29 yanvari 1956
Sezdi 11-um 14—16 yanvari 1958
Sezdi 12-um 14—15 yanvari 1959
(gayrinavbati) Sezdi 13-um 4—6 fevrali 1960
Sezdi 14-um 21—23 sentyabri 1961
Sezdi 15-um 25—26 dekabri 1963
Sezdi 16-um 2—3 marti 1966
Sezdi 17-um 18—19 fevrali 1971
Sezdi 18-um 27—28 fevrali 1976
Sezdn 19-um 23—25 yanvali 1981
Sezdi 20-um 24—25 yanvari 1986

kogazbozi va rasmiyatchigi, kuhnaparasti va zamonasozi jiddu jahd namuda, mehnatkashonro ba justujui ejodii halli masalahoi ijtimoiyu iqtisodi va ilmiyu tekhniki hidoyat mekunad.

Partiyai Kommunistii Tojikiston dar sharoiti jamiyati barkymoli sosialisti sayu kushishi mehnatkashoni Tojikistonro ba halli vazifahoi masuli buzurgi bunyodi zaminai moddiyu tekhnikii kommunizm, tarbiyai insoni nav safarbar menamoyad.

Sh. Sultonov.

Ittifoqi Leninii Kommunistii Javononi Tojikiston LKSM Tojikiston — qismi tarkibii VLKSM meboshad. Avvalin yacheykahoi komsomoli dar rayonhoi shimoli Tojikiston soli 1918, dar qismhoi markazi va janubii on badi galabai Revolyutsiyai Khalqii Sovetii Bukhoro (sentyabr 1920) ba vujud omadaand. Dar Pomir avvalin yacheykahoi Ittifoqi kommunistii javonon soli 1923 dar Khorug va Porshnev tashkil yoftand. J. Zokirov, III. Khujaev, I. Ozerov, A. Ismoilov, K. Barakaev, A. Salimzoda, F. Yusufov, D. D. Morokin, A. Haydarov, D. Alifbekov, M. Toshmuhammadov, A. Zinnatshoev, M. Ijubov va digaron muassisoni faoli tashkilothoi komsomoli budand. Komsomoli Tojikiston dar sharoiti makhsus ba vujud omad: tabaqai korgarjavonon kamshumor va komsomol asosan az dehqonjavonon iborat buda, aksariyati onho savod nadoshtand. 27 oktyabr 1925 dar Dushanbe Konferensiyai 1-umi umumitojikistonii komsomol barpo gardid, ki on Komiteti viloyatii tojikistonii LKSM Uzbakistonro tashkil kard. Komsomoli Tojikiston dar kori barpo namudan va poydor gardondani Hokimiyati Soveti, torumori bosmachigari faolona ishtirok mekard. Komsomolonu javononi respublika bo davati partiya dar safhoi avvali muboriza baroi industroni va kollektivonii khojagii qishloq qadam mezadand (soli 1932 bo tashabbusi komitethoi mahallii komsomol 48 kolkhozi komsomolonu javonon tashkil shud). Komsomol sokhtmoni rohi ohani Tirmiz-Dushanbe, sistemai irrigasionii Vakhsh, rohi Dushanbe— Khorug va gayraro ba shefi girift, dar tatbiqi revolyutsiyai madani, khususan dar mahvi besavodi sahmi kalon guzosht. Barobari tashkil yoftani Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston soli 1930 tashkiloti viloyatii komsomol ba LKSM Tojikiston tabdil doda shud. Dar solhoi Jangi Buzurgi Vatani (1941—45) 40 hazor nafar komsomoloni Tojikiston dar janghoi ziddi istilogaroni fashisti ishtirok doshtand. Qarib 20 nafar dastparvaroni LKSM Tojikiston sazovori nomi Qahramonn Ittifoqi Soveti gardidand (D. Azizov, S. Amirshoev, H. Kenjaev, I. Hamzaaliev, T. Eryigitov va digaron). T. Eryigitov boshad, kornamoii Aleksandr Matrosovro takror kard. LKSM Tojikiston dar dahsolahoi badi jang dar taraqqiyoti minbadai khojagii khalq, az jumla dar kori azkhudkunii zaminhoi bekorkhobida, faolona ishtirok namud, Shaklu usulhoi kori komitethoi komsomol oid ba tarbiyai ideyaviyu siyosi va mehnatii nasli navras muntazam takmil meyobad. Komsomolon va javononi Tojikiston dar asri shiori «Imruz nazar ba diruz, fardo nazar ba imruz behtar kor mekunem» fidokorona mehnat mekunand. Sahmi azoyoni VLKSM dar istehsoloti moddi niz meafzoyad. LKSM Tojikiston bo rohbarii Partiyai kommunisti dar sokhtmoni jamiyati kommunisti faolona ishtirok mekunad. Mohi noyabri 1975 ba munosibati 50-solagiash LKSM Tojikiston bo ordeni Bayraqi Surkhi Mehnat mukofotonida shud. Mohi oktyabri 1985 ba tashkil yoftani komsomoli Tojikiston 60 sol pur shud. In sanai tarikhi ba idi tamomi komsomolonu javononi respublika tabdil yoft. Onho komyobihoi azimi dar solhoi mavjudiyati LKSM Tojikiston dar muboriza baroi sokhtmoni jamiyati mutaraqqii sosialisti ba dast ovardai khudro jambast namuda, ba ijroi vazifahoi navi ba miyon guzoshtai Partiyai kommunisti tayyor budanashonro izhor kardand.

f. Zikriyoev.

Dinamikai hayati miqdorii LKSM Tojikiston

Solho Azoyoni

LKSM

Solho Azoyoni

LKSM

1930 15915 1950 82391
1932 33128 1960 123000
1939 53675 1970 196000
1946 54711 1975

1986

309637

723142

Sanai barpo gardidani sezdhoi LKSM Tojikiston

Sezdi 1-um 28 noyabr

—7 dekabri

1930
Sezdi 2-yum 28 avgust

—3 sentyabri

1932
Sezdi 3-yum G0—16 fevrali 1936
Sezdi 4-um 20—28 noyabri 1937
Sezdi 5-um 10—17 may 1939
Sezdi 6-um 30sentyabr—1 oktyabri 1940
Sezdi 7-um 24—26 dekabri 1946
Sezdi 8-um 19—22 yanvari 1949
Sezdi 9-um 13—17 sentyabri 1950
Sezdi 10-um 15—17 marti 1952
Sezdi 11-um 29—31 yanvari 1954
Seadi 12-um 9—10 fevrali 1956
Sezdi 13-um 5—6 marti 1958
Sezdi 14-um 10—11 marti 1960
Sezdi 15-um 25—26 yanvari 1962
Sezdi 16-um 6—7 yanvari 1964
Sezdi 17-um 15—16 fevrali 1966
Sezdi 18-um 15—16 fevrali 1908
Sezdn 19-um 26—27 fevrali 1970
Sezdi 20-um 3—4 marti 1972
Sezdi 21-um 27—28 fevrali 1974
Sezdi 22-um 24—25 fevrali 1978
Sezdi 23-yum 2—3 apreli 1982

Ittifoqhoi kasaba. Ittifoqhoi kasabai Tojikiston qismi tarkibii Ittifoqhoi kasabai SSSR meboshand. Badi galabai Revolyutsiyai burjuaziyu demokratii fevrali 1917 dar hududi Tojikiston avvalin tashkiloti ittifoqi kasaba dar st. Khujand (marti 1917) tasis yoft. Tashkilyobii ommavii ittifoqhoi kasaba badi galabai Revolyutsiyai Oktyabr sar shud. Sszdi 2-yumi Partiyai Kommunistii Turkiston (dekabri 1918) qarorro «Dar borai munosibat ba ittifoqhoi kasaba» qabul karda, tashkilothoi partiyavii rospublikaro vazifador namud, ki ba tashkili ittifoqhoi kasaba diqqat dihavd. Mohi iyuni 1919 dar Toshkent Sezdi 1-umi ittifoqhoi kasabai RASS Turkiston barpo gardid, ki dar on vakiloni 103 tashkiloti ittifoqhoi kasaba ishtirok doshtand. Dar solhoi Jangi grajdani ittifoqhoi kasabai Tojikiston baroi mehnatkashonro dar muboriza bar ziddi gvardiyachiyoni safed va bosmachiho safarbar namudan madad rasonda, dar tashkili qismhoi Armiyai Surkh va otryadhoi ikhtiyoriyon hissa guzoshtand. Marti 1925 Byuroi tashkilii ittifoqhoi kasabai RASS Tojikiston barpo gardid. Hamon sol 1300 nafar azoyoni ittifoqhoi kasaba — korkunoni soveti, binokoron, korkunoni sohai ozuqa, korgaron, kosiboni bofanda, ohangaron mavjud budand. Apreli 1926 Sezdi 1-umi umumitojikistonii ittifoqhoi kasaba barpo gardid. Sezd Soveti Markazii ittifoqhoi kasabaro intikhob namud. Dar miyonai soli 1926-um 49 komiteti mahalli beshtar az 3 hazor azoyon, asosan batrakho va korgaronro muttahid menamud. Dar solhoi sokhtmoni sosialisti, Ittifoqhoi kasabai Tojikiston bo rohbarii tashkilothoi partiyavi dar tatbiqi digargunsozihoi sosialisti, industronii mamlakat, kollektivonii khojagii qishloq, taiyor va tarbiya namudani kadrhoi sinfi korgar, intelligensiya, ba amal barovardani revolyusiyai madani ishtirok kardand, oid ba ozodii zanoni tojik va ba istehsoloti jamiyati, idorakunii davlat jalb kardani onho kor meburdand. Ittifoqhoi kasabai Tojikiston tashkilotchiyoni musobiqai sosialisti, harakati zarbdoron, stakhanovchiyon ba hisob meraftand. To soli 1940 um 80 hazor kas azoi ittifoqhoi kasaba gardid.

Dar solhoi Jangi Buzurgn Vatani Ittifoqhoi kasabai Tojikiston baroi ba rohi harbi guzaronidani khojagii khalqi respublika, rivoj dodani istehsoli lavozimoti harbi, qabul kardanu ba kor andokhtani korkhonahoi sanoati va bo kor tamin namudani odamoni sovetii ba Tojikiston kuchondashuda bisyor korhoro ba jo ovardand.

Dar davrai badi jang ittifoqhoi kasabai respublika dar taraqqii minbadan iqtisodiyot va madaniyat faolona ishtirok namudand, tashkilotchiyoni musobiqai sosialisti, harakat baroi munosibati kommunisti ba mehnat, harakati navovaronu ikhtirokoron gardidand, baroi ijroi planhoi istehsoli, baland bardoshtani hosilnokii mehnat muboriza meburdand, ba tashkili musbiqai sosialnstii mehnatdustoni respublika bo mehnatkashoni digar respublikahoi ittifoqi diqqati kalon medodand. Ittifoqhoi kasabai Tojikiston vazifahoi ba muhofizati mehnat, bekhatarii tekhnika, rioyai qonunhoi oid ba mehnat nazorati davati va jamiyati burdanro ba jo meovarand. Onho baroi behtar kardani sharoiti mehnat va istirohati korgaronu khizmatchiyon va korkunoni khojagii qishloq gamkhori zohir menamoyand, korhoi ziyodi tarbiyavi mebarand. Ittifoqhoi kasabai respublika bo tashkilothoi ittifoqhoi kasabai mamlakathoi khoriji niz aloqa dorand. 1 yanvari 1986 respublika 1456 681 nafar azoi ittifoqhoi kasaba dosht, ki onho dar 8727 tashkiloti ibtidoi muttahid budand.          A. Valiev.

Khojagii khalqi Tojikiston respublikai industriyaviyu agrarist. Dar solhoi Hokimiyati Soveti sanoati sersoha, khojagii qishloqi ba darajai baland mekhanakonidashuda va rohhoi ziyodi naqliyoti ba vujud omadand. Az mahsuloti umumii jamiyati 56,3% ba sanoat, 12,5% ba sokhtmon, 19,8% ba khojagii qishloq va 2,6% ba naqliyot va aloqa taalluq dorad (1984). Solhoi 1918—1984 mablagguzorii muassisahoi davlati va kooperativi ba khojagii khalqi respubinka 18 928 mln sumro tashkil dod. Tojikiston dar SSSR yake az nohiyahoi muhimmi pakhtakori, istikhroji metallhoi ranga va nodir meboshad. Sohahoi istehsoli abreshim, matohoi pakhtagin, qolin, ravgan, konservhoi mevayu sabzavot ahamiyati umumiittifoqi dorand. Solhoi okhir sohahoi gunoguni sanoat — moshinsoziyu tahvili motall, elektroenergetika, metallurgiyai ranga, sanoati khimiya khele taraqqi kardand. Hissai Tojikiston dar khojagii khalqi SSSR chunin ast (1984): az rui istehsoli pakhta 10,8%, nakhi pakhta 11,0%, nakhi abreshim 9,2%, ravgani rastani 3,1%, konservi mevayu sabzavot 1,7%. Az rui istehsoli ravgani anjibar va limuparvary dar mamlakat joi avvalro ishgol mekunad. Robitai iqtisodii Tojikiston bo hamai respublpkahoi ittifoqi mustahkam ast. Mahsuloti sanoati Tojikiston qarib ba 50 mamlakati khoriji sodir meshavad. Dar Tojikiston Kompleksi mintaqaviyu istehsolii Tojikistoni Janubi tashakkul meebad.

Sanoat. Dar solhoi Hokimiyati Soveti hajmi istehsoloti sanoati beshtar az 156 marotiba afzud. Dar respuolika ziyoda az 90 sohai sanoat va 300 korkhonai kaloni sanoati mavchudand. Solhoi 1960—80 beshtar sohahoi sanoati vaznin —elektroenergetika, istikhroji madani kuhi, metallurgiyai ranga, moshinsozi va tahvili metall, sanoati masolehi binokori taraqqi kardand. 38,0%-i mahsuloti umumiro industriyai vaznin mebarorad va 83,7%-i tamomi fandhoi asosii istehsoloti sanoati baroi on sarf karda meshavad. GES- hoi Qayroqqum, Norak, Boygozi, Sarband, Markazi, Sharshara, silsilai GES-hoi Varzob, TES-hoi Dushanbeyu YOvon va gayra manbai asosii energetikai respublika meboshand. Sokhtmoni kalontarin GES-i Osiyoi Miyona— GES-i Rogun (az 1983 davom dorad. Soli 1984 stansiyahoi elektrii Tojikiston 15172 mln kVt energiyai elektr istehsol kardand. Dar yak qator kombinatu fabrikahoi respublika (kombinathoi Anzob, Adrasmon, fabrikahoi Takob, Choruqdaron, Jelav va gayra) surbu ruh, surb, misu molibden, volfram, surmayu simob, flyuorit va digaron madanhoi nodirro toza mekunand va az onho konsentrat megirand. 3avodi alyuminiyi Tojikiston va zavodi gidrometallurgii Isfara avvalin korkhonahoi sanoati metallurgiyai ranga meboshand. Korkhonahoi sanoati moshinsozi va tahvili metall asosan dar Dushanbe (zavodhoi «Tojiktekstilmash», «Torgmash», «Tojikgidroagregat», «Tojikkabel», zavodi yakhdonhoi ruzgor va gayra), inchunin dar Leninobod (zavodi ittihodiyai «Torgmash»), Konibodom (zavodi «Avtozapchast»), Qurgonteppa (zavodi transformator), Isfara (zavodi tajhizoti rushnoidihandai tekhniki) joygir shudaand. In korkhonaho dastgohhoi bofandagiyu resmonresi, moshinhoi khojagii qishloq, yakhdon, masnuoti kabeli, armatura, transformator, tajhizoti rushnoidihanda, apparaturai elektrii pastshiddat, qismhoi ehtiyoti baroi avtomobilu traktor, tajhizot baroi muassisahoi savdo va khuroki umumi va gayra istehsol mekunand. Sanoati khimiya (zavodi nurihoi nitrogendori Vakhsh, zavodi elektrokhimiyavii YOvon) rivoj meyobad. Sanoati masolehi binokori kombinathoi sement, masnuoti asbosement va qarib 50 zavod (konstruksiyahoi ohanu betoni, masolehi gidroizolyasioni, khisht, ohaku gaji binokori, karamzit va gayra)-ro dar bar megirad. Korkhonahoi masolehi binokori dar Dushanbe, Orjonikidzeobod, Proletar, Qayroqqum, Isfara va digar shahru rayonhoi respublika joygirand. Nomgui mahsuloti in soha az hisobi masolehi navi mahalli (agloporit, karamzit, folgaizol, pakhtai minerali, plitayu takhtasanghoi koshinkori va digar masnuoti oroishi binokori) toraft meafzoyad. Sohahoi sanoati sabuk: pakhtatozakuni, istehsoli matohoi pakhtagin, shohibofi, qolinbofi, duzandagi, charmu poyafzol, mebel va charchinvori. Korkhonahon kaloni sanoati sabuk dar Dushanbe (ittihodiyai istohsoli gazvorhoi pakhtagin, kombinati shohibofi), Leninobod (kombinati shohibofi), Qayroqqum (kombinati qolinbofi), Konibodom (fabrikahoi bofandagi, duzandagi), Uroteppa (fabrikai trikotaj), Qurgonteppa (fabrikahoi duzandagi, mebel) va zavodhoi pakhtatozakuni (18 zavodi) beshtar dar rayoihoi pakhtakor voqe gardidaand. Sanoati sabuki Tojikiston 9 ittihodiyai istehsoli va bisyor korkhonahoi khurdro dar bar megirad (1984). Ba tufayli afzoshi mablagguzori, mekhanikoni va avtomatonii kompleksii mehnat, sanoati sabuk bosurat taraqqi mekunad. Soli 1984 hosilnokii mehnat (nisbat ba 1940) 2,3 va istehsoli umumii mahsulot 12,9 marotiba afzud. Peshrafti khojagii qishloqi respublika ba taraqqii minbadai sanoati khurokvori (makhsusan sohahoi ravgankashi, istehsoli mevai khushk, konservhoi mevayu sabzavot va gushtu shir) musoidat menamoyad. Ravgankashi (az chigit) kalontarin sohai sanoati khurokvorist. zavodhoi ravgankashii Qurgonteppa, Kulob, Konibodom va Kombintai ravgani Dushanbe ittihodiyai «Tojikmaslo»-ro tashkil medihand. Istehsoli ravgan dar Tojikiston az soli 1940 to soli 1984 72 barobar afzud. Korkhonahoi istehsoli konservhoi mevayu sabzavot asosan dar shimoli reslublika — nohiyai kaloii bogu tokparvary joy giriftaand. Kombinathoi konservi Leninobod, Konibodom, Isfara, ittihodiyai tamoku va konservi Panjakent, anguru mevai «Shahrinav», «Khujand», «Istaravshan» va «Qurgonteppa» kalontarin korkhonahoi sanoatn khurokvorii respublikaand. Kombinathoi mahsuloti gallagii Dushanbe, Orjonikidzeobod, Qayroqqum, No,v ord, birinj va khuroki omekhtai chorvo istehsol mekunand.

Khojagii qishloq. Mahsuloti umumii khojagii qishloq soli 1984 nisbat ba soli 1940 4,4 marotiba afzud. Soli 1984 dar respublika 158 kolkhoz, 297 sovkhoz va 48 muassisayu tashkiloti baynikhojagi mavjud bud va onkho ziyoda az 35,2 hazor traktor, qarib 4,3 hazor moshini pakhtachin, 1,6 hazor kombayni gallagundor va beshtar az 28 hazor avtomobili borkash doshtand. Baroi ehtiyojoti khojagii qishloqm3257,8       mln kVt s energiyai elektr va 226 hazor ton nurihoi minerali sarf shud. Ba tufayli rivoj yoftani korhoi obyori masohati zaminhoi nayi obi az 225 hazor ga (1929) to 646 hazor ga (1984) rasid. Bisyor kanal, obanbor va stansiyahoi nasosi, sistemahoi obyorii Fargova, Mirzochul, Khojaboqirgon, Somgor, Margedar, Beshkent, Vakhsh, YOvonu Obikiik, Chubek va gayra bunyod gardidand. 4 noyabri 1986 sokhtmoni navbati yakumi kompleksi obyorii dashti Dangara (tunelash 14 km) ba anjom rasid. Dar khojagii qishloq sohahoi nav — anjirparvari, limuparvari, tamokukori ba vujud omadand.

tj3

3iroat. Soli 1984 tamomi zaminhoi khojagii qishloq 4,2 mln ga bud (az jumla kishtzor 0,8 mln ga, charogoh 3,2 mln ga). Dar davrai Hokimiyati Sovety pakhtakory (dar vodihoi Vakhsh, Hisor, viloyathoi Lennnobod va Kulob) ba sohai asosin khojagii qishloq mubaddal gardid. Masohati zaminhoi pakhta soli 1984 nisbat ba davrai torevolyusioni 11,6 marotiba, mahsuloti umumii gunuchini pakhta beshtar az 30 marotiba va hosilnoki 2,7 marotiba afzud. Tojikiston bazai asosii istehsoli pakhtai mahinakhi mamlakat meboshad. Soli 1984 dar Tojikiston 932,4 hazor ton pakhta istehsol shud, ki in nisbat ba soli 1940-um 5,5 marotiba ziyod ast. Dar respublika inchunin tamoku (dar zaminhoi obii domanakuh) va anjibar parvarish mekunand. Kolkhozhoi ba nomi V. I. Lenin, «Sezdi 20-umi partiya» va sovkhozzavodi «Efironos»-i rayoni Tursunzoda, sovkhoz-zavodi «Geran»-i rayoni Qumsangir khojagihoi asosii anjibarparvari meboshand. Tojikiston qarib 70%-i ravgani anjibari Ittifoqi Sovetiro medihad. Gandum, jav, zagir, kunjit asosan dar zaminhoi lalmii domanakuhho, sholi dar zaminhoi obii nohiyahoi shimol va janubu garbi Tojikiston, inchunin dar vodii Zarafshon (rayoni Panjakent) kisht karda meshavand. Sabzavotu ziroati poliziro qarib dar hamai rayonho, kartoshkaro dar rayonhoi kuhi mekorand. Dar mahalhoi atrofi Dushanbe, Leninobod va digar shahrhoi kalon khojagihoi nazdishahrii sabzavotkori inkishof meyobad. Soli 1984 khojagihoi jamiyati ba davlat 85,8 hazor ton kartoshka, 325,4 hazor ton sabzavot, 92,7 hazor ton ziroathoi polizi, 77,3 hazor ton meva va 132,9 hazor ton angur furukhtand.

Aksari bogu tokzorho dar shimol va janubu garbi respublika voqe gardidaand. Solhon badi jang parvarishi limu (dar vodii Vakhsh) ba roh monda shud.

Chorvodori (gov, gajgov, gusfandu buz, khuk, asp va murgparvari) ba sohai sermahsuli khojagii qishloq tabdil meyobad.

Dar mahalhoi atrofi Dushanbe, Le ninobod va digar shahrho khojagihoi parvarishi chorvoi shirdeh ba roh monda shudaast. Gusfandi qarokuliro dar rayonhoi janubu garbi va shimoli Tojikiston va gajgovro dar rayoni Murgobi VABK parvarish mekunand. Ba aspparvari (zothoi laqai, qarobohiri, qisman qirgizi) niz ahamiyati jiddi medihand. 24D% kolkhozho va 13,8% sovkhozho fermai khukparvari dorand. Gayr az in sovkhozhoi makhsusi khukparvari («Shaynak», «Hisor», «Mehnatobod», «Navobod», «Gonchi») mavjudand.

Istehsoli mahsuloti asosii chorvo (dar hama navhoi khojagi)

Mahsulot                                               1980           1984

Gusht (vazni kholis),

hazor ton……….                                  94,5    104,0

Shir, hazor ton            .            .     .           498,7   538,5

Tukhm, mln      dona        .            .             321,7       421,2

Pashm, hazor ton         .            .     .           6,0       5,0

Soli 1984 ba davlat 101,2 hazor ton (ba vazni zinda) chorvo va murg, 280,3 hazor ton shir, 335 mln dona tukhm va 3260 ton pashm furukhta shud. Kirmakdori niz yake az sohahoi muhim ast (4311 ton pilla, 1984). Parvarishi zanburi asal rivoj meyobad. Dar respublika 69 sovkhoz, 44 kolkhoz, 86 khojagii davlati va beshtar az 2,5 hazor shakhsoni alohida ba parvarishi zanburi asal mashguland. Dar panjsolai 12-um ba taraqqiyoti chorvodori diqqati makhsus medihand. S. 1990 boyad dar Tojikiston 140—143 hazor ton gusht, 630— 640 hazor ton shir va 710—720 mln dona tukhm istehsol karda shavad.

Naqliyot. Tojikiston ba qadri kifoya bo rohhoi naqliyoti tamin ast. Dar hajmi umumii borkashonii baynirespublikavi rohi ohan mavqei asosi dorad. Tuli umumii rohi ohani serbar 474 km,

kambar—429 km (1984). Yak khati tranzitii rohi ohan az Nov — Leninobod — Konibodom meguzarad (shokhaash ba Isfara — Shurob meravad). Khati digari rohi ohan az Tirmiz to Dushanbe va davomash to stansiyai Yangibozor (Orjonikidzeobod) tul kashidaast. Solhoi 1966—80 rohi ohani Tirmiz — Kurgonteppa — YOvon (264 km) sokhta shud.

Rohi ohani kambar (Dushanbe — Qurgonteppa — Kulob va Qurgonteppa — Panji Poyon) yak qator rayonhoi az jihati iqtisodi muhimmi respublikaro ba ham mepayvandad. Soli 1984 ba vositai rohi ohan 528,4 hazor ton bor kashonida shud, ki in nisbat ba hajmi borkashonii soli 1940 5 marotiba aiyod ast. Dar borkashonii dokhili respublika hissai naqliyoti avtomobili az hama ziyodtar (93%) meboshad. Tuli umumii rohhoi avtomobilgard —13,4 hazor km (az jumla rohhoi asfaltpush 11,3 hazor km). Rohhoi asosii avtomobilgard: Dushanbe — Tirmiz, Dushanbe — Leninobod, Dushanbe — Qurgonteppa, Dushanbe— Kulob, Dushanbe — Khorug, Khorug — Ush. Passajirkashonii avtomooilii baynishahri khub ba roh monda shudaast. Tojikiston 300 km rohi obi (dar daryohoi Panj va Amu) dorad. Bandari asosi — Panji Poyon. Rohhoi havoi Dushanbero bo hamai markazhoi viloyat va rayonhoi durdasti respublika, inchunin bo Moskva, Leningrad va digar shahrhoi kaloni mamlakat mepayvandand. Dar dahsolai okhir (1970—80) tuli rohhoi havoi qarib 3 marotiba (az jumla dar rohhoi ahamiyati ittifoqqdoshga 3,9 marotiba) afzud. Aviasiyai grajdani inchunin bisyor korhoi khojagii qishloq va digar sohahoi khojagii khalq (korhoi geologi, yordami tibbi va gayra)-ro ijro mekunad. Tojikiston ba vositai naqliyoti quburi az Uzbekiston (quburi gazi Muborak — Bekobod — Fargona) va Afgoniston (tavasuti quburi gazi Kalif — Dushanbe, 295 km) gaz megirad.

Nekuahvolii moddi va darajai madaniyat. Nekuahvolii moddii aholii Tojikiston ruz az ruz behtar va darajai madaniyati on toraft baland meshavad. Solhoi 1965—84 daromadi milli taqriban 2,6 va daromadi aholi 1,8 marotiba afzud. Soli 1984 pardokht va imtiyozhoe, ki aholii az fondi jamiyatii istemoli girift, ba 1367 mln sum (59,8 mln sum ziyod nisbat ba soli 1983) barobar shud. Hajmi khizmati maishi ba aholy 10,3%, az jumla dar dehot 10,5% afzud. 21,3 hazor khonai istiqomati (masohati umumiash 1100 hazor m) sokhta shud, ki dar natija 140 hazor kas sharoiti manzilii khudro behtar namud. Maktabhoi talimi umumi (baroi 21 hazor khonanda), muassisahoi tomaktabi (baroi 6 hazor kudak), bemorkhonaho (baroi 885 kat), poliklpnikaho (qabuli yakruzaashon 670 k-as) va digar obektho sokhta shudand.

Dar donishkadahoi gunogun 1,6 mln kas tahsil mekard. Soli 1984 ba khojagii khalq 21 hazor nafar mutakhassis (9,5 hazor nafar doroi malumoti oli va 11,5 hazor malumoti miyonai makhsus) firistoda shud. Maktabhoi kasbhoi tekhnikii respublika dar yak sol beshtar az 22,4 hazor korgari javon tayyor kardand. Shumorai dukhturoni ikhtisoshoi gunogun ba 11,7 hazor nafar rasid.             H. Saidmurodov.

Nigahdorii tandurusti. To Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sosialistii Oktyabr nigahdorii tandurusti dar Tojikiston hamchun sistemai davlati vujud nadosht. Hukumati podshohi baroi khizmatrasonii tibbii aholii Osiyoi Miyona ba har sari kas sole 14 tin judo mekard. Amorati Bukhoro boshad, baroi ehtiyojoti tandurustii mardum yagon tin kharj namekard. Sharoiti khele vaznini moddiyu maishii khalq, zindagonii qashshoqona, besavodi, tasiri dinu khurofot, vaziyati ziddisanitarii mahallu manzilho, iflosi va pursiroyatii muhiti atrof — ob, havo va khoku khurok va gayra boisi pahn shudani bisyor bemorihoi guzarandayu vogir (epidemi), kasbiyu ijtimoi — bezgak, chechak, vabo, toun, rishta, hasba, domana, kuft, kuzoz, hori, khunoq, sulfakabudak, surkhakon, makhmalak, sil, zotuljanb, isholi khunin, falaji bachagona va gayra megardidand. Soli 1913 dar hududi hozirai Tojikiston hamagi 1 bemorkhonai doroi 40 kat, 13 dukhtur va 32 kormandi miyonai tibbi bud.

Az khizmati tibbi faqat feodalhoi mahalli, boyonu amaldoron, harbiyon va mansabdoroni podshoh bahra meburdand. Taqdiri salomatii mardumi oddi va zahmatkash asosan dar dasti tabiboni johil, bakhshiyu folbin va mullovu eshonho bud. Khizmatrasonii muntazami tibbi ba aholi dar Tojikiston badi barpo gardidani Hokimiyati Soveti ogoz yoft. Dar davrai soveti nigaqdorii tandurusti, ki az tashkili muolijayu peshgirii bemoriho, muhofizati salomatii modaronu kudakon, tadbirhoi ziddivogiri, tabobati sanatoriyu kurorti, maorifi sanitari, bo doru taminkunii aqoli va gayra iborat ast, ru ba taraqqi nihod.

Dar solhoi avvali Hokimiyati Soveti ba Tojikiston az respublikahoi barodari, beshtar az RSFSR va Ukraina kormandoni tib firistoda shudand. Avvalin dukhturon (to 1924) A. N. Gostev, I. A. Petrukhin, A. V. Spasskaya, M. A. Chernilova, S. I. Chumakov, A. M. Dyakov (nakhustin Komissari khalqii nigaqdorii tandurustii RASS Tojikiston) va digar budand. Ba tufayli taraqqii muntazami khojagii khalq, boloravii madaniyat va balandshavii darajai nekuahvolii khalq, nigahdorii tandurusti va ilmi tib ba komyobihoi ziyode noil gardid va dar in jabha Tojikiston az yak qator mamlakatqoi kapitalisti pesh guzasht. Dar respublika bisyor bemorihoi ijtimoi va siroyatiyu angalii nomburda tamoman barham khurdand, shumorai bemorihoi  digar nihoyat kam gardid.

Badi tashkil yoftani RSS Tojikiston nigahdorii tandurusti bosurat rivoj yoft. Hanuz soli 1929 dar Tojikiston 22 muassisai muolijayu peshgirii bemori (bo 990 kat) vujud dosht. Solhoi 30 avval dar Khujand, bad dar Stalinobod tekhnikumhoi tibbi, soli 1939 dar Stalinobod Instituti tibbi bunyod gardidand. S. 1943 Instituti tibbiro 125 kas, az jumla 6 nafar tojikon, khatm namudand. Soli 1940 dar Tojikiston 121 bemorkhonai doroi 4490 kat, 245 muassisai ambulatoriyu polikliniky, 71 konsultasiyai zanona va poliklinikai kudakon vujud dosht, dukhturon 648 nafar, korkunoni miyonai tibbi 2674 naf. budand. Solhoi Jangi Buzurgi Vatani diqqati organhoi nigahdorii tandurustii respublika ba masalahoi peshgirii bemorihoi vogir, muolija va har chi zudtar ba safi armiya bargardonidani jangovaroni zakhmdor va bemor, istehsoli doruhoi ziddi kasalihoi siroyati va gayra ravona shuda bud. Dar respublika chandin gospital tashkil yoft, ki dar onho dahho hazor jangovaron shifo yoftand. Soli 1984 6 omuzishgohi tibbii Tojikiston besh az 2000 kormandi doroi malumoti miyonai tibbi, Instituti davlatii tibbii ba nomi Abuali ibni Sino boshad, taqriban 600 nafar dukhtur tayyor namud. Dar respublika bemorkhonahoi bisyore bunyod yoftaand, ki na faqat ba sokinoni shahrho, balki ba aholii tamomi gushayu kanori respublika niz yorii tibbii mukammal merasonand. Muassisahoi muolijavi toraft beshtar makhsusonida, bo asbobu anjomhoi darkori va dastgohhoi zamonavi tajhizonida meshavand. Soli 1984 dar Tojikiston 10818 dukhtur, 28926 kormandi miyonai tib khizmat merasondand. 319 bemorkhonai doroi 42790 kat, 630 ambulatoriyayu poliklinika vujud dosht. Baroi sari vaqt peshgiri kardani baze bemoriho dispanseronii miqyosan kaloni aholi ahamiyati kalon dorad. Dar respublika 17 dispanseri ziddi kasalii sil, 4—omosshinosi (onkologi), 17—bemorihoi pust va oloti tanosul, 9— ruhu asab, 3— endokrinologi, 6— tarbiyai jismoni tashkil yoftaand. Shabakai umuri muhofizati salomatii modaron va kudakon 19 tavalludkhona, 144 shubai tavallud (bo 6520 kat), besh az 180 bemorkhonayu shubahoi bemorihoi kudakona, 26 sanatoriyai makhsusi bachagona, 125 oshkhonai mahsuloti shiriro dar bar megirad. Ba kudakon dar muassisahoi ambulatoriyu polikliniki (dar shahrho az rui 18 —21 ikhtisos, dar dehot az rui 6—8        ikhtieos) yorii tibbi rasonida meshavad. Ba korgaroni korkhonahoi sanoati, sokhtmon va naqliyot 11 qismi tibbiyu sanitarii doroi 795 kat, 33 punkti hifzi sihati, 329 uchastkai feldsheri va 79 uchastkai sekhi khizmat mekunaid. Ba aholii respublika 12 poliklinikai makhsus va kabinethoi sershumori dardi dandon yorii stomatologi merasonand. Soli 1984 dar Tojikiston 3 kurort (Obigarm, Khojaobigarm, Shambari), yakchand sanatoriya, 9 khonai istirohat va pansionat amal mekardand, ki dar onho 78   hazor kat mavjud buda, besh az 160 hazor kas tabobat va istirohat kard.

G. Pulodova, M. Rasulov.

Fizkultura, sport, turizm. Dar 3996 kollektivi fizkulturii Tojikiston 644.8     hazor kas bo namudhoi gunoguni sport mashgul ast (1. 1. 1986). Holo dar respublika 36 stadion, 643 maydoni futbol, 648 zali sporti, 37 havzi shinovari, 11 korti tennis, 195 tir, qario 4 hazor maydoni voleybolu basketbolu gorodkibozi mavjud ast. 123 maktabi sporti (13— toash makhsus gardonida shudaast) 73595 nafar bachagonu navrasonro faro giriftaast. Dar respublika Jamiyati ikhtiyorii sportii «Dinamo», «Spartak», «Lokomotiv, «Rezervhoi mehnati» va jamiyati sporti khojagii qishloq «Hosilot» amal mekunand. Dar davomi solhoi 1975— 85 dar Tojikiston 1122 Ustodi sporti SSSR, 51 Ustodi sporti klassi baynalkhalqi va 6 Ustodi Khizmatnishondodai sporti SSSR tayyor karda shudaast.

2      nafar varzishgaroni Tojikiston chempponi bozihoi olimpi, 10 nafarashon chempioni jahon va 32 naf. chempioni SSSR gardidaand.

Dar 1936 kollektivi fizkulturi klub va guruhhoi fizkulturai muolijavi tashkil shudaast, ki onho 98 hazor kasro dar bar megirand.

(1986). Dar 944 korkhona, muassisa va maktabhoi oli gimnastikai istehsoli guzaronida meshavad, ki dar onho 160316 kas ishtirok menamoyand. Dar mahalhoi istiqomati niz 59 klubi fizkulturai muolijavi (doroi 156325 nafar azo) mavjudast (1986).

Dar respublika 4 bazai turisti— «Varzob», «Bahri tojik» («Qayroqqum»), Iskandarkul», «Kulhoi Margzor» va 3 qarorgoh — «Shahriston», «Panjakent», «Takob» hast (dar davomi soli 1985 onho 52 hazor kasro qabul kardand). Tojikiston yake az muhimtarin markazhoi alpinizmi SSSR hisob meyobad. Dar Pomir balandtarnn qullahoi Ittifoqi Soveti — qullai «Kommunizm», qullai ba nomi V. I. Lenin, qullai «Revolyusiyai Oktyabr» va gayra voqe gashtaand. Gayr az in qarib 100 qullai balandiash besh az 6 hazor metr mavjud ast, ki dar onho har sari chavd vaqt ekspedisiyayu kuhnavardiho guzaronida meshavand.

Maorifi khalq va muassisahoi madaniyu marifati. To Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sosialistii Oktyabr dar hududi hozirai Tojikiston qismi ziyodi aholi savod nadosht. Maktabu madrasaho dar ikhtiyori ruhoniyon budand va dar onho asosan farzandoni boyu amaldoron mekhondand. Dar okhiri asri 19 chand maktabi tipi nav tashkil gardid, ki onho amaldoron va khizmatguzoron tayyor mekardand. Baroi az aholii mahalli tarbiya kardani shakhsoni savodnok (ba maqsadi minbad dar vazifahoi mamuri istifoda burdani onho) ibtidoi asri 20 dar Khujand, Uroteppa va digar shahru dehaho 10 maktabi rusii mahallii 4-sola tashkil gardid (soli khonishi 1914/15 dar osnho 369 khonanda tahsil va 13 muallim kormekard). Maktabhoi rusii mahalli dar targibi zabon va madaniyati rus dar bayni aholii mahalli mavqei muhim doshtand. Revolyutsiyai Oktyabr baroi inkishofi madaniyati millii khalqi tojik roh kushod. KIM-i respublikai Turkiston avgusti 1918 Nizomnomaro «Dar borai tashkili maorifi khalq dar kishvari Turkiston» tasdiq namud va deklarasiyaro oid ba jori namudani talimi umumii bepul (ba zaboni modari) va judo kardani maktab az din nashr kard. Soli 1918 dar shimoli Tojikistonm 15 maktabi soveti kushoda shud, soli 1919 boshad, shumorai onho ba 73 rasid. Okhiri 1926 dar hududi Tojikiston 161 maktab va 10 khonai bachagon (5430 naf. khonanda) mavjud bud. Inkishofi maorifi khalq masalai ba tavri ommavi tayyor kardani kadrhoi pedagogiro ba miyon guzosht. Dar halli in masala ba Tojikiston khalqhoi barodar — rusho, ukrainho, uzbekho va digar yori merasondand. Dar tayyor kardani kadrhoi ilmi va ilmiyu pedagogi baroi respublikahoi Osiyoi Miyona, az jumla Tojikiston, Universteti Toshkent roli kalon bozid. (Soli 1925 dar Dushanbe nakhustin tekhnikumi pedagogi, soli 1931 Instituti pedagogi (bo fakultethoi zabon va adabiyot, agrobiologiya va gayra), soli 1932 dar Leninobod Instituti pedagogi tasis yoft. Solhoi 20 kori mahvi besavodi dar bayni aholii kalonsol vusat yoft. Soli khonishi 1925/26 63 punkti mahvi besavodi (1450 khonanda), soli khonishi 1927/28 239 punkt (qarib 5 hazor khonanda, az jumla 44 zan), soli khonishi 1931/32 3360 punkt (134,8 hazor khonanda, az jumla 22,9 hazor zan) amal mekard. Dar Tojikiston revolyutsiyai madani dar sharoiti vaznini Jangi grajdani va muboriza bar ziddi bosmachiyon meguzasht. Ruhoniyon, ki on vaqt nufuzi kalon doshtand, nisbat ba maktabhon nav hissi nobovari meparvaridand. Ba marifatnokshavii zanon urfu odathoi kuhnai feodali mone meshudand. Maktabkhonaho nabudand, muallimon va dasturhoi talim namerasidand.

Az hamin sabab talimi umumii ibtidoi tadrijan soli khonishi

1930/31 (ham baroi pisarbachaho va ham baroi dukhtarbachahoi sinnashon az 8 to 10-sola) dar shahrhoi Dushanbe, Khujand va Uroteppa, soli khonishn 1931/32 dar okrugi Khujand va soli khovishi 1932/33 dar tamomi respublika jori gardid, Muvofiqi baruikhatgirii soli 1939 foizi savodnokon dar bayni aholii sinnashon az 9 to 49-sola 82,8 (mardho — 87,4, zanho—77,5)-ro tashkil dod. Ba hurufoti navi rusiasos guearondani alifboi tojiky (soli 1940) dar inkishofi maorif ahamiyati kalon dosht. Soli khonishi 1940/41 dar hamai maktabhoi malumoti umumi 300 hazor khonanda tahsil mekard. Az soli khonishi 1949/50 talimi umumii 7-sola, az soli khonishi 1959/60 talimi umumii 8-sola jori gardid. Muvofiqi baruikhatgirii soli 1979 savodnokii aholi 99,7% (mardho 99,85%, zanho 99,45%)-ro tashkildod. Dar panjsolai 9-um (1971—75) guzarish ba talimi umumii miyona asosan ba itmom rasid.

Dar solhoi Hokimiyati Soveti dar respublika muassisahoi ziyodi tomaktabii kudakon bunyod gardidand. Soli. 1985 dar 808 muassisai tomaktabii doimoamalkunanda 130,6 hazor nafar kudak (soli 1940 8,1 hazor nafar) tarbiya megirift. Soli khonpshi 1985/86 3116 maktabi talimi umumi kor mekard, ki onho 1194,1 hazor nafar khonanda doshtand. Soli khonishi 1985/86 dar 20 maktab-internati respublika 7,6 hazor, dar maktabhoi shabona (smenagi) 38,5 hazor khonanda tahsil mekard. Az soli khonishi 1986/87 sar karda dar asosi islohoti maktabi miyona (1984) kudakon az sinni 6-solagi ba maktab jalb gardidand. Korhoi talimu tarbiya va madanivu marifati bo maktabbachaho dar muassisahoi berun az maktabi niz burda meshavand. Soli 1986 Qasri pioneron va maktabbachaho dar Dushanbe, 79 khonai pioneron, 9 stansiyai tekhnikhon javon, 8 stansyai tabiatdustoni javon, 7 stansiyai ekskursioniyu turisti, 75 kitobkhonai bachagona va 4 bogi bachaho kor mekard.

Dar Tojikiston malumoti kasbi ham inkishof yoftaast. Nakhustin maktabi shogirdoni fabrikiyu zavodi soli 1927 dar nazdi konhoi Shirkati neftkashii Osiyoi Miyona (SANTO) tashkil yoft. 1 yanvari 1986 dar 85 omuzishgohi kasbhoi tekhnikii sistemai Komiteti davlati oid ba malumoti kasbhoi tekhniki 45238 khovanda tahsil mekard. 49 omuzishgohi kasbhoi tekhiiki (26968 khonanda) ba khonandagon ham kasb meomuzad, ham malumoti miyona medihad. Soli khonishi 1985/86 dar 39 omuzishgohi miyonai makhsus 40,2 hazor khonanda tahsil mekard. Dar 10 donishkadai Oli (UDT, instituthoi politekhniki, pedagogi, khojagii qishloq, tibbi, sanat, fizkultura, zabon va adabiyoti rusii shahri Dushanbe, instituthoi pedagogii Leninobod va Kulob) 55 hazor student tahsil mekard. Donishkadahoi olii respublika baroi dar amaliya jori namudani islohoti maktabi oli (1966) chorabinihoi hamatarafa mebinand. Soli khonishi 1985/86 dar maktabhoi Tojikiston qarib 77,2 hazor muallim kor mekard. Baroi baland bardoshtani ikhtisosi muallimon dar asosi talaboti islohoti maktabi miyona instituthoi takmili ikhtisos (respublikavi, 3 viloyati, 1 baynirayoni va 1 shahri) mavqei muhim dorand.

Soli 1985 dar Tojikiston 1628 kitobkhonai ommavi (42845 700 nuskha kitob va jurnal) kor mekard. Kalontarini onho Kitobkhonai davlatii RSS Tojikiston ba nomi A. Firdavsi meboshad. Dar Tojikiston Muzei muttahidai respublikavii tarikhu kpshvarshinosi va sanati tasvirii ba nomi Behzod, Muzei adabii S. Ayni, Muzei yodgoriyu adabii M. Tursunzoda (dar shahri Dushanbe), Muzei respublikavii tarikhu kishvarshiiosii ba nomi Rudaki dar shahri Panjakent), muzeyhoi tarikhu kishvarshinosii Leninobod, Kulob, VABK, Muzei etnografiyai Instituti tarikhi Akademiyai Fanhoi  Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston va gayra mavjudand. Soli 1966 dar Tojikiston 1338 klub amal mekard.

Sanati badeii havaskoron. Avvalin kollektivhoi havaskoroni sanat okhiri soli 1919 dar rayonhoi shimoli Tojikiston (Khujand, Uroteppa, Konibodom) ba vujud omadand. Inkishofi muassisahoi madani (klubho) va aznazarguzaronihoi kollektivhoi havaskoroni sanat ba faoltar shudani onho musoidat namud. Soli 1966 dar sistemai Vazorati madaniyat va ittifoqhoi kasaba 3776 kollektivi havaskoroni sanat (az jumla 445 khori, 295 dramaturgi, 554 khoreografi, 295 musiqi) mavjud bud. Shumorai umumii hashaskoroni sanat ba 50420 nafar rasid. 20 kollektivi dramaturgii behtarin sazovori unvoni teatri khalqi gardidaand.

Ilm va muassisahoi ilmi.

  1. ILMHOI TABII VA TEKhNIKI.

Ajdodi tojikon az qadim mis, surb, tillo, nuqra, ohan va sanghoi qimatbahoro istikhroj va istifoda mekardand. Dar «Avesto» dar borai az ilmhoi riyoziyot va hayat khabardor budani mardumi Osiyoi Miyona, az khususi harakati jirmhoi osmoni, nizomi hisobi vaqt va baze qoidahoi riyoziyot malumot doda shudaast. Dar davrahoi gulomdori va ibtidoi davlatdorii feodali dar Osiyoi Miyona istehsoloti moddi va madaniyat — hunarmandi, kishovarzi, shahrsozi va sanat ba poyahoi balandi taraqqiyot rasidand. Bisyor yodgorihoi khattii dini, siyosi va ilmi dar davrai Istiloi Arab (asrhoi 7—8) nobud gardidand. Osiyoi Miyona dar asrhoi 9—11 yake az markazhoi muhimmi afkori ilmii Sharq bud. Mahz dar hamin davra rasadkhonaho, dorulhikmat, kitobkhonaho, tarjumayu tafsiri merosi ilmii olimoni Yunonu Hinduston, inchunin asarhoi khudi olimoni Osiyo Miyona oid ba ilmi riyoziyot, hayat, madanshinosi, mekhanikai amali, fizika, kimiyo va tib ba vujud omadand. Dar inkishofi ilm Muhammad ibni Musoi Khorazmi, Usmoni Balkhi, Fargoni (hamaashon asri 9), Abdulvafoi Buzajoni, Abumahmudi Khujandi (har du asri 10) va digar sahmi arzanda guzoshtand. Oid ba jugrofiya va geodeziya asarhoi Ahmadi Sarakhsi va Abulabbosi Marvazi (har du asri 9), Abuzaydi Balkhi, Jayhony (har du asri 10) talif yoftand. Jugrofidoni nomalumi tojik dar asri 10 «Hudud-ul- olam»-ro ofarid. Dar asrhoi 11—14 Khorazm, Bukhoro, Marv, Gazna va dar asri 15 Samarqand bo rasadkhonai Ulugbek ba kalontarin markazhoi ilmi tabdil yoftand. Ibni Sino, Beruny (har du a-hoi 10—11), Umari Khayyom (asrhoi 11—12), Jurjoni (asri 12), Nasiruddini Tusi, Shamsuddini Samarqandi, Jamoluddini Bukhoroi, Alishohi Bukhoroi (hamaashon asri 13), Ubaydullohi Bukhoroi, Muhammadi Samarqandi, Ansori (hamaashon asri 14)       va gayra faoliyati khudro asosan dar shahrhoi Osiyoi Miyona guzarondaand. Qozizodai Rumi, Jamshedi Koshy (har du asrhoi 14—15) va Alii Qushchi (asri 15) va digaron olimoni zabardasti maktabi ilmii Samarqand budand. Az nimai 2-yumi asri 15 to asr 17 faoliyatn yak zumra olimoni Oslyoi Miyona (Alii Qushchi, Birijandy, Maryami Chalabi, Abdulqodiri Ruyoni, Bahovaddini Omuli) dar sarzamini hozirai Eron va Turkiya guzasht; Najmuddini Alikhon, Faridi Dehlavi va olimoni maktabi astronomii Savay Joy Singkh (asrhoi 17—18) dar Hindustoni Shimoli zindagi va ejod mekardand.

Az nimai 2-yumi asri 19, badi ba Rossiya hamroh shudani Osiyoi Miyona, marhilai navi omuzishi tabiat va quvvahoi istehsolkunandai Tojikiston ogoz yoft. Dar tadqiqoti ilmi tabiatshinosi sahmi muassisaho va jamiyathoi ilmii Rossiya khele kalon ast. Dar nimai 2-yumi asri 19— ibtidoi asri 20 ba tufayli asarhoi olimoni rus A. P. Fedchenko, V. F. Oshanin, N. A. Seversov, I. V. Mushketov, G. D. Romanovskiy, P. P. Semyonov-Tyanshanskiy, D. L. Ivanov, G. E. Grumm-Grjimaylo, V. L. Komarov, S. I. Korjinskiy, B. A. va O.A.          Fedchenko, V. I. Lipskiy, N. L. Korjenevskiy, D. I. Mushketov, D. V. Nalivkin, N. I. Vavilov va digar dar borai geografiya, geologiya, iqlim, nabotot va hayvonotn Osiyoi Miyona, az on jumla Pomir, malumoti hozirazamon doda shudaast. Soli 1884 nakhustin kharitai geologii kishvri Turkiston ba tab rasid. Dar Khujand (1870), Uroteppa (1873), Panjakent (1879) va Murgob (1892) avvalin stsnsiyahoi obuhavosanji ba kor daromadand. Bo madaniyati rus shinos shudani khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona ba tashakkuli fikrhoi maorifparvari, ilmi va tekhnikii asrhoi 19— ibtidoi 20 (Ahmadi Donish, Hoji Khalifa, Hoji Yusuf, Yaqubi Farangi va digaron) tasir rasond.

Inkishofi ilmhoi tabiatshiposi va tekhniki badi Revolyusiyai Kabiri Sosialistii Oktyabr (davrai pesh az jang).

Badi barpo gardidani Hokimiyati Soveti tadqiqi muntazami sarvathoi tabii va quvvahoi istehsolkunandai Tojikiston ogoz yoft. Hududi Tojikistonro ekspedisiyahoi N. L. Korjenevskiy (1923), Universiteti davlatii Osiyoi Miyona (SAGU, az 1927), Ekspedisiyai kompleksii Tojikiston (193238, az 1933 on — Ekspedisiyai Pomir va digar nohiyahoi Tojikiston, az 1936 Ekspedisiyai Osiyoi Miyona nomida shud) bo rohbarii N. P. Gorbunov, A. E. Fersmap, D. V. Nalivkin, D. I. Sherbakov, A. P. Markovskiy (geologiya, geokhimiya), K. K. Markov (geomorfologiya), I. G. Dorofeev (glyasiologiya, topografiya), N. V. Krilenko (alppnizm) va gayra tadqiq kardand. Baroi omukhtani geografiyai Tojikiston asarhoi N. I. Vavilov va V. L. Komarov khele muhim budand. Az 1928 Ekspedisiyai tibbi bo rohbarii E. N. Pavlovskiy va digar patologiyai siroyati va parazitarii kishvarro omukht. Soli 1929 kormandoni Instituti khokshinosii SAGU bo rohbarii N. A. Dimo, A. N. Rozanov, M. V. Kultiasov plani 5-solai tadqiqi khoku geobotanikai Tojikistonro tartib dodand.

Solhoi 20 Stansiyai obuhavosanjii Dushanbe, Stansiyai tajribavii Instituti umumiittifoqii rastaniparvari (az 1931— Stansiyai davlatii seleksionii tajribavii Tojikiston), Filiali tojikistonii Stansiyai markazii Instituti tadqiqoti ilmii oid ba pakhtakori va gayra tashkil yoftand. Soli 1932 Bazai tojikistonii Akademiyai Fanhoi SSSR — nakhustin muassisai ilmii kompleksii Tojikiston tasis yoft. Soli 1932 dar Dushanbe rasadkhonai astronomi kushoda shud. Soli 1933 dar Leningrad oid ba tadqiqi quvvahoi istehsolkunandai Tojikiston konferensiya barguzor gardid, ki dar on vaeifahoi tadqiqoti ilmi dar sohai pakhtakori (makhsusan pakhtai mahinnakh), irrigasiya (inshooti sistemai Vakhsh) va sokhtmoni rohho, ziroatkorii lalmi va digar masalaho muhokima karda shudand. Soli 1933 Upravleniyai khizmati gidrometeorologii respublika va Byuroi obuhavosanji bunyod yoft. Shabakai stansiyahoi gidrometeorologi, makhsusan dar nohiyahoi balandkuh, vase shud (avvalinash dar piryakhi Fedchenko soli 1933 ba kor shuru kard). Soli 1934 dar Pomir bo tashabbusi Ekspedisiyai SAGU (bo rohbarii P. A. Baranov va I. A. Rayko va) shabakai stasionarho tashkil gardid, ki dar zaminai onho Stansiyai blologii Pomir dar Chechekta (1938), Bogi botaniki dar Pomir (1940, bo rohbarii A. V. Gurskiy) va gayra ba vujud omadand. Solhoi 30 Stansiyai botanikii kuhii Varzob; bo kumaki N. I. Vavilov Stansiyai pakhtayu yunuchqai seleksioniyu tajribavii Soyuznikhii Qurgonteppa, bo tashabbusi E. N. Pavlovskiy Stansiyai parazitologii Dushanbe (az 1941— Instituti zoologiya va parazitologiya), instituthoi usulhoi fizikii tabobat, kasalihoi sil, tropikologiya, sanitariyu bakteriologi, stansiyai respublikavii chorvodori va gayra ba vujud omadand. Soli 1938 Upravleniyai geologii Tojikiston, 1940 Stansiyai zilzilasanjii Dushanbe bunyod yoftand.

Soli 1925 avvalin majmuai sarvathoi tabiii Tojikiston (I. I. Bezdeka) intishor gardid; soli 1926 «Ocherki geologiyai Turkiston»-i D. V. Nalivkin, soli 1935 «Khokhoi Tojikiston»-i M. A. Pankov, «Hayvonoti Tojikiston, hayot va ahamiyati onho baroi inson»-i B. S. Vinogradov, E. N. Pavlovskiy, K. K. Flyorov, soli 1937 avvalin atlasi Tojikiston talif shudand. Dar solhoi pesh az jang dar hududi Tojikiston suratgirii geologi guzaronida shud, bisyor konhoi sarvathoi tabii, az jumla nohiyai madandori Qaromazor, mintaqai tillodori Pomiru Darvoz, zonahoi madandori qatorkuhhoi Hisor, Zarafshon va Turkiston kashf va sokhti stratigrafiyu tektonikii nohiyahoi judogona muayyan karda shudand. Tadqiqi khok asosi ilmii ziroatkori gardid. Dar zaminai omuzishi botanikii hududi Tojikiston kharitai nabotot va skhemai ba nohiyaho judo kardani rastaniho tartib doda shudand, kishtzori ziroati khuroki chorvoi yak qator rayonho muayyan gardida, omuaishi muntazami beshahoi kuhi va biyobonhoi balandkuhi sar shud. Tadqiqi fauna va parazitho imkoniyat dod, ki rohhoi bartaraf namudani kasalihoi transmissionii inson va hayvonot, inchunin muboriza bar ziddi hasharoti zararrasoni ziroati khojagii qishloq muayyan karda shavad. Olimon va mutakhassisoni Tojikiston vazifai dar nazdi respublikahoi Osiyoi Miyona guzoshtashudaro dar bobati az pakhta purra tamin kardani mamlakat ijro namuda, parvarishi pakhtai mahinnakhro omukhtand, ba ruyonidani navhoi purmahsuln pakhtai vatani va giriftani hosili dar jahon balandtarini pakhta muvaffaq gardidand.

Soli 1941 Bazai tojikistonii Akademiyai Fanhoi SSSR ba Filiali tojikistonii Akademiyai Fanhoi SSSR tabdil yoft, ki ba on akademik E. N. Pavlovskiy sarvari mepamud. Dar davrai Jangi Buzurgi Vatani (1941—45) ba inkishofi korhoi tadqiqoti ilmi asarhoi olimon va muassisahoe, kn ba Tojikiston evakuasiya shuda budand, musoidat kardand. Dar in solho tadqqi problemahoi geologiya, seysmologiya, khokshinosi, botanika, seleksiya, parazitologiya va tib davom dosht. Soli 1941 kharitai geologii Osiyoi Miyona intishor yoft. Inkishofi ilmhoi tabiatshinosb va tekhniki dar davrai badi jang.

Tadqiqi hududi Tojikiston makhsusan dar davrai badi jang khele vusat yoft. Filiali tojikistonii Akademiyai Fanhoi SSSR baroi dar soli 1951 tasis namudani Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston, ki prezidenti avvalini on S. Ayni bud, sharoit faroham ovard. Solhoi 50 Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston dar sohahoi astrofizika, seysmologiya, geologiya, khimiyai organiki va gayriorganiki, biologiyai umumi tadqiqotho guzarond. Qismi asosii tadqiqothoro khodimoni ilmii khudi respublika anjom dodand. Dar hayati Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston yak qator institutho va instituthoi sohavii tadqiqoti ilmi tashkil shudand.

Solhoi 60 dar barobari raviyahoi ilmii peshtara doir ba matematika, fizikai eksperimentali va nazariyavi, khimiyai neftu payvasthoi tabii, inchunin doir ba masalahoi fizikiyu khimiyavii kholis gardoiidani sarvathoi tabii, sokhtmoni ailzilabardor, biologiyai radiasioni va molekulavi, fotosintez, oid ba fiziologiya va biologiyai rastaniho tadqiqothoi barjasta guzaronida shudand. Dar inkishofi ilmhoi tabiatshinosiyu tekhniki sahmi olimon S. U. Umarov, A. Adhamov (fizika), P. Bobojonov, O. V. Dobrovolsniy (astrofizika), A. Juraev, 3. Usmonov, L. G. Mikhaylov (matematika), V. I. Nikitin, I. Numonov (khimiya), R. Bvrotov, S. Yusufova, S. Bobokhujaev (geologiya), P. N. Ovchinnikov, M. Rasulova, V. I. Zapryagaeva (botayaika), E. N. Pavlovskiy, M. Narziqulov, I. Abdusalomov (zoologiya va parazitologsh),Yu. Nosirov, X. Karimov (fizpologiyai rastani va biofizika), S. Nematulloev, V. N. Gayskiy (seysmologil) va digaron khele kalon ast.

Okhiri solhoi 60— nimai avvali 70 inkishofi ilmhoi tabiatshinosiyu tekhniki dar Tojikiston va istifodai komyobihoi revolyusiyai ilmiyu tekhniki dar mamlakat baroi halli muvaffaqiyatnoki vazifahoi khojagii khalqi respublika, makhsusan dar sohai kishti zaminhoi obi va bunyodi sokhtmoni inshootu korkhonahoi navi Kompleksi mintaqaviyu istehsolii Tojikistoni Janubi kumaki kalon rasondand.

Geologiya va geofizika. Instituti geolyugiyai Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston (tasisash 1941) masalahoi gunogunero oid ba sokhti geologii hudude respublika va sarvathoi tabiati onro tadqiq namud. Skhemai vohiyahoi tektonikii janubi T. Hisoru Oloy va Pomnr tartib doda shud (S A. Zakharov, M. M. Kukhtikov), jihathoi asosii geologiya, stratigrafiya, tekgonika, magmatiel va madandorin Qaromazor, Hisoru Oloy va Pomir (R. B. Barotov, S. M. Bobokhojaev, A. M. Boboev, M. R. Jalilov), inchunin masalahoi nohiyabandii gidrogeologi, istifodai obhoi garmi mpnerali, obbrii shurzaminho (P. A. Pankratov) omukhta shudand. Geologho va geofieikhoi T. yakjoya bo olimoni resoublikahoi digari Osiyoi Miyona ba Qazoqiston qishri Zamin va mantiyai boloii Zamin, qonuniyati joigirii konhoi madanro hamatarafa omukhtand. Kharitai komplekshoi magmavii Osiyoi Mibna tartib doda shud, ki on ba korhoi justujuy asos guzosht. Bo shitiroki olimoni Tojikiston kharitan nohiyahoi neftu gazdori janubi SSSR murattab gardid. Onho (S. I. Ilin, K. V. Babkov) dar gorizonthoi amiqi Depressiyai Tojikiston mavjud budani neftu gazro muayyan kardand.

Instituti sokhtmoni zilzilabardor va seysmologiyai Akademiyai  Fanhoi Resspublikai  Soveti  Sotsialistii Tojikiston (tasisash 1951) dar tahqiqi qonuniyathoi zaminjunbii Tojikiston va atrofi on ishtirok karda, nohiyahoi asosii zaminjunbiro muayyan namud (I. F. Gubin, S. A. Zakharov). Kormandoni institut dar laboratoriyaho va maydonhoi tajribavi, inchunin dar sharoiti tabii ba zilzila tobovar budani inshoothoi gidrotekhnikn va binohoi yaklukhtro az jihati nazariyavi va amali omukhtand (S. H. Nemagulloev). Avvalin bor dar SSSR  dar GES-hoi Sarband, Norak va gidrouzelhoi digari Tojikiston umuri vijeleriyu seysmiki tashkil karda shud. Vobasta ba zilzilaho ohista harakat kardani sathi Zamin, mekhanizmi manbahoi zilzila tadqiq gardidand. Instituti mazkur ba yake az muassisahoi asosii tadqiqi zilzilahoi sakhti Osiyon Miyona va Qazoqiston tabdil yoftaast.

Astronomiya. Instituti astrofizikai Akademiyai  Fanhoi Resspublikai  Soveti  Sotsialistii Tojikiston (tasisash 1958) muassisai tadqiqoti ilmist, ki masalahoi nazariyavi va amalii astranomiyaro meomuzad. Dar shubai kometaho jirmhoi osmoni bo usulhoi suratgiri, spektrografi, polyarimetri va elektrofotometri tadqiq karda meshavand (O. V. Dobrovolskiy). Dar shubai meteorho usuli tadqiqotn kompleksni meteorho ba roh monda shudaast. Dar in jo avvalin bor usuli navi qaydi lahzagii meteorho jory gardid. (P. B. Bobojonov). Shubai nomburda bori nakhust dar SSSR bo kompleksi apparathoe tajhizonida shud, ki onho baroi omuzishi prosesshoi shuoafkani va innizasiyai meteorho khele zarurand. Oid ba tadqiqi khususiyathoi fizikni kometaho niz korhoi ziyode anjom doda shudand. Fototekai nodiri sitorahoi tagyiryobanda (doroi 60 hazor rasm) tashkil yoft.

Khodimoni ilmii institut sokhti galaktikaro tadqiq namudand (M. N. Makhsumov), yak qator sitorahoi tagyiryobaidayu kometaho kashf karda shudand. Az rui programmai baynalkhalqi mushohidai radifoni masnui Zamin va stansiyahoi avtomatii «Luna», «Mars» va gayra idoma dorad.

Olimoni namoyoni institut azoyoni Ittifoqi baynalkhalqii astronomi va Shuroi astronomii Akademiyai Fanhoi SSSR meboshand. Asosi korhoi mushohidavii institutro Rasadkhonai astronomii Hisor tashkil medihad.

Matematika. Dar Tojikiston oid ba matematkka asosan dar Instituti matematika bo Markazi hisobbarorii Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston (tasisash 1973) va donishkadahoi olii reslublika tadqiqot burda meshavand. Olimoni Tojikiston dar sohahoi gunoguni matematika — nazariyai adadho, algebra, tahlili matematiki, nazariyai funksiyaho (M. A. Subhonqulov, G. Boboev, M. Shirinbekov va digaron), nazarnyan tahlili funksionali va muodilahoi differensialli oddi (V. Ya. Stesenko, E. Muhammadiev va digaron), nazariyai muodilahoi differensiali va fizikai matematiki, masalahoi kanori, geometriya va tahlili funksionali (A. Juraev, 3. Usmonov, L. G. Mikhaylov, N. Rajabov, K. Boymatov, Sh. Ahmedov va digaron), gidromekhanika va modelonii matematiki (M. Sattorov va digaron), topologiya, nazariyai ehtimoliyat va otatnstikai matematiki, tekhnikai hisob va kibernetika, inchunin tatbiqi onho dar ilmu amaliya tadqiqot mebarand.

Fizika. Doir ba fizika Instituti fizika va tekhnikai ba nomi S. U. Umarovi Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston (tasisash 1964), kafedrayu laboratoriyahoi fakulteti fizikai UDT va digaron donishkadahoi olii respublika tadqiqot mebarand. Doirai tadqiqoti fizikoni tbjik khele vase buda, asosan sohahoi mukhtalifi fizikai muosir — fizikai statistiki va kinetpkai fiziki (A. Adhamov, F. Hakimov va digaron), fizikai jismhoi sakht (B. Narzulloev, M. Qurbonaliev, A. A. Yastrebinskiy, S. Karimov, R. Marupov va digaron), fizikai nimnoqilho (Sh. Mavlonov, I. Ismoilov va digaron), fizikai kristallho (B. Umarov va digaron), teplofizika (P. V. Soy va digaron), nazariyai moshinsozi (Sh. Mazitov va digaron) va tatbiqi amalii onhoro dar bar megirad.

Khimiya. B.o tadqiqoti sohai khimiya asosan Instituti khimiyai Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston, kafedrahoi khimiyai Universiteti Davlatii Tojikiston, Instituti tibii Tojikiston va digaron donishkadahoi olii respublika mashguland. Instituti khimiya (tasisash 1945) dar bobati omuzishi sarvathoi tabiii Tojikiston, sintezi modda va materialhoi navi baroi sohahoi gunoguni khojagii khalq manfiatbakhsh korhoi tadqiqoti mebarad.

Dar instituti efirhoi seyumini spirthoi seagoma oiyatee karda shudand. ki bisbrii onho az jihatya fiaiologi faoland (V. I. Nikitin), Khimizmi oksidshavii konhoi angishtsangi Fonu Yagnob (V. A. Rumyanseva), inchuniya tarkpoi payvasthoi geteroatomii (sulfurdor, nitrogendor va gayra) nefthoi Depressiyai chanubi Tojikiston omukhta shudavd (I. U. Numonov); polyaaentqdhoi kaloyamolekulai sokhtashon munazzam sintez shudand (K. T. Poroshin), masalahoi istifodai kompleksii sarvathoi tabiyi Tojikiston tadqvq karda shudand (P. M. Solojenkin). Usulhoi sintezi laboratdri va sanoati (I. Nosirov) bo rohi khloroni dar harorati 200—300o0 judo va kholis gardonidani madanhoi volframu molibdeya (I. A. Glukhov), ftoridhoi metallhoi ishqorzamin muayyan (J. Ikromi), gidridhoi noorganiki (U. Mirsaidov) va metallhoi khele kholis (A. Va^obov), khulahoi alyumyaniy, bariy, vismut, surma va digaron elementho ba dast ovarda shudand. Olimoni institut dar sohahoi geokhimiya va khimiyai tahlili (D. Pochojonov), moddahoi hayotan faoli rastanihoi dorui (Yu. J. Sodiqov), farmakologiya (K. Haydarov), tahlil va baland namudani sifati nakhhoi tabin, az jumla pakhta (I. Kalontarov, Q. Mahkamov), sintezi polimerho baroi doruvor (J. Kholiqov) va gayra niz tadqiqot burda istodaand. Dar fakulteti khimiyai Universiteti Davlatii Tojikiston oid ba sohai khimiyai fiziki (A. YOqubov), dar kafedrai khimiyai Instituti tibbi doir ba sistemi moddahoi organiki dar asosi asetilen (S. Sobirov, M. Samiev) va gayra tadqiqot mebarand.

Geografiya. Tadqiqi geografiyai Tojikistoni imruza az miyonai asri 19 sar shud. Dar bobati omukhtani sarvathoi tabii, iqlim, ob, yakhbandiho va nabototu hayvonoti Tojikiston khizmati olimoni rus K. F. Butenev, P. A. Chikhachev, N. A. Seversov, G. D. Romanovskiy, I. V. Mushketov, D. L. Ivanov, N. I. Vavilov va digaron khele kalon ast. Ba inkishofi minbadai ilmi geografiya asarhoi O. K. Chediya, V. V. Loskutov (oid ba geomorfologpya), L. N. Babushkin «Pohiyabandii agroiqlimii zonai pakhtakorii Osiyoi Miyona» (1960), O. E. Agakhayayans «Problemahoi asosii geografiyai tabiyi Pomir» (qismhoi 1—2, 1965-66), Q Sh. Juraev «Ahamiyati iqtisodii obhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston» (1971), Q. Sh. Juraev, Yu. B. Qayumov «Tabiat va iqtisodiyoti khojagii qishloqi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston (1973)          va gayra musoidat namudand. Oid ba geografiyai tabii kitobi darsii D. P. Pulodov «Geografiyai Tojikiston» (1959, 1965) va kharitahoi talimii Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston baroi maktabhoi miyona nashr shudand. Iqlim, ob va yakhbandii hozirai Tojikistonro muassisahoi respublikavi va markazii khizmati gidrometeorologi, Akademiyai Fanhoi SSSR, Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston, maktabhoi oli va ekspedisiyaho tadqiq menamoyand.

Soli 1953 dar nazdi Akademiyai Fanhoi respublika Jamiyati geografii Tojikiston (fnlnali Jamiyati geografii SSSR) tasis yoft. Shubai muhofizat va istifodai samarabakhshi zakhirahoi tabiii Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston (tasisash 1969) oid ba muhofizat va istifodai samarabakhshi komplekshoi fauna, paydo kardani yodgorihoi nodiri tabiat, ipchunin omukhtani biosenozhoi mamnugohu quruqhoi Tojikiston tadqiqot mebarad. Soli 1971 dar nazdi Sovet oid ba omukhtani quvvahoi istehsolkunandai Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston sektori geografiya tashkil shud.

Dar aini zamon ba tadqiqi geografiyai Tojikiston fakultethoi geografiyai instituthoi pedagogii shahrhoi Dushanbeyu Leninobod niz mashguland. D. Pulodov.

Ilmhoi biologi. Tadqiqoti bisyorsolai botanikho dar asarhoi «Florai Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston» (iborat az 8 jild), zeri tahriri P. N. Ovchinnikov (.1957—86), Yu. S. Grngorev «Fehristi rastanihoi atrofi Stalinobod» (1953), S, S. Ikonnikov «Fehristi rastanihoi Pomir» (1963)  , V. I. Zapryagaeva «Rastanihoi mevadori khudrui Tojikiston»(1964) , «Zakhirai jangalhoi Pomiru Oloy» (1976), B. M. Komarov «Fehristi rastanihoi Tojikistoni Shimoli» (1967), K. V. Staiyukovich «Rastanihoi kuhsori SSSR» (1973) gird ovarda shudaand.

Dar Instituti botanikai Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston (tasisash 1941) olimon (M. Rasulova, V. I. Zapryagaeva, U. Mamadqulov, A. Madaminov, A. Ashurov, S. Yunusov va digaron) bo rohbarii P. N. Ovchinnikov flora va olamn nabototi mnntaqahoi judogonai Tojikistonro omukhtand, asoshoi ilmii behtar kardan va bunyod namudani beshahoi darakhtonashon mevadoru ziddioroziyavii Pomiru Oloyro tahqiq kardand, dar bobati inkishof dodani rastaniparvariyu jangaldori (nigared Bogi botanikii Dushanbe, Bogi botanikii Leninobod, Stansiyai botanikii kuhii Varzob), daryoft va istifodai rastanihoi khurokii chorvo yak qator korhoro anjom dodand, khususiyathoi fitokhimiyavii rastanihoi gunogul, az on jumla rastanizroi dorui (M. Ikromova, M. Hojimatov, 0. I. Kudryashova) omukhta shudand. Dar instituthoi pedagogii shahrhoi Dushanbe (O. Shukurov), Leninobod (A. Otaev, O. Dodoboeva) va Universiteti Davlatii Tojikiston (M. Ismoilov) niz oid ba masalahoi gunoguni botanika tadqiqot mebarand.

Khodimoni Instituti fiziologiya va biofizikai rastanii Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston (tasisash 1964) faolilti hayotii rastaniho, jarayoni fiziologii fotosintez va rohhoi baland bardoshtani mahsulnokii fotosintezi(Yu. Nosirov), hosilnokii rastanihoi khurokii chorvo (X. Karimov), masalahoi biologiyai molekulavi va injenerii geni rastani (Q. Aliev), biofizikai fotosintez va istifodai somaranoki nuri oftob dar jarayoni fotosintez (Yu. I. Giller), ruyonidani navhoi galladonaro meomuzand (V. Bobojonov).

Instituti biologii … Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston (tasisash 1969) zakhirahoi biologii Pomirro hamatarafa meomuzad. Faoliyati institut asosan ba tadqiqi khususiyathoi fiziologiyu biokhimiyavii organizmhoi zinda dar sharoiti balandkuh, omukhtani rohhoi istifodai samarabakhsh va az nav barqaror kardani olami nabotot va hayvonot ravona shudaast. Masalahoi genetika va seleksiya mavridi muhokima qaror yofta, oid ba behtargardoni va obyorii charogohhoi Pomir yak silsila korho ijro gardidand (X. Yusufbekov).

Tadqiqoti barjastai Instituti zoologiya va parazitologiyai ba nomi E. N. Pavlovskiy Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston (tasisash 1941) oid ba fauna, biologiya va aloqahoi biosenozii guruhhoi asosii hayvonoti bemuhra va muhradori Tojikiston dar monografiyahoi A. I. Ivanov «Parrandahoi Tojnkistoi» (1940), E. N. Pavlovskiy «Hayvonoti zahrdori Osiyoi Miyona» (1950), M. Narziqulov «Shirinchai Tojikiston va nohiyahoi hamhududi Osiyoi Miyona» (nashri 1—2, 1962— 69), I. Abdusalomov «Parrandaho» (nashri 1—2, 1971—77) jambast shudaand. Khodimoni institut yakjoya bo olimoni Univrsiteti Davlatii Tojikiston, instituthoi pedagogii Dushanbeyu Leninobod dar havzahoi obi Tojikiston tadqiqoti ikhtiology va gidrobiology burdand. Bar ziddi hasharoti zararrasoni pakhta majmui tadbirhoi muborizai integrasioni muayyan karda shud, ki dar amal tatbiq gardid (M. Narziqulov, Sh. Umarov, B. Bozorov).

Ilmi khojagii qishloq. Dar Instituti tadqiqoti ilmii Komiteti Davlatii Agrosanoatii Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston (tasisash 1956) va dar 4 stansiyai tajribavii on oid ba takmilu tahqiqi tekhnologiyai istehsoli pakhta, galla, ziroati ravgani efir, seleksiyai navhoi sovetii pakhta (V. P. Krasichkov, B. S. Sanginov va digaron), ziroati sitrusi (V. N. Smolskiy, V. I. Sulaya, U. Eshonqulov) korhoi ziyodi tadqiqoti burda shudaand. Navhoi navi pakhtai mahinnakh ruyonda shud. Instituti tadqiqoti ilmii bogu tokdori va sabzavotkorii Komiteti Davlatii Agrosanoatii Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston (tasisash 1978) yakjoya bo filialash (shahri Leiinobod), Stansiyai tajribavii khojagii qishloqi Fayzobod, Stansiyai tajribavii ziroati subtropikii Vakhsh va gayra oid ba seleksiyai navhoi mevayu sabzavot, bogu tokdori, parvarishi ziroati sitrusi va subtropiki (U. Eshonqulov, V. I. Sulaya va digaron),sabzavotu kartoshka va gayra tadqiqot mobarand.

Instituti khokshinosii Komiteti Davlatii Agrosanoatii Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston (tasisash 1961) yakjoya bo Stansiyai khokshinosiyu meliorativii Vakhsh ba nomi Avtipov-Karataev masalahoi hosilkhee gardonidani esmin va roh- hoi muborizaro bar ziddi eroziya tadqiq namud. Usulhoi meliorasiyai botloqzoru shurzamin, barham dodadi shurzaini takrori zaminhoi obi tahqiq shudand. Zahburkanii ufuqi va amudi dar sohai meliorasiyai zamiyaho komyobii muhimme gardid. Kharita va tasnifoti khokhoi Tojikiston murattab va khususiyathoi geografi, khimiyavi, fiaiki va genezisi khokho muayyan gardidayad (A. N. Antipov-Karataev, O. A. Grabovskaya, A. Kerzum, I. M. Legpkin, Yu. Akramov va digaron).

Dar asosi tadqiqoti bisyorsola majmui usulhoi agroteosaikii shudgori zamin dar amal tatbiq karda shud, ki on baroi ruyonidani hosili balandu ustuvori ziroati lalmi imkoniyathoi zaruriro faroham ovard (A. Makhsumov va digaron).

Olimoni Instituti tadqiqoti ilmii chorvodorii Komiteti Davlatii Agrosanoatii Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston (tasisash 1944) korhoi tadqiqotii khudro ba baland bardoshtani mahsulnokii chorvo ravona kardand. Dar natija zoti sovetii buzhoi serpashm (I. A. Margulis, K. T. Karavaev), gusfandoni zoti «tojiki» (G. Aliev), guruhi navi gusfandoni gushtu serpashmi «darvozi» va govi zoti sershiri shvisii zebumonand ofarida shudand.

Dar zavodi zoti gusfandi qarokuliparvarii «Qabodiyon» oid ba behtargardonii zoti gusfandi qarokuli tadqiqot mebarand (K. Ahmadov, R. Kazarkin va digaron).

Dar Instituti tadqiqoti ilmii veterinarii Komiteti Davlatii Agrosanoatii Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston (tasisash 1981) masalahoi epizootolotiyai kasaliho, biologiyai organizmhoi kasaliangez, manbai kasalihoi chorvoyu parraddaho va gayraro omukhta, usulhoi tashkhisu peshgiri va rohhoi muborizaro bar ziddi kasalihoi chorvo daryoft menamoyand.

Genetikai pakhta. Shubai genetikai umumii pakhta dar nazdi Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston 13 mai 1975 tasis yoftaast. Vazifai asosii shuba bo usulhoi mutagenezi amali omukhtani asoshoi nazariyai seleksin va ruyonidani navhoi navi serhosilu ba vilt tobovari pakhta meboshad. Dar natijai muayyan namudayai mekhanizmi genetiki va istifodai yakjoyai usulhoi mutagenezi radiasioniyu duragakuni baze shaklhoi peshpazak, serhosili khushnakh va ba gunuchini moshini muvofiqi pakhtaro intikhob kardand. (A. G. Kasyanenko, M. Mahbubov, P. D. Usmonov). Vo usuli inbriding yak qator khelhoi pakhtai qadpastu peshpazaki mahinnakhro ba vujud ovardand, ki baroi ruyonidani navhoi navi pakhta istifoda meshavand (M. Nematov). Shuba hamrohi Instituti fiziologini rastanii Akademiyai Fanhoi SSSR va Instituti sintezi organikii Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Latviya usuli tezonidani rasishi guzai pakhta va serhosilii onro bo rohi istifodai moddai nav—morfonol kashf namud (K. Asrorov, S. Rasulov). Istifodai morfonol imkon medihad, ki hosili pakhta 10—12% afzoyad va gunuchini pakhta 15—20 ruz peshtar anjom yobad. Yak qator shaklhoi mutantii giyohi arabidopsis va pakhtaro, ki dar shuba ba dast ovardaand, dar korhoi talimu tadqiqot, inchunin baroi omuzishi tasiri omilhoi parvozi kayhoni ba rastani va gayra bomuvaffaqiyat istifoda mebarand (P. Usmonov, A. Nosirov va digaron).        P. Usmonov.

Dar inkishofi ilmhoi khojagii qishloq Instituti khojagii qishloji Tojikiston, Stansiyai tajribavii pakhtayu yunuchqa, Stansiyai tajribavii jangali Tojikiston va gayra hissai arzanda meguzorand.

Tib. Soli 1955 Institutiti tadqiqoti ilmii epidemiologiya va gigienai Vazorati nigahdorii tandurustii Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston tasis yoft. Khodimoni institut ba tadqiqi masalahoi nazariyavi va amalii epidemiologiya, bakteriologiyai tibbi, virusologiya, parazitologiya, immunilogiyai bemorihoi siroyatiyu angali, inchunin gigienai mehnat va khurok mashguland. Dar Instituti gastroenterologiyai Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston (soli 1965 dar zaminai shubai klinikii Instituti tibbii kishvari tasis yoftaast) bo rohbarii X. H. Mansurov problemahoi patologiyai uzvhoi hozima — khususiyathoi klinikiyu funksionali va morfologii gepatiti shadid, tasiri preparathoi dorui ba prosesshoi mubodila hangomi illati diffuzii jigar, khususiyagghoi gastriti avvalin va duyumin tadqiq karda meshavand.

Ilmhoi tekhniki. Dar instituthoi tadqiqoti ilmi va maktabhoi olii respublika dar sohahoi moshinsozi (tadqiqi kinematika va dinamikai tanzimdihandahoi asosii dastgohhoi bofandagi, takmildihi va mustahkamu poydor gardonidani uzelu agregathoi moshinhoi khojagii qishloq va gayra), elektronika, avtomatonii istehsolot, tekhnikai naqliyoti avtomobili va gayra korhoi ziyode burda meshavad.

  1. ILMHOI JAMINTI. Falsafa. Khalqi tojik doroi falsafai boyu qadima meboshad. Dar natijai Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sosialistii Oktyabr va zimni ba amal barovardani revolyusiyai madani dar Tojikiston omuzishi afkori falsafii khalqi tojik niz shuru shud. Sohahoi gunoguni tarikhi falsafai ajdodamon solhoi 20—30 ogoz yofta bud. Minbad olimoni respublika hamrohi olimoni namoyoni shahrhoi Moskva, Leningrad va respublikahoi barodari ba omuzishi afkori falsafi va jamiyatiyu siyosii namoyandagoni alohidai khalqamon pardokhtand. Yak silsila yodgorihoi muhimmi farhangi khalqi tojik ba zaboni rusi tarjuma va nashr shudand, ki dar qatori onho «Donishnoma»-i Ibni Sinoro nombar kardan mumkin ast. Dar voqe ba munosibati jashni 1000-solagii Ibni Sino (1980) osori ilmiyu falsafii yakjildai mutafakkir tahti unvoni «Osori muntakhab» oa zaboni rusi, osori sejildai u tahti hamin nom ba zaboni tojiki az chop baromadand.

Olimoni tojik dar tadqiqotashon masalahoi paydoish va inkishofi dinhoi peshazislomi (mehrparasti, zardushtiya, zarvoniya, monaviya, mazdakiya), aqidahoi falsafi, irfoni, jamiyatiyu siyosi va akhloqii mutafakkironi alohida (Rozi, Forobi, Beruni, Ibni Sino, Nosiri Khisrav, Sanoi, Attor, Rumi, Gazoli, Jomi, Bedil, Ahmadi Donish va digaron)-ro barrasi karda, maqomu manzilai onhoro dar tarikhi afkori manavi muayyan namudaand. Roje ba pahnshavii goyahoi marksizm-leninizm dar Tojikiston na chand tadqiqoti muhim ba anjom rasidaast.

Dar omuzishi tarikhi afkori jamiyatii khalqi tojik A. M. Bahovaddinov, M. Osimi, G. Ashurov, M. Dinorshoev, X. Dodikhudoev, M. Rajabov, N. Odilov, K. Olimov, U. Sultonov, A. Muhammadkhojaev, N. Qulmatov va digaron sahmi munosib dorand. Yak silsila asarho doir ba materializmi dialektiki, masalahoi falsafai tabiatshnnosi, makhsusan kayhonshnnosi, materiya va shaklhoi harakati on va gayra tavassuti faylasufon S. Umarov, M. Osimi, A. Tursunov, L. Volinskaya navishta shudaand. Dar mavzui rohi taraqqiyoti gayrikapitalisti dar respublikahoi Osiyoi Miyona, sosializm va inkishofi millatho, tagyiroti kulli dar hayoti iqtisodi, tarkibi ijtimoiyu sinfi va simoi manavii mehnatkashoni respublika, rohhoi tasiri mutaqobilai millatu farhanghoi milli A. M. Bahovaddinov, V. I. Pripisnov, V. G. Bobilev, M. Q. Gafforova, I. Sharipov, M. Komilov, A. Rahimov, V. V. Vibornova asarho ejod kardaand. Olimoni respublika dar barobari korhoi ilmiyu tadqiqoti ba targiboti ateisti dar bayni mehnatkashon niz mashguland. Onho khususiyathoi farqkunandai kori ateisti dar respublikaro ba nazar girifta, sababhoi boqi mondani khurofotro muayyan namudand va rohhoi bartaraf kardani urfu odathoi kuhnai boiyu feodaliro nishon dodand. Hamchunin paydoishu inkishofi anana, odat va marosimhoi khalqi tahqiq shudaand. Ba masalahoi mazkur R. Majidov, S. Dodoboeva, N. Odilov, X Qurbonov va digaron mashguland. F. M. Tursunzoda, A Qurbonmamadov, A Blyakher va digaron aqidahoi estetiki va etniki ajdodamonro tahqiq mekunand. Ba gayr az in faylasufoni tojik ba barrasii bisyor masalahoi regionalii falsafa va tarikhi ilm mashguland.

Holo dar respublika (1987) 12 doktor va 130 nomzadhoi ilmi falsafa ba tahqiqoti ilmi mashguland.

G. Ashurov.

Ilmi tarikh. Avvaliv nishonahoi ilmhoi tarikh dar bayni ajdodi tojikon hanuz dar davrahoi qadimtarin ba vujud omada budand. Dar asrhoi 9—10 yak silsila asarhoi tarikhi («Tarikhi Bukhoro»-i Narshakhi, «Shohnoma» (957) va gayra) talif yoftand. Dar baynn asarhoita- rikhii ba zaboni forsii dari talifyofta asarhoe budand, ki ba tarikhi umumi, tarikhi sulolahoi alohida, hokimon, viloyatho va shahrho, tarjimai hol, yoddoshtho bakhshida shudaand. Khususan asarhoi Tabari, Rashiduddin, Mirkhond, Khondamir, Ruzbehkhon ahamiyati kalon dorand.

Namoyandai jarayoni peshqadami tarikhshinosii asri 19 Ahmadi Donish dar asarhoyash sokhti feodashi amorati Bukhororo zeri tanqid giriftaast. Tahqiqi ilmii tarikhi tojikon badi galabai Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sosialistii Oktyabr ogoz yoft. Hanuz soli 1925 «Jamiyati omuzishi Tojikiston va khalqiyathoi eroninajodi khoriji on» tasis yoft, ki olimoni namoyoni rus A A. Semyonov, M. S. Andreev va digaron azoi on budand. Jamiyat yak qator ekspedisiyahoi ilmi tashkil kard, oid ba tarikh, arkheologiya, etnografiya va antropologiyai tojikon asarho nashr namud. Soli 1930 dar nazdi Komissariati maorifi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston Kami- teti tojikshinosi (soli 1932 ba Instituti davlatii tadqiqogi ilmi tabdil doda shud) tasis yoft. Inchunin dar nazdi Bazai tojikistonii Akademiyai Fanhoi SSSR sektori tarikh, zabon va adabibt (az 1944 Institui alohida) dar hayati Filiali tojikistonii Akademiyai Fanhoi SSSR ba vujud omad. Soli 1951 dar hayati Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston Instituti tarikh, arkheologiya va etnografiya (holo Instituti tarikhi ba nomi Ahmadi Donish) tashkil karda shud. Khudi hamon sol Instituti tarikhi partiyai nazdi Komiteti Markazii Partiyai Kommunistii Tojikiston tasis yoft. In du institut ba markazhoi tarikhshinosii respublika mubaddal gardidand. Dar kafedrahoi tarikhi maktabhoi olii respublika niz tadqiqoti ilmi burda meshavad.

Solhoi 30 asarhoe intishor yoftand, ki kharakteri ilmi-ommavi doshta, muvaffaqiyathoyu inkishofi khojagii khalq va madaniyati Tojikistoni Sovetiro inikos menamudand. Dar omuzishi tarikhi torevolyusionii Tojikiston olimon V. V. Bartold, A. Yu. Yakubovskiy sahmi kalon guzoshtand.

V.V. Bartold soli 1925 ocherki «Tojikon» va doir ba tarikhi Osiyoi Miyona yak silsila asarho talif namud, ki olim dar onho ba tarikhi Tojikiston diqqati kalon dodaast. Donishkadahoi oli va instituthoi tadqiqoti ilmii Moskva, Leningrad, Toshkent dar tayyor namudani muarrikhoni mahallii bo metodologiyai marksisti-lennni musallah kumaki kalon rasonidand.

Tarikhshinosii sovetii Tojikiston ba tah- qiqi munosibathoi istehsoli, tarikhi muborizai sinfi, roli ommai khalq va gayra beshtar diqqat medihad. Oid ba tarikhi hayoti iqtisodiyu ijtimoi va siyosii amorat, khoni, bekihoi judogona asarho ofarida, masalai ba Rossiya hamroh karda shudani Osiyoi Miyona, az jumla hududi imruzai Tojikiston, voridshavii munosibathoi kapitalisti ba iqtisodiyot, avjgirii harakati revolyusioni, inkishofi afkori jamiyatiyu siyosi va maorifparvari tahqiq karda meshavand (S. Ayni, 3. Sh. Rajabov, B. I. Iskandarov, 0. R. Majlisov, A. M. Mukhtorov, N. N. Nematov, M. B. Bobokhonov). B. G. Gafurov asari «Tarikhi mukhtasari khalqi tojik» va soli 1972 “Tojikon”- ro navisht, ki onho tarikhi khalqi tojikro az davrahoi qadimtarin to davrai galabai Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sosiaslistii Oktyabr dar bar megirand. Dar sohai tarikhi jamiyati soveti beshtar ba masalahoi galabai Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sosiyalistii Oktyabr va barposhavii Hokimiyati Soveti dar hududi Tojikiston, Jangi grajdani va sokhtmoni sosializm diqqat doda meshavad. Masalahoi nomburda dar asarhoi T. R. Karimov, S. A. Rajabov, G. H. Haydarov, A.          V. Makashov, M. E. Erkaev, M. R. Shukurov, Sh. M. Sultonov va digaron aks yoftaand. Dar asarhoi X. N. Drikker, V. A. Kozachkovskiy, B. A. Antonenko, K. P. Marsakov, G. N. Navruzov va «Ocherkhoi tarikhi sokhtmoni kolkhozi dar Tojikiston (1917—65)», masalahoi munosibathoi iqtisodiyu ijtimoi dar dehot, tarikhi galaba va mustahkamgardii sokhti kolkhozi dar Tojikiston tadqiqu tahqiq shudaand. Asarhoi kollektivii kalonhajm, ba monandi «Tarikhi khalqi tojik» (3 jild, 5 kitob), «Ocherkhoi tarikhi Partiyai Kommunistii Tojikiston», «Tarikhi sinfi korgari Tojikiston (1917— 1970)», «Tarikhi sokhtmoni madani dar Tojikiston (1917—1977)», «Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston» va gayra intishor yoftand.

Olimoni Tojikiston hamrohi olimoni respublikahoi barodarii Osiyoi Miyona, Qazoqiston, Moskva va Leningrad «Tojikoni Qarotegin va Darvoz», «Madaniyati moddii Tojikiston», «Ajinateppa. Memory, naqqoshi va mujassamaho», «Galabai Hokimiyati Soveti dar Osiyoi Miyona va Qazoqiston», «Tarikhi tashkilothoi kommunistii Osiyoi Miyona»-ro nashr namudand. Muarrikhoni Tojikiston dar talifu tahriri asarhoi kalonhajm oid ba tarikhi SSSR, tarikhi ilmi tarikh, sokhtmoni milliyu davlati va gayra shirkat mevarzand.        A. Mukhtorov.

Ilmi huquqshinosi. Dar asarhoi mutafakkironi Osiyoi Miyona va risolahoi judogona barobari afkori falsafi aqidaho oid ba davlat va huquq niz joy dorand. Ammo ilmi huquqshinosy dar Tojikiston faqat bad az Revollyutsiyai Oktyabr inkishof yoft. Soli 1949 dar Universiteti Davlatii Tojikiston fakulteti huquqshinosi kushoda shud, ki on dar tashakkul va inkishofi ilmi huquqshinosi sahmi kalon guzosht. Dar tadqiqoti olimoni tojik joi asosiro problemahoi ba vujud omadan va takmil yoftani davlati millii khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona, tashakkuli davlati millii tojikon ishgol mekunand (asarhoi S A. Rajabov D. D. Degtyarenko va digaron). Oid ba mavqei davlat va huquq dar sokhtmoni sosializm va kommunizm, asoshoi nazariyavii rohhoi gayrikapitalistii taraqqiyoti davlat va gayra chandin monografiyaho talif yoftaand. Dar sohai huquqi grajdani (soli 1970 majmuai asarhoi kafedrai huquqi grajdani va murofiavii Universiteti Davlatii Tojikiston intishor gardid), sokhtmoni davlati va mustahkam namudani qonuniyati sosialisti (asarhoi Sh. Roziqov, F. Tohirov, A. M. Mavlonov, A. Imomov, S. Qosimov, R. S. Gimpelevich,V.       G. Melkumov) va kriminalistika (asarhoi H. S. Salimov va digaron) tadqiqot burda meshavad. Lugati makhsusi rusiyu tojikii istilohoti huquqshinosi nashr gardid.

Olimoni huquqshinos dar kodifikasiyai qonunguzori, tayyor kardani majmuahoi qonunguzorii respublika, inchunin dar tahiyai asarhoi kollektivi, ba monandi «Tarikhi davlat va huquqi soveti» (1968), «Huquqi davlati soveti» (1971) faolona ishtirok menamoyand.

Ba tadqiqoti sohai huquq asosan fakulteti huquqshinosii Universiteti Davlatii Tojikiston, sektori davlat va huquqi sovetii Instituti tarikhi Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston, laboratoriyai tadqiqoti ilmii ekspertizai sudi, filiali Instituti umumiittifoqii goibonai huquqshinosi va digar muassisahoi tadqiqoti ilmii huquqshinosi mashguland.

Ilmhoi iqtisodi. Paydoishi afkori iqtisodi ba ogozi asrhoi na dakhl dorad. Dar bayni asarhoi Forobi, Abuali ibni Sino, Nosiri Khisrav, Abuhamid Muhammadi Gazoli va digaron risolahoe vomekhurand, ki dar onho nazariyot va andeshaho oid ba iqtisodiyoti sokhti feodali, tanzimi kori khirojsitoni, malumoti iqtisodiyu jugrofi darj gardidaand. Masalai behtar kardani khojagii mamlakat beshtar dar davrahoi oromi (qat gardidani jangho) ba miyon meomad. Az khulosai osori iqtisodii muallifoni asrimiyonagi barmeoyad, ki maveui asosii onho khirojsitoni va tashkilu tanzimi moliyot meboshad. Aksar risolaho oid ba tanzimi sokhti khojagidory ba shakli dasturho va pandu nasihat ba hukmroni davr talif gardidaand. Peshnnhodho oid ba takmili sokhti khojagidory dar osori Ahmadi Donish, Mirzo Azimi Somi, Qori Rahmatullohi Vozeh va digaron niz ba nazar merasand. Davrai navi inkishofi iqtisodi dar Tojikiston ba zamoni hamroh karda shudani Osiyoi Miyona ba Rossiya marbut ast. Dar omuzishi iqtisodiyu jugrofii kishvar dar nimai duyumi asri 19— ibtidoi asri 20 sahmi Jamiyati geografii rus va Shubai turkistonii on kalon ast. Dar yakchand asari muhaqqiqoni torevolyusionii rus va sayyohon khojagii khalqi kishvar, makhsusan Tojikistoni Shimoly, nisbat ba Janubu Markazi on (Bukhoroi Sharqi) beshtar tavsif shudaast. Malumoti iqtisodie, ki dar osori muhaqqiqoya, sayyohon, khodimoni harbii torevolyusionii rus omadaand, asosan khususiyati tavsifi doshta, dar onho masalahoi muhim va rohhoi inkishofi iqtisodii mamlakat guzoshta nashudaand.

Omuzishi ilmii masalahoi iqtisodi dar Tojikiston tanho pas az galabai Qokimiyati Soveti shuru shud. Soli 1925 «Jamiyati omuzishi Tojikiston va khalqiyathoi eroninajodi khoriji on» majmuae bo nomi «Tojikiston» nashr kard. Dar in majmua ocherki Yu. I. Poslavskiy oid ba iqtisodiyot joy doda shudaast. Bo suporishi Byuroi osiyoimiyonagii KM VKP (b) komissiyai makhsus ba omuzishi vazi quvvahoi istehsolkunandai respublika mashgul shuda, soli 1926 majmuai ocherkhoi «Khojagii khalqi Tojikiston»-ro nashr kard. Okhiri solhoi 20— ibtidoi solhoi 30 asarhoi professori Universiteti davlatii Osiyoi Miyona N. G. Malliskiy doir ba masalahoi iqtisodiyu jugrofii Tojikiston ba tab rasidand. Organhoi baplangiri va davlati bo maqsadi tayyori ba kollektivonii khojagii qishloq, masalai zaminro tahqiq namudand. Baroi omuzishu nishon dodani rohhoi bartaraf kardani qafomonii iqtisodii Tojikiston dar ibtidoi solhoi 30 Akademiyai Fanhoi SSSR ekspedisiyai jome tashkil namud. Natijahoi kori ekspedisiya dar Konferensiyai yakum oid ba omuzishi quvvahoi istehsolkunandai Tojikiston (Leningrad) jambast gardida, solhoi 1933—34 bo unvoni «Masalahoi Tojikiston» (dar 2 jild) ba tab rasidand. Solhoi 30—50 yak zumra asarho doir ba Tojikiston (V. M. Bardier, «Tojikiston», 1939; P. A. Vasilev, «Tojikiston», 1947; «Tojikistovi Soveti», 1951; «Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston», 1956 va gayra) chop shudand, ki dar onho tavsifi iqtisodiyu jugrofii Tojikiston omadaast. Soli 1957 I. Q. Narziqulov nakhustin asarro doir ba tarikhi iqtisodiyot — «Malumoti mukhtasar oid ba sanoati dastii torevolyusionii Tojikiston» nashr namud. Muassisai makhsusi iqtisody — sektori iqtisodiyot — dar hayati Filiali tojikistonii Akademiyai Fanhoi SSSR soli 1944 tashkil yoft. Badi tasisi Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston (1951) on Shubai iqtisodiyot nom girift. Solhoi 50 talaboti respublika ba tadqiqoti iqtisodi afzud, sharoiti tayyor kardani kadrho ba miyon omad. Aa hamin davra sar karda doir ba muhimtarin sohahoi ilmi iqtisodiyot muntazam tadqiqot burda meshavand. Solhoi 1957—63 dar Shubai iqtisodiyot doir ba masalahoi afzoishi hosilnokii mehnat, past namudani arzishi aslii mahsulot, iqtisodiyoti khojagii qishloqi mahalhoi muayyan, taini imkoniyathoi inkishofi baze sohahoi sanoat va istifodai samarabakhshi quvvahoi istehsolkunandai korkhonaho, inchunin masalahoi jomei inkishofi quvvahoi istehsolkunandai respublika va baland bardoshtani samarai istehsoli jamiyati va gayra korhoi ilmiyu tadqiqoti anjom doda shudand. Barobari Shubai iqtisodiyot Sovet oid ba omukhtani quvvahoi istehsolkunandai Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston niz chun muassisai iqtisodi amal mekunad. Okhiri solhoi 50—ibtidoi solhoi 60 dar Shubai iqtisodpyoti Instituti khojagii qishloq, kafedrahoi yaqtisodiyoti Universiteti Davlatii Tojikiston, Instituti khojagii qishloqi Tojikiston, kafedrahoi iqtisodi siyosii digar. Maktabhoi olii respublika niz doir ba iqtisodiyot tadqiqot burda meshudand. Soli 1964 dar Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston instituti iqtisodiyot tasis shud. Barobari tasisi instituti mazkur dodrai tahqiqoti iqtisodi vase gardid. Dar in jo tadqiqot oid ba tarikhi iqtisodiyoti Tojikiston va iqtisodi siyosi ba roh monda shudand.

Solhoi 60—70 instituti iqtisodiyot modeli balanshoi baynisohavii istehsol va taqsimi mahsulot (hamrohi Gosplan va UMS Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston), modeli invenstisionii tashakkuli Kompleksi mintaqaviyu istehsolii Tojikistoni Janubiro tahiya kard, peshguii nishondihandahoi inkishofi khojagii khalqi respublika (az jumda sistemai nakliyot)-ro baroi solhoi 1990—2000 tain namud; jihathoi nazariyavi va metodii tadqiqi samaraovari fondhoi asosi dar nohiyahoi kaloni iqtisodi, masalai takmili khojagidori dar kolkhozho, masalahoi tasiri omilhoi ijtimoiyu iqtisodi ba hosilnokii mehnat va gayra beshtar inkishof yoftand. Natijahoi in tadqiqot dar asarhoi iqtisodchiyoni tojik R. K. Rahimov, Sh. A. Aminov, A. I. Zavulunov, D. Q. Karimov, N. Q. Qayumov, H. U. Umarov, akademiki Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston I. Q. Narziqulov, azo-korrspondenti Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston H. M. Saidmurodov va digar ba tab rasidaand. Az soli 1960 injonib muassisahoi ilmii sohai iqtisodiyot ba masalahoi peshguii inkishofi iqtisodiyoti respublika va komllekshoi istehsolii hududi on mashguland. Masalan, Instituti iqtisodiyoti Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston, ki yake az kalontarin muassisahoi iqtisodist, tahiyai Programmai kompleksii peshrafti ilmiyu tekhnikii Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikistonro baroi solhoi 1986—2005 ba uhda dorad. Hamrohi digar muassisahoi iqtisodi tarhi inkishof va joygir kardani quvvahoi istehsolkunanda to soli 2000 tahiya meshavad. Doirai tadqiqi mavzuhoi iqtisodi siyosi va tarikhi khojagii khalq vasetar megardad. Dar respublika filialhoi instituthoi tadqiqoti ilmii umumiittifoqi, az jumla Instituti konyunktura va talabot (VNIIKS, 1966), Instituti mehnat, Instituti masalahoi tashkili idorakuni va gayra amal mekunand. Dar tadqiqi masalahoi iqtisodiyot hissai kafedrahoi fakultethoi iqtisodiyoti Universiteti Davlatii Tojikiston va Instituti khojagii qishloqi Tojikiston kalon ast. Masalahoi muhimmi iqtisodi dar asarhoi olimoni muassissahoi zikrshuda, az jumla dar kitobhoi azo-korrspondenti Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston T. N. Nazarov ba miyon guzoshta shudaand. Muhaqqiqoni kafedrahoi iqtisodi siyosi — T. M. Miroqilov, X. B. Salbiev, V. T. Li, O. T. Toshev, A. A. Akramov va digaron masalahoi nazariyai iqtisodiyot, tarikhi khojagii khalq, rohi inkishofi gayrikapitalisti va gayraro tadqiq menamoyand. Mutakhassisoni sohai iqtisodiyot dar se fakultetiti iqtisodiyoti Universiteti Davlatii Tojikiston, baze fakultethoi Instituti khojagii qishloq va Instituti politekhnikii Tojikiston tayyor karda meshavand. Dar respublika dar sohahoi gunoguni ilmhoi iqtisodi 12 doktor va 250 nomzadi ilm kor mekunand.

Filologiyai tojik. Ruknhoi asosii filologiyai tojik adabiyotshinosi va zabonshinosiand. Ba filologiya inchunin leksikografiya, folklorshinosi, jurnalistika, sharqshinosi va gayra dokhil meshavand.

Adabiyotshnnosi. Afkori adabiyotshinosin khalqi tojik tarikhi duru daroze dorad. Dar osori adabiyoti qadimi tojik ishoratho oid ba kalomi bade, sukhani manzum va tarzi ofaridani on ba nazar merasand. Inkishofi adabiyoti asrhoi miyona, afkori estetikii navisandagon boisi inkishofi adabiyotshinosi gardidand. Abuabdullohi Rudaki az sher «lafzi khubu manii oson» talab karda, mavqei ijtimoi va ahamiyati tarbiyavii ejodi badeiro takid namudaast. Chunin aqoidi peshqadam- ro dar afkori adabiyu estetikii aksari navisandagoni asrhoi miyona daryoftan mumkin ast.

Adabiyotshinosii fors-tojik dar asrhoi miyona dar asosi tadqiqi sher az haysi zabon inkishof yoftaast. On az se qism — bade, aruz va qofiya faroham omadaast. Dar tashakkuli in ulumi segona tasiri adabiyotshinosii arab dida meshavad. Adabiyotshinosin fors-tojik az afkori adabiyotshinosii Yunon va Hind niz bahra burdaast.

Dar iikishofi afkori adabiyotshnnosii tojik hissai adabiyotshonosoni asrhoi miyona oid ba ilmi poetika va bayon kalon ast. Yake az nakhustin asarho dar in bob «Tarjumon-ul-baloga»-i Roduyoni meboshad. Kitobi Rashidi Vatvot «Hadoij-us-sehr fi daqoiq-ish-sher» nisbat ba asari Roduyoni mukammaltar ast. Muallifi on na faqat az nazm, balkk az nasr iiz sukhan rondaast. Asari digari adabiyotshiiosii tojik «Al-mujam»-i Shamsi Qaysi Rozi (asri 13) har se ilm — bade, aruz va qofiyaro faro giriftaast. Muallif nakhustin bor az naqdi sher — tavqidi adaba sukhan ronda, masalai munosibati shoir va munaqqidro ravshan namudaast. Az asarhoe, ki bad az in talif yoftaand, khususan risolai Nasiruddini Tusi «Meyor-ul-ashor» (1254), kitobi Khusravi Dehlavi «Ejozi khusravi» (1319), asarhoi Atoullohi Husayoni «Badoe-us-sanoe» (1492), Husayn Voizi Koshifi «Badoe-ul- afkor fi sanoe-il-ashor» (asri 15), kitobi segonai Abdurrahmoni Jomi — «Risolai qofiya», «Risolai aruz», «Risolai muammo» (asri 15), asari Siddiqii Husayni «Majma-us-sanoe» (asri 17) dar inkishofi afkori adabnyotshinosii fors-tojik arzishi muayyane dorand. Dar asarhoi badei va falsafiyu didaktiki («Qobusnoma», «Chahor maqola», «Bahoriston» va gayra), farhangho («Haft qulzum», «Giyos-ul-lugot va gayra) oid ba adabiyot va adabiyotshinosi nazariyoti gunoguni jolibi diqqat bayon shudaast.

Adabiyoshshnosi va tanqidi ada- bii marksisti-leninii tojik az maqolahoi publisistii dar jurnali «Shulai inqilob» (1919—21) darjgardidai S. Ayni va asari purarzishi u «Namunai adabiyoti tojik» (1926) ibtido girifta, badan dar rushdu kamoli on adabiyotshinosonu munaqqidoni nomii tojik Abdulgani Miroev («Sayido va maqomi u dartarikhi adabiyoti tojik», 1946; «Binoi», 1957; «Abuabdulloi Rudaki», 1958 va gayra), N. Masumi («Muhammadjon Rahimi», 1961′), Sh. Huseynzoda («Bahs va andesha», 1984; «Guftor az nazmi sukhan», 1985), M. Shukurov («Pahluhoi tadqiqi badoi», 1976; «Har sukhan joevu har nukta maqome dorad», 1985 va gayra), S. Tabarov («Hayot, adabibt, realizm», kit. 1—4, 1966—84), A. Sayfulloev («Mirzo Tursunzoda», 1983; «Arkoni sukhan», 1985 va gayra), R. Hodizoda (asarhoi oid ba adabiyoti asri 19 va ejodiyoti Ahmadi Donish), X. Mirzozoda («Afkorn rangin», 1982), Yuriy Boboev (asarho oid ba M. Tursunzoda), L. Demidchik (tadqiqot dar borai dramaturgiyai tojik), Vohid Asrori (asarho doir ba ejodiyoti dahanakii khalq), R. Amonov (tadqiqi nazmi khalqii tojik), R. Musulmonqulov (tadqiqot oid ba osori adabiyotshinosii klassiki), A. Sattorov (tadqiqot oid ba afkori adabi va estetikii khalqi tojik dar asrhoi miyona), A. Afsahzod (tadqiqi osori Abdurrahmoni Jomi va matnshinosi), Yu. Akbarov, X. Sharifov, J. Baqozoda (tadqiqi nazmu nasri muosir) va digar hissai sazovor guzoshtaand.

Muhimtarin dastovardhoi adabiyotshinosoni sovetii tojik asarho doir ba tarikhi adabiyoti fors-tojik va adabiyoti sovetii tojik meboshand, ki okhiri solhoi 70—ibtidoi asri 80 ba tab rasidaand.

Zabonshinosin tojik tarikhi khele qadim dorad. Az davrai to islom du farhang — «Farhangi oimevak» va «Farhangi pahlavi» rasidaast, ki dar onho ishoraho oid ba baze kategoriyahoi zabonshinosi mavjudand. Dar tarjumavu tafsiri Avesto ba zaboni pahlavi — forsii miyona (Zand), sharhi guzvorishho va pozand mahsuli kori zabonshinoson ba nazar merasad. Niyogoni khalqi tojik az dastovardhoi zabonshinosii Hindi Qadim va Yunoni Qadim bahramand gardida, dar inkishofi zabonshinosii arab sahmi kalon guzoshtaand. Az osori asrhoi miyona doir ba sokhti grammatiki va qoidahol zaboni tojiki to hol chize dastras nashudaast. Tanho dar muqaddimai chande az lugatho («Farhangi Jahongiri», «Farhangi Rashidi», «Burhoni qote» va gayra) baze masalahoi grammatika sharh yoftaand.

Zabonshinosii tojik chun ilmi hozirazamon badi Revolyutsiyai Oktyabr ba vujud omad va taraqqi kard. Dar tashakkuli zabonshinosii tojik asarhoi ilmi va badeii S. Ayny roli kalon bozidand. Soli 1928 ba joi alifboi arabi alifboi lotini va soli 1940 alifboi rusiasos qabul gardid va hamin tavr baroi beshtar va behtar savodnok shudani mardumi tojik sharoiti khub faroham omad.

Zabonshinosii tojik ba omuzishi munazzami fonetika, sokhti grammatiki, tarkibi lugavii zabon va shevahoi zaboni tojiki mashgul ast. Dar omuzishi fonetikai zaboni tojiki I. I. Zarubin, L. Buzurgzoda,V.  S. Sokolova, V. S. Rastorgueva, T. Khaskashev, Sh. Bobomurodov, A. Nematov sahm guzoshtaand. Morfologiya va sintaksisi zaboni tojikiro S. Alizoda, B. Nibzmuhammadov, Sh. Niyozi, D. Tojiev, M. Qosimova, Sh. Rustamov, M. Ismatulloev va digaron tadqiqu barrasi kardaand. Doir ba tarikhi zaboii tojiki va lahjavu shevahoi on asarhoi ziyode ba vujud omadaand, ki az tarafi A. A. Freyman, M. N. Bogolyubov, V. A. Livshis, I. M. Oranskiy, V. S. Rastorgueva, A. 3. Rozenfeld, R. Gafforov, R. Dodikhudoev, A. L. Khromov, B. Siyaev va digar talif shudaand. Bo rohbarii V. I. Abaev va V. S. Rastorgueva olimoni Moskva, Leningrad va Tojikiston asari 5-jildai «Asoshoi zabonshinosii eroni»-ro talif namudaand, ki 3 jildi on— «Zabonhoi eronii qadim» (1979), «Zabonhoi eroni miyona» (1981), «Zabonhoi eronii (davrai) nav» (1982) ba tab rasidaast. Asari jome doir ba zaboni tojiki «Grammatikai zaboni adabii tojik» (Grammatikai akademy dar 3 jild) meboshad. Yak sohai zabonshinosii tojik omuzishi zabonhoi pomiri meboshad, ki ba tadqiqi onho dar Shubai pomirshinosii Instituti zabon va adabiyoti Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston va Instituti zabonshinosii Akademiyai Fanhoi SSSR D. Karamshoev, X. Qurbonov, T. N. Pakhalina, J. I. Edelman va digaron mashguland.

Zabonshinosonn tojik doir ba sohahoi digari zabonshinosi (uslubu uslubshinosi, omuzishi aaboni osori adabi, toponimika, leksikologiya, sosiolingvistika, madaniyati sukhan, inkishofi zabon va gayra) niz asarhoi purarzish talif namudaand.

Masalahoi gunoguni zabonshinosi va adabiyotshinosi dar Instituti zabon va adabiyoti Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston, kafedrahoi zaboni tojikii donishkadahoi olii reslublika, muassisahoi sharqshinosii Ittifoqi Soveti va baze mamlakathoi khoriji tadqiq meshavand.

Doir ba sohahoi digari filologiya. nigared Leksikografiya, Folklorshinosi, Jurnalistika, Sharqshinosi.

  1. MUASSISAHOI ILMI.

Dar solhoi Hokimiyati Soveti dar Tojikiston shabakai vasei muassisahoi ilmi ba vujud omad. Soli 1986 dar respublika yakjoya bo maktabhoi oli 58 muassisai ilmi mavjud bud. 1 yanvari 1986 qarib 8,5 hazor kormandoni ilmi, az on jumla 229 nafar doktor va 3074 nafar nomzadi ilm bud; 51 nafarashon akademiku azo-korrespondenthoyand. Markazi asosii ilmi — Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston 3 shuba va 19 muassisai tadqiqoti ilmi dorad (1986).

Ba tadqiqi tarikhi partiya Instituthoi tarikhi nartiya dar nazdi Komiteti Markazii Partiyai Kommunistii Tojikiston (filiali Instituti marksizm-leninizm dar nazdi KM KPSS) mashgul ast. Muassisahoi ilmii Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston bo muassisahoi tadqiqoti ilmii respublikahoi ittifoqi va shahrhoi Moskva, Leningrad, Novosibirsk robitahoi mustadkami ilmi dorand. Bo Akademiyai Fanho va instituthoi sohavii Uzbekiston, Qirgiziston va Qazoqiston yak silsila problemahoi nazariyavi va amali yakjoya tadqiq karda shuda, mubodilai akhboroti ilmi oid ba geologiya, seysmologiya va sokhtmoni zilzilabardor, fizika, astronomiya, biologiya, irrigasiya, gidroenergetika, masalahoi iqtisodiyot, tarikh, zabon, folklor va gayra davom dorad. Instituthoi tadqiqoti ilmii Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston bo olimon va markazhoi ilmii Bulgoriya, Chekhoslovakiya, Yugoslaviya, ShMA, Hinduston, Afgoniston, Fransiya, Kanada va mamlakathoi digar robitahoi ilmi dorand. Olimoni Tojikiston dar forumhoi baynalkhalqi bo maruzaho baromad mekunand, dar barnomahoi baynalkhalqi (Soli baynalkhalqii geofiziki, Soli baynalkhalqii Oftobi orom) shirkat mevarzand.

Dar qatori Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston dar respublika maktabhoi oli va instituthoi tadqiqoti ilmii tobei vazoratho bo tadqiqoti ilmi mashguland. Onho oid ba masalahoi baplangiri va muayyan namudani taraqqiyoti minbadai sanoat, khojagii qishloq, nigahdorii tandurusti, maorifi khalq, madaniyati sosialisti kor burda, ba khojagii khalq va sokhtmoni madani yorii amali merasonand.

Matbuot, radio va televizion. To Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sosialistii Oktyabr khalqi tojik matbuoti khudro nadosht. Barobari barpo gardidani Hokimiyati Soveti dar Tojikiston nashri kitob va gazetayu jurnalho bosurat inkishof yoft. Dar Tojikiston avvalin matbaa soli 1924 dar shahri Dushanbe sokhta shud. Soli 1925 Nashriyoti davlatli Tojikiston (az 1964 «Irfon») tasis yoft. Solhoi avval kitobho dar Moskvayu Leningrad, Samarqandu Toshkent, Qazon va digar shahrho chop meshudand. Nashriyoti respublika soli 1926 jam 13 nomguy kitob barovard, ki adadi nashrashon hamagi 15 hazor nuskha bud. Soli 1934 Kombinati poligrafii Dushanbe (holo Matbaai № 1) — bazai asosii poligrafiyai respublika ba kor sar kard va nashri kitobho khele afzud. Minbad nashriyothoi «Maorif», «Donish», «Sarredaksiyai ilmii Ensiklopediyai Sovetii Tojik», «Statistika», Nashriyoti Komiteti Markazii KP Tojikiston tashkil gardidand. Dar tamomi markazhoi viloyatho, dar bisyor shahru rayonhoi Tojikiston niz matbaaho mavjudand. Soli 1985 dar respublika 761 nomguy kitob, breshyura va digar mahsuloti chopi nashr gardid, ki adadi nashrashon az 8 mln ziyod ast.

Matbuoti haqiqii khalqi dar Tojikiston tanho dar davrai soveti ba vujud omad. Avvalin gazetai tojiki —«Ovozi tojik» dar Samarqand chop meshud. Soli 1924 dar Dushanbe gaeotai «Ovozi Sharq» haftae yak marotiba mebaromad. 15 marti 1925 shumorai avvalini gazetai «Idi tojik» ba tab rasid, ki on az shumorai duyumi khud «Bedorii tojik», az oktyabri 1928 «Tojikistoni surkh» va az soli 1955 «Tojikistoni Soveti» nom girift. Avvalin jurnali tojiki — «shulai inqilob» az apreli 1919 to dekabri 1921 dar Samarqand chop shud. Dar Dushanbe jurnalhoi «Donish va omuzgor» (1926—27) va «Rohbari donish» (1927—82) nashr meshudand. Az iyuni 1932 «Baroi adabiyoti sosialisti» chop megardad, ki on az yanvari 1938 «Sharqi Surkh» va az yanv. 1964 «Sadoi Sharq» nom megirad.

Dar Tojikiston holo (1986) 71 gazetai respublikavi, viloyati, rayoni va 19 jurnal chop meshavad: gazetahoi respublikavii «Tojikistoni Soveti», «Komsomoli Tojikiston» (az soli 1930), «Pioneri Tojikiston» (az soli 1929), «Gazetai muallimon» (az s. 1984), «Adabibt va sanat» (az soli 1984), «Kommunist Tadjikistana» (az soli 1925), «Komsomoles Tadjikistana» (az soli 1938), «Pioner Tadjikistana» (az soli 1985), «Sovet Tojikisgoni» (az soli. 1929), jurnalhoi «Kommunisti Tojikiston» (az s. 1936), «Maktabi Soveti» (az soli 1926), «Sadoi Sharq» (az soli 1938), «Zanoni Tojikiston» (az s. 1951), «Mapgal» (aa s. 1952), «Khorpushtak» (az soli 1953), «Khojagii qishloqi Tojikiston» (az soli 1947), «Akhboroti Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston» (az soli 1952), «Pamir» (az soli 1959) va gayra.

Az soli 1933 Agentii telegrafii Tojikiston (TojikTA) kor mekunad. Avvalin radiostansiya dar shahri Dushanbe soli 1924, badi tashkil shudani Resspublikai Avtonomii Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston, ba kor sar kard. Radiofikasiyai Tojikiston soli 1928 sar shud. Soli 1959 Markazi televizionii Dushanbe ba kor daromad. Aholii respublika barnomahoi televnzionii markaziro az soli 1967 injonib tamosho mekunad. Poytakhti Tojikiston — shahri Dushanbe holo chor barnomai televizioniro qabul menamoyad.

Adabiyot. Adabiyoti tojik tarikhi chandhazorsola doshta, az ejodiyoti dahanakii khalq, adabiyoti qadim, adabiyoti klassiki va adabiyoti soveti tarkib yoftaast.

Ejodiyoti dahanakii khalq dar zamonhoi qadim ba vujud omadaast. Rivoyatho, usturaho, surudhoi mehnati va mavsimi, afsonaho nakhustin navhoi on meboshand. Badtar, dar tasiri adabibti klassikii fors-tojik ruboi, bayt, gazal va gayra mamul gardidand. Dar ejodiyoti dahanakii khalqi tojik «Gurugli» mavqei kalon dorad. Hikmat Rizo, Haqzazar Kabud, Qurbonali Rajab guruglisaroyoni mashhuri tojikand. Az Hikmat Rizo ziyoda az 100 hazor misrai «Gurugli» dar fondi folklori Instituti zabon va adabiyoti Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston mahfuz ast. Latifa ham az janrhoi mamuli folklori tojik ast.

Folklori zamoni soveti inikosgari voqeavu ruydodhoi ruzgori sosialnsti buda, goliban dar janrhoi mamuli folklor—ruboi, bayt, surudhoi tarikhi va gayra ofarida meshavad. Shoironi khalqii tojik Yusuf Vafo, Boboyunus, Homid Said, Qurbonali Rajab, S. Valizoda, Davlatshohi Pomiri, S. Kholzoda dar borai Lenin, partiya, Revolyutsiyai Oktyabr, ozodii zanon va gayra ruboi, surud va sheru dostonho guftaand.

Adabiyoti qadim davrai tuloniero az davrai atiqa to ogozi asrhoi miyona va istiloi arab faro megirad.

Qadimtarin osori adabiyoti atiqa kitobi mazhabii zardushtiya — Avesto meboshad. Adabiyoti davrai avvali asrhoi miyona — asrhoi 3—9 gunogunjanr (osori tarikhi, nomaho, manzumaho, qissavu rivoyathoi dini, munozira va gayra) va gunogunzabon (ba pahlavi — forsii miyona, porti, sugdi va gayra) buda, dar on ba gayr az osori dini, osori gayridini niz vujud dorad. Osori buzurgu mashhuri adabiyoti pahlavi tarjumahoi Avesto, kitobhoi kalonhajmi «Dinkard», «Bundahishn», «Minui khirad», «Kornomai Ardasheri Bobakon». «YOdgori Zariron», «Kalila va Dimna»,«Khudoynoma», «Darakhti asuri» va gayra meboshand.

Adabiyoti asrhoi 8—15. Dar okhiri asri 7—ibtidoi asri 8 Khilofati arab Eron va Osiyoi Miyonaro zabt kard. Arabho dar nohiyahoi zabt kardaashon majburan din va zaboni khudro jori menamudand, az in ru asrhoi 8—9         adabiyoti tojik ba zaboni arabi arzi vujud namud. Namoyandagoni in adabiyot Ibni Muqaffa (qatl soli 759), Bashshor ibni Burd (vafot 787), Abunuvos (762—815), al-Khuraymi va digaron meboshand.

Adabiyoti arabizaboni fors-tojik, baroi bedori, tarbiyai hissi khudshinosii khalq va dustdorii kishvar musoidat kard. Ba sharofati on aksar osori adabiyoti pahlavi ba zaboni arabi tarjuma shuda, yak juzi tamadduni jahoni gardidand.

Nakhustin shoironi darizabon Hanzalai Bodgisi (asri 8), Abuhafsi Sugdi, Muhammad ibni Vasif (asri 9) va digaron meboshand, ki az ejodibtashon abyoti parokandae to zamoni mo rasidaast. Adabiyot ba zaboni forsin dari dar asri 10— zamoni ba maydoni ejod qadam nihodayai Rudaki, Shahidi Balkhi, Abushakuri Balkhi, Kisoii Marvazi va digaron harjoniba nashunamo kard.

Dar hamin davra masnavihoi panduakhloqi, andarzi va hamosai qahramoni (asarhoi Daqiqi va Firdavsi) ba vujud omadand. Dar asri 10 bo taqozoi zamon yak zumra asarho az zabonhoi pahlavi va arabi ba forsii dari tarjuma karda shudand, osori mansuru manzumi ilmi oid ba tarikh, dinu mazohib, falsafa, matematika, mantiq, tib va gayra ba miyon omadayad.

Dar nimai avvali asri 11 qasida va musammat rivoj yoftand. Namoyandagoni mashhuri adabiyoti nimai avvali asri 11 Unsuri, Farrukhi, Manuchehrii Domgoni meboshand, ki barobari surudani qasoidi madhi ba mavzuhoi vasfi tabiat, tasviri voqeahoya tarikhii davr, vasfi mevajot va gayra dast zadaand. Dar ejodiyoti Nosiri Khisrav qasidaho, masnavihoi panduakhloqi, dini, falsafi, irfoni va gayra ba nazar merasand. Sahmi Nosiri Khisrav dar nnkishofi janri safarnoma niz kalon ast.

Az nimai duyumi asri 11 ba adabiyoti fors-tojik tasavvuf roh yoft. Sanoi, Faridudsini Attor, Jaloluddini Rumi (Balkhi) va digaron namoyandagoni adabiyoti sufiya goyahoi irfoniro inkishof doda, ba avji aloi takomul rasonidand. Nimai duyumi asri 11 inchunin davrai pahn shudani adabiyoti fors-tojik dar Hinduston meboshad. Namoyandagoni mashhuri adabiyoti forsizaboni Hind to asri 15          Masudi Sadi Salmon, Khusravi Dehlavi, Hasani Dehlavi va digaron  meboshand.

Adabibti asri 12-i fors-tojik dar yakchand markazhoi adabi, az qabili Khuroson, Movarounnahr, Hinduston, Ozarboyjon va gayra rivoj yofta, az jihati mazmunu mundarija boz ham ganitar gardid. Dar asri 12 taqriban hamai janrhoi mamuli adabiyoti fors-tojik, ba monandi qasida (Anvari, Khoqoni, Zahiri Foryobi, Muizzi va digaron), ruboi (Umari Khayyom), doston (Attor, Nizomi va digaron), tarjeot, qita (Adib Sobiri Tirmizi) va gayra tashakkul yoftand. Makhsusan, rivoju ravnaqi dostonsaroi dar okhiri asri 11— asri 12 qobili qayd ast. Ananai dostonsaroii Firdavsiro Asadii Tusi («Garshospnoma») va muallifoni nomalumu nomashhur, ki bo nomhoi «Bonugushaspnoma», «Barzunoma», «Shahriyornoma», «Ozarbarzinnoma» va gayra dostonhoi hamosii qahramoni ofaridaand, idoma dodand. Yake az avvalin dostonhoi ishqiyu romantiki— «Vis va Romin»-i Fakhruddini Gurgoni ba shumor meravad. Nizomii Ganjavi panj dostoni ishqiyu romantiki, lirikiyu epiki, panduakhloqi va falsafi talif namud, ki onho badan dar adabiyoti fors-tojik bo nomi «Khamsa» mashhur shuda, boisi paydoishi ananai khamsa saroi (nigared Khamsa) gardidand. Dar asri 13, sarfi nazar az hujumi urduhoi Chingizkhon quvvahoi tozai ejodi ilmu adabro pesh burdand. Namoyandagoni barjastai on Sadi, Hofizi Sherozi, Kamoli Khujapdy, Jaloluddini Rumi, Ubaydi Zokoni, Khojui Kirmoni, Sayfi Fargoni, Sayfi Isfarangi va digaron meboshand.

Asrhoi  10—13 davrai tavlid va inkishofi nasri badei, tarikhi va ilmii fors-tojik ba shumor meravand. Yake az avvalin namunahoi nasri badei muqaddimai «Shohnomai Abumansuri» va «Tarjumai Tarikhi Tabari» meboshad, ki Abualii Balami dar asri 10 az zaboni arabi ba forsii dari tarjuma kardaast. Badan yakchand asarhoi nasri badei, az qabiln «Kalila va Dimna», «Sindbodnoma», «Bakhtiyornoma» va osori nasri rivoyativu omiyona, qissahoi khalqii «Samaki ayyor», «Abumuslimnoma», «Amir Hamza», «Iskandarnoma», «Qahramonnoma» va gayra ba miyon omadand.

Adabiyoti asri 15-i fors-tojik dar Samarqand, Bukhoro, Hirot, Khujand va digar joyho rivoj yoftaast. Dar in davra mavqei ijtimoii nazm boz ham mustahkamtar gardida, vusati on bo nomi Abdurrahmoni Jomi payvast asg. Dar atrofi Jomi (doirai adabii Hirot) va nohiyahoi digari Osiyoi Miyona (makhsusan Bukhorovu Samarqand) yakchand adiboni davr, az jumla Zaynuddini Vosifi, Abdullohi Hotifi, Kamoluddini Binoi va digar muttahid shuda budand.

Adabiyoti asrhoi 16— ibtidoi asri 20 ananahoi adabiyoti guzashtaro inkishof va takomul dod. Dar asri 16 shoironi buzurgi tojik Badruddini Hiloli va Abdurrahmoni Mushfiqi umr ba sar burdaand. Muvofiqi malumoti tazkiranigoroni mashhuri asri 16 Nisorii Bukhoroi («Muzakkir-ul-ahbob») va Mutribi («Tazkirat-ush-shuaro») dar in asr sadho shoiron az tabaqahoi gunoguni ijtimoi, mahsusan, az doirai kosibon va hunarmandoni shahr, arzi vujud namuda, dar navhoi gunoguni adabi asarho ejod mekardand.

Dar asri 17 niz adabiyot dar bayni kosibonu hunarmandoni shahr rivoju ravnaq yoft va az jihati mazmunu mundarija, shakl va zabon ba hayoti khalq qarobati beshtar paydo kard. Dar ejodiyoti shoironi namoyoni in davr — Fitrati Zarduzi Samarqandi va makhsusan Sayidoi Nasafi zindagivu omoli mardumi mehnatkash tasvir, kasbu hunarhoi gunoguni on zamon tavsif shudaand. Sayidoi Nasafi va digaron shoironi asri 17 dar qolabi janrhoi mamuli sheri klassikii fors-tojik beshtar manivu mazmunhoi darkhuri zamon, tanqidi nobarobarihoi ijtimoiro ifoda namudaand. Sayido, barobari in, gazalro az jihati istifodai obrazhoi sheri, sanathoi badei va hajm takomul dod.

Dar inkishofi adabiyoti in asr sahmi shoironu nasrnavison Shavkati Bukhoroi, Nozimi Hiroti, Tolibi Omuli, Mirzo Barkhurdor va digaron khele kalon ast. Dar borai sukhanvaroni sershumori in davra Malohoi Samarqandi (tazkirai «Muzokir-ul-ashob») malumoti farovone jam ovardaast. Davrai rushdu kamoli adabiyoti forsizaboni Hind ba asrhoi 16—17 rost meoyad. Dar Hinduston ba gayr az Mirzo Abdulqodiri Bedil, Zebunniso va digaron, ki zodai hamon kishvarand, bisyor shoironi digar, ba monandi Soibi Tabrezi, Kalimi Koshoni, Mulloshohi Badakhshi, Munimi Bukhoroi va digaron zindagivu ejod kardaand.

Dar asrhoi 18—19 makhsusan dar davrai hukmronii amir Umarkhoni Amiri, dar Khuqand doirai adabie tashkil yoft, ki dar on shoironu navisandagoni muttaraqqi va yak guruh maddohoni amir jam omada budand. Dar Bukhorovu Samarqand, Khujand Mirzo Sodiqi Munshi, Junaydushlohi Hoziq, Makhmur va asosguzori maorifparvarii tojik Ahmadi Donish va payravoni u Shohin, Qori Rahmatullohi Vozeh, Savdo, Muztarib, Iso-makhdum, Hayrat va digaron zindagi va ejod kardaand. Dar adabiyoti ibtidoi asri 20 makhsusan, dar ejodiyoti payravoni jarayoni maorifparvari Ajzi, Mirzosiroji Hakim, Fitrat, Asiri va digaron sokhti mavjudai ijtimoi, illathoi jamiyati feodali tanqidu mazammat shudaand.

Yak khususiyati qobili zikri adabiyoti tojiki asrhoi 18—19 tasiri ejodiyoti Bedil ba namoyandagoni on meboshad (nigared Maktabi Bedil).

Adabiyoti soveti, ki bo sheri inqilobii asosguzori on Sadriddin Ayni «Marshi hurriyat» (1918) ogoz yoftaast, bo rohi inikosi realisgii tabadduloti inqilobii zindagi va voqeiyati sosialisti pesh meravad. Hayoti purjushu khurush, muborizai khalqi tojik baroi poydor va mustahkam namudani Hokimiyati Soveti, rafi besavodi va dafi bosmachiyon, ozodii zanon dar sheru dostonho, povestu romanho, asarhoi publisisti va hikoyahoi Sadriddin Ayni, Abulqosimi Lohuti, Payrav Sulaymoni, Suhayli Javharizoda, Ahmadjon Hamdi, Bahriddin Azizi, Abdulvohid Munzim, Muhammadjon Rahimi, Muhiddin Aminzoda, Rahim Jalil, Sotim Ulutzoda va Jalol Ikromi barin adiboni nasli kalonsol inikos yoftaand. Az ibtidoi solhoi 30 adabiyoti sovetii tojik gunogunjanr va mazmunan gani, yak juzi adabiyoti sermillati soveti gardid. Qarori Komiteti Markazii VKP(b) «Dar borai aznavsozii tashkilothoi adabiyu badei» (1932), guzorishoti Sezdi 1- umi navisandagoni SSSR (1934), tasisi majallai «Baroi adabiyoti sosialisti» (1932, hozira «Sadoi Sharq») baroi peshrafti adabiyoti sovetii tojik va dar asosi metodi realizmi sosialisti inkishof yoftani on, ba arsai adabiyot qadam nihodani javononi sohibistedod  (Mirzo Tursunzoda, Hakim Karim, Habib Yusufi, Abdusalom Dehoti) va tavlidu tashakkuli chunin navu jinshoi adabi, monandi hikoya, povest, roman, drama, mazhaka, adabiyoti bachagon, adabiyotshinosi va tanqidi adabi musoidat kardand.

Dar rushdu kamoli adabiyoti navi tojik tasiri tarjumai osori namoyandagoni adabiyoti rus va khalhhoi digar (A. S. Pushkin, M. Yu. Lermontov, F. M. Dostoevskiy, N. V. Gogol, L. Tolstoy, I. V. Turgenev, A. P. Chekhov, N. A. Nekrasov, V. G. Belinskiy, M. Gorkiy, V. V. Mayakovskiy, M. Sholokhov, A. Fadeev, K. Fedin, A. Serafimovich, A. Tvardovskiy, N. S. Tikhonov, T. Shevchenko. Sh. Rustaveli, M. F. Okhundov, Abay, Yanka Kupala, L. Kiacheli, M. Rilskiy, G. Gulom, Makhtumquli, A. Tuqumboev, A. Isaakyan, U. Shekspir, E. L. Voynich, Stendal, J. Svyaft, A. Miskevich, V. Gyugo, I. V. Gyote, J. Loqson) niz buzurg ast. Roman va povesthoi S. Ayyay «Odina» (1924), «Dokhunda» (1930), «Gulomon» (1935), «Margi sudkhur» (1937), dostonhoi Abulqosimi Lohuti «Kreml» (1923), «Safari Farangiston» (1935), «Toj va bayraq» (1935), Payrav «Takhti khunin» (1931) va «Mayaorai marg» (1932), M. Tursunzoda «Khazon va bahor» (1935), A. Dehoti «Manzarai segona» (1935), M. Mirshakar «Livoi zafar» (1934), «Qishloqi tilloi» (1940), povesthoi J. Ikromi —«Du hafta» (1933), «Tirmor» (1934) va romani «Shodi»-i u (qismi 1—1940), romani Rahim Jalil «Pulod va Gulru» (1940), pesahoi S Ulugzoda — «Shodmon» (1939), «Kaltakdoroni surkh» (1940), hikoyahoi H. Karim, sheru dostonhoi M. Rahimi, H. Yusufi, lirikai siyosii Abulqosnmi Lohuti va gayra tahkursii davrai navi adabiyoti tojikro tashkil kardand.

Solhoi Jangi Buzurgi Vatani (1941—45) ejodiyoti navisandagoni tojik Boqi Rahimzoda, Foteh Niyozi, Ashirmat Nazarov, Zufarkhon Javhari va digaron inkishof yoft. Dar asarhoi mansuru manzum va dramaturgiyai davrai jang navisandagon ba tarikhi guzashta murojiat namudand, zindagi va qahramonihon farzandoni khalqi tojik Spitamen, Muqanna, Temurmalik, Vose, qahramononi hamosai tojik — Rustam, Suhrob, Siyovush va digaron mavridi tahqiqi badei qaror giriftand. Ayni dar «Qahramoni khalqi tojik Temurmalik» (1944), «Isyoni Muqanna» (1942) qahramoni va kornamoihoi guzashtagoni khalqi tojikro hikoyat kardaast. Abulqosimi Lohuti dar dostoni «Galabai Tanya» (1942) va Mirzo Tursunzoda dar «Pisari Vatan» (1942) obrazhoi partizanhovu jangovaroni sovetiro ofarida, dustivu barodari va muborizoni rohi ozodiro sitoish namudaand. Shoiri shahir Habib Yusufi dar rohi saodati Vatan jon nisor kard.

Okhiri solhoi 40 nasru nazmi tojik rushdu kamoli beshtare yoft. Navisandagoni tojik ba mavzuoti baynalkhalqi ruy ovardand va baze asarhoi onon ba arsai jahoni baromadand. Dar in solho se adibi tojik — M. Tursunzoda baroi silsilai sherhoi «Qissai Hinduston» va «Man az Sharqi ozod» (1943), S. Ayni baroi du qismi «YOddoshtho» (1949) va M. Mirshakar baroi dostonhoi «Qishloqi tilloi» va «Panji noorom» (1950) sazovori Mukofoti davlatii SSSR gardidand.

Adabiyoti sovetii tojik dar davrai bad az jang bo mazmunu mundarija va janru jinshoi adabi ganitar gardid. Nasrnavison mavzuhoi tarikhi, inqilobi, shoiron masalahoi falsafii zindagii guzashta va imruzai khalq, jang va sulh, maqomi Partiyai Kommunnsti va Davlati Sovetiro dar tamini sulh va amniyati khalqho, dramaturgon sahifahoi rangini revolyusiya va galabahoi sosializmro mavridi tadqiqi badei qaror dodand. Solhoi 59— 60 nasli navi shoironu navisandagoni tojik Pulod Tolis, Fazliddin Muhammadiev, Mumin Qanoat, Gaffor Mirzo, Aminjon Shukuhi, Fayzullo Ansori, Abdujabbor Qahhori, Muhiddin Farhat va digaron bo binishi tozai khud ba arsai adabiyot omada, onro az har jihat ganitar kardand. Sheru dostonho va hikoyavu povesthoi onho dar radifi asarhoi navi S. Ayni («YOddoshtho», 1949—54), S. Ulugzoda («Subhi javonii mo», 1954), M. Mirshakar («Lenin dar Pomir», 1955), Mirzo Tursunzoda («Hasani arobakash», 1954; «Joni shirin», 1960) dar adabiyot maqomi khosae paydo kardand.

Solhoi 60—70 va ogozi solhoi 80 adabibti tojik boz ham pesh raft. Dar in davra doirai mavzuhoi nasri tojik khele vase shuda, tasviri tarikhi guzashtai khalqi tojik va inikosi voqeahoi revolyusioni dar markazi diqqat qaror girift. Dar in mavzu asarhoi J. Ikromi «Duvozdah darvozai Bukhoro» (1960 — 73), «Sarguzashti Safar-makhsum» (1974, hamrohi H. Nazarov), «Safarmakhsum dar Bukhoro» (1980), R. Jalil «Mavoi dil» (kitobi 1—2, 1979— 85), Sotim Ulugzoda «Vose» (1967), «Rivoyati sugdi» (1975), «Piri hakimoni Mashriqeamin» (1980), R. Hodizoda «Sitorae dar tirashab» (1983), romani Kuhzod — «Ham kuhi baland, ham shahri azim» (1983) va gayra ofarida shudaand. Mavzui digare, ki navisandagoni tojik ba on tavajjuh menamoyand, zindagi va koru bori sinfi korgar ast. In mavau dar asarhoi Rahim Jalil — «Shurob» (kitobi 1—3, 1956—67), Fazliddin Muhammadiev — «Palatai kunjaki» (1974), «Varta» (1983), Muhiddin Khojaev — «Ob — rushnoi» (kitobi 1—3, 1972—77), Yu. Akobirov — «Norak» (1978) va digaron mavridi tadqiqu barrasi qaror giriftaast. Navisandai jangovari tojik F. Niyozi doir ba mavzui Jangi Buzurgi Vatani yakchand asarho, az qabili «VaFo» (kitobi 1—1949, kitobi 2—1957), «Har besha gumon mabar, ki kholist…» (1974), «Sarbozoni besiloh» (1984)- ro ofarid. Ba mavzui jang va hayoti mardum dar aqibgoh digar navisandagon, az jumla Sorbon (povesti «Shinel», 1976), M. Khojaev (romani «Nang va nomus», 1980), I. Fayzulloev («Savgand», 1983), niz murojiat kardaand. Zindagi va koru bori mardumi dehoti tojik, fathi zaminhoi navkoram, hayoti ijtimoiyu maishi, ruzgori javonon dar shahru dehot, masalahoi akhloq, ishqu oila, muboriza bar ziddi urfu odathoi zararovari kuhna, masalai munosibati insonu tabiat va gayra dar romanu povesthoi navisandagoni nasli kalonsolu javoni tojik, az jumla, J. Ikromi («Zoghoi badmur», 1977; «Khatlon», 1984), F. Muhammadiev («Dar on dunyo», 1965; «Shohii yapon», 1982), Yu. Akobirov («Zamini padaron», 1980), «Sorbon» («Zangi avval», 1970; «Aktyor, 1983), Kuhzod («Rohi agba», 1971; «Kini Khumor», 1976), B. Firuz («Rukhsora», 1977; «Toru pud», 1985), Sattor Tursun («Kamoni Rustam», 1975; «Payvand», 1976; «Meguyand, ki modaram…», 1982), A. Rabiev («Aspi okhirin», 1979), M. Bobojonov («Jufti kabutar», 1981; «Asiri haftum», 1985), A. Samadov («Badi az sari padar», 1979; «Kosai davr», 1985; «Piblai shikasta», 1986), A. Bahori («Ruzi tavallud», 1985), Sh. Hanif («Takyai qullakho», 1984), K. Miraoev («Shabe dar Kabudjar», 1984), harjoniba tasvir yoftaand. Okhiri solhoi 60— ibtidoi 70 dar adabiyoti sovetii tojik janri fantastika ba miyon omad. Dar in joda M. Mirshakar, A. Badari, Adash Istad, Q. Abdulhusennov kor mekunand.

Solhoi 60 — ibtidoi 80 nazmi tojik niz ba komyobihoi nazarras noil gardid. Dar in davra sheru dostonhoi navi M. Tursunzoda, M. Mirshakar, Mumin Qanoat, B. Rahimzoda, A. Shukuhi, A. Qahhori va majmuahoi Loiq, B. Sobir, Gulrukhsor, Qutbi Kirom, Ubayd Rajab, Gulnazar, S. Halimsho, Ali Bobojon, Mavjuda Hakimova, Ozod Aminzoda va digaron ba miyon omadand.

Adabiyoti bachagona ba manoi imruzai on samarai Revolyutsiyai Oktyabr ast. Vay dar zaminai osori didaktiki va hikoyatu andarzhoi pandu akhloqii niyogon, bo tasiri adabiyoti bachagonai khalqi rus va digaron khalqhoi Evropa shakl giriftaast. Asosguzori adabiyoti bachagonai sovetii tojik. S Ayni meboshad. Asarhoi u «Ahmadi devband»  (1928), «Mdktabi kuhna» (1934) va «Yatim» (1939) az avvalin asarhoi badeii baroi bachagon ofaridan adabiyoti tojikand. Dar inkishofi adabiyoti bachagonai tojik hissai shoiroiu nasrnavison Lohuti, Mirshakar, Gulchehra, Ubayd Rajab, Narimoi Baqozoda, Gaffor Mirzo, Bolta Ortiqov, Abdumalik Bahori, Akobir Sharifi, Numon Roziq va digaron kalon ast.

Dramaturgiya yake az janrhoi javontarini adabiyoti tojik buda, bad az Revolyutsiyai Oktyabr paydo shud va inkshof yoft. Avvalin dramahon tojik ba qalami M. Tursunzoda, A. Dehoti, Rahim Jalil, J. Ikromi, S. Ulugzoda va digaron dakhl dorand. Sipas ba justujuho yak zumra dramaturgoni kasbi ba misli Gani Abdullo, Sulton Saidmurodov, Muhammadjon Rabiev, Shamsi Qiyomov, Mehmon Bakhti, Azam Sidqi, Sulton Safarov, Abdusalom Atoboev va digaron iqdom kardaand. Bisyor shoiru navisandagoni tojik — Jalol Ikromi, Rahim Jalil, S. Ulugzoda, Boqi Rahimzoda, F. Niyozi, F. Muhammadiev, F. Ansori, A. Qahhori, Samad Gani, Hoji Sodiq, A. Bahori va digaron dar sohai dramaturgiya niz ba muvaffaqiyathoi kalon noil gardidaand.

Adabiyoti gani va gunogunjanri sovetii tojik bo adabiyoti khalqhoi SSSR robitai qavi doshta, az dastovardhoi adabiyoti jahon burdborona istifoda mebarad va ruz to ruz inkishofu takomul meyobad. Tahlili amiqi ruzgori guzashta va navin, ofarinishi kharakterhoi barjastai namoyandagoni mardumi mehnatkash, tadqiqi falsafii mohiyati voqeaho va ruydodhoi davrro adabiyoti muosiri tojik az umdatarin vazifahoi khud medonad.

Adabiyoti tojik ba tufayli osori namoyandagoni buzurgash shuhrati jahoni paydo kardaast. Shohasarhoi on taqriban ba 100 zaboni dunyo tarjuma shudaand.        H. Shodiqulov.

Sanati memori. Sanati memorii khalqi tojik tarikhi boy va khele qadima doshta, dar jarayoni inkishofi bisyorasrai khud namunahoi nodiri osori memoriro ofaridaast. Avvalin namunahoi osori memorii khalqi tojik ba davrai neolit (hazorahoi 6—3 to melod) rost meoyad. Taqriban 9,5 hazor sol qabl ajdodi tojikon dar Oshkhona nom mahalli Pomiri Sharqi va magorai Shakhta sokin budand, ki dar onho rasmhoi ruidevorii davrai avvali neolit yoft shudaand. Dar hududi Osiyoi Miyona masolehi binokori asosan gil va dar nohiyahoi kuhiston sang buda, chubro niz mohirona istifoda meburdand. Osori memorii mansubi Madaniyati Hisor dar Tutqavul va Soyl Sayyod (har du mansubi hazorahoi 6—5 to melod, dar mavzei Norak), Kuhi Bulyon (hazorahri 5—3 to melod, dar nohiyai Dangara) qadimtarin istiqomatgohi guzashtagoni tojikonand. In iqomatgohho khonahoi darozi chubkori va farshash sangin buda, dar onho yak avlod (120—150 kas) zindagi mekard. Dar hazoran 2 to melod dar hududi Osiyoi Miyona usuli gunbazii bompushi mamul gardid, ki on az khishti khom buda, baroi mustahkami ba loy pakholu pashm meomekhtand. Dar in davraho dar janubi Tojikistoi mardumoni mansubi Madaniyati Beshkent va Vakhsh umr ba sar meburdand. Dar hazorai 1 to melod avvalin shahrhoi mustahkam paydo shudand, ki onho tarhi muayyan doshta, aa rui loiha sokhta meshudand. Dar atrofi shahr devorhoi mudofiavi mebardoshtand va har yak guzari shahr binohoi istiqomati, qasrho va mabadho dosht. Taqriban dar miyonahoi hazorai 1 to melod dar mavzehoi janubi Tojikiston, Uzbakiston va shimoli Afgonistoni hozira Bokhtar nom davlati tarikhii madani tashkil meshavad, ki dar Avesto chun «kishari zeboi livobaland» tavsif shudaast. Dar asri 6 to melod tamomi nohiyahoi Eroni Sharqi ba tasarrufi davlati muqtadiri Hakhomanishiyon medaroyad. Tasiri Hakhomanishiyon ba sanati memorii Osiyoi Miyona asosan dar oroishi zohiri va baze digargunihoi tarhu naqshi binoho padid meoyad. Az asri 4 to melod Osiyoi Miyona ba hayati Imperiyai Iskandari Maqduni dokhil meshavad. Dar in davra yak qator shahrhoi devorbandi mustahkam — Maroqand (Samarqand), Baktra (Balkh), Kurukada (Uroteppa) paydo gardidand, ki onho guvohi sanati balandi binokori buda, muvofiqi naqshai mukammal sokhta shuda budand. Alalkhusus nufuzi «ellinizmi sharqi» afzuda, ba sanati memorii Osiyoi Miyona vusati bino, tanosubi kullu juzi imoratro dokhil kard, istifodai sang (dar sutunsozi) va khishti pukhta (dar sokhtani toqu ravoqho) mamul gardid. Vale unsurhoi memorii Yunonu Rim aimni ananahoi memorii Sharq digar gashta, asosi on uslubi mahallii sanati memori barjo mond. Binohoi kalon muvofiqi loihai ananavi va az masolehi mamul, yane khishti khomu pokhsa sokhta meshudand. Masalan, dar dimnai Shahrinav boshai sutunhoi sangini purshukuh bo bargu gulhoi akant zeb yoftaand. Hafriyoti dimnahoi Kayqubodshoh, Qalaimir, Kuhnaqala dar borai shahrhoi qadima tasavvuroti purra medihand. In shahrhoi devorbandi mustahkam (bazeashon du qabat devor dorand) doroi burjhoi didboni buda, kuchayu khiyobon va guzaru havliho muvofiqi naqshai mukammal bino yoftaand. Ansambli qasru mabadhoi Saksanokhur (asri 2 to melod, rayoni Farkhor) namunai ajoibi sanati memorii ahdi atiqa meboshad. Khonahoi in ansambl girdogirdi havlii kaloni chorkunjae joy giriftaand, ki az chor taraf ayvoni darozi qatorsutni, tim va tolori kaloni chorkunjae (ibodatgoh) dorad.

Mabadi Oks (nomi qadimai Omu) az dimnai Takhti sangin (Qabodiyon) namunai barjastai sanati memorii ellini buda, dar borai madaniyati Bokhtar tasavvuroti mukammal medihad. Tolori Safedi chorsutuni mabad az se taraf tim va ru ba sharq ayvoni daroai duqatorae dosht, ki har qator az chor sutun iborat bud. Sutunhoi munaqqashi sangin, mehrobhoi boshukuh va mujassamayu ashyohoi oroishii qimatbaho az inkishofi sanati memorii bokhtariyon shahodat medihand. Qalahoi Qahqaha va Yamchun (asrhoi 2—5, VABK) namunai behtarini sanati qalasozii Osiyoi Miyona, alalkhusus qalahoi kuhi meboshand.

Bo tasiri sanati memorii davrai atiqa asosan du usuli bompushi mamul gardid: yake bo boloru sutunho va digare bo khishti khomu pokhsa ba tarzi toqu gunbaz. Dertar dar oroishi binoho istifodai gaj va khishti chorkunjai pukhta mamul gardid, ki asosan baroi oroishi farsh va sokhtani sutunho ba kor meraft; sang beshtar dar bunyodi sutun (boshayu poyai on) va mehrobu haykalho istifoda meshud. Az asri 1 melodi sar karda sanati ellinizmi Sharq ru ba tanazzul nihod va az Hinduston ba vositai khoki Afgonistoya ba Osiyoi Miyona buddoiya nufuz namuda, namunahoi naqqoshi va sanati memorii hind afzaliyat paydo kard. In padida dar ahdi Kushoniyon (asrhoi 1—3) rivoj yofta, bo taqozoi buddoiya bisyor mabadu namozgohhoi magokiyu ruizamini sokhta shudand (mabadhoi Qaroteppa va Fayoeteppai mansubi asrhoi 1—2 dar Tirmiz va g.). Memorii davrai Kushoniyon okhirin zinai madaniyati ellinii Sharqi Miyona ba shumor rafta (Surkhkutal dar Sugd, Kholchayon dar Dehnav, asri 1 to melod), ananai memorii qarnhoi guzashtaro zimni bozyofthoi uslubi memorii mahalli idoma dodaast. Az memorii davrahoi avvali feodalizm dar Osiyoi Miyona (asrhoi 5—8) osori sershumori qalavu kushkho, inchunin kompleksi qasrhoi kalon va shahristonho mahfuz mondaand. Dar bayni onho makhsusan kushkhoi Chilhujra, Urtaqurgon, Qalai Mug, Munchoqteppa va gayra maqomi makhsuse dorand. Odatan devori kushk az berun qatorsutunhoi nisfashon ba dokhili devor fururafta (gofr) doshtand, ki tolori paziroi juzi markazii kushk bud. Oroishi daruni kushkho, alalkhusus devorhoi tolori paziroi az naqshu nigor va oroishot ori nabud. Ashyoi kandakori, haykalu mujassamaho, gulu gajkoriho va naqshu nigori rangorang shukuhu shavkati daruni khonaro meafzud. Dar bandubasti binohoi in davr niz navigariho paydo shud. Agar ravoqu toqhoi peshin shakli nimdoira doshta boshand, aknun sokhtani ravoqu toqhoi paykoni (yo rumi) mamul megardad. Ravoqu gunbazhoro aksar az khisht be istifodai chub, bo yorii bagala mesozand. Dimnai Panjakenti Qadim va Bunjikat oid ba uslubi memoriyu shahrsozi, dinu mazhab va tarikhi niyogoni tojikon malumoti purqimat medihad. Shahri Panjakenti Qadim az chor qism iborat bud: mahallahoi markazii shahr yo kuhandiz (dar on kushku qasri hokim joy girifta bud), khudi shahristonrabot (mahalli istiqomati aksari shahriyon) va hotahoi berunishahru guriston. Shahr du mabad dosht, ki baroi muayyan kardani mazhabi sugdiyoni qadim imkon medihad. Dimnai Kofirqala (vodii Vakhsh) mansubi tamadduni Takhoriston buda, az inkishofi sanati memori va shahrsozi dar qismati janubi Tojikiston guvohi medihad. Dimnai Kofirqala arki mustahkame dosht (vusatash 60X60 m), ki on bisyor binohoi boshukuh va mabadro dar bar megirift. Tarhu naqshi aniqu daqiqi shahr, burjhoi munaaaami devori qala ba ananahoi memorii atiqai Bokhtar ishorat mekunand. Namunai barjastai sanati memorii asrhoi 6—8 mabadi buddoii Ajinateppa (qaribii Qurgonteppa) meboshad. In mabad az du qism — khonahoi istiqomati va ibodatgohho iborat buda, dar yak doloni timmonand haykali gilin 12-metrai Buddo yoft shud. Binohoi sershumori in ansambl tarzi bompushii gunbaziyu toqdorro doshta, asosan az khishti khom tarkib meyoftand va devorho bo rasmhoi syujetdori rangorang oro yoftaand. Sokhtmoni binohoi muhtashami girdaro, ki ba bunyodi mabadhoi avvali Osiyoi Miyona musoidat kardaand, komyobii memorii davrai avvali asrhoi miyona hisobidan mumkin ast. Padidai muhimmi in davra bahamomezii memoriyu sanati tasviri bud. Maqomi devornigoraho dar oroshi daruni imorat khele afzud. Anvoi naqshu nigor va mujassamahoi kandakorii chubu gaj inkishof yoft. Musavvarahoi gunogunmazmunu gunogunrangi ruidevorii Panjakentu Shahriston zodai takhayuloti romantiki buda, az tasavvuroti murakkabi voqeiyu asotirii ajdodi tojikon shahodat medihand. Khulosa, dar asrhoi 7—8 dar sarzamini tojikon du maktabi mustaqili memoriyu binokori va rassomi tasis yoft: shimoli (sugdiyu istaravshani) va janubi (takhoristoni); har kadom jihathoi mushtaraku khosai tamadduni niyogonro rivoj dodaand.

Istiloi arab (asri 8—9) va jori shudani dini islom dar sanati memorii tojikon chizi jandon jolibi diqqatero doda natavonist. Dar davrai avvali istiloi arab masjidu binohoe sokhta shudaand, ki onho pushishi gunbazi va ayvoni qatorsutun doshta, ba ananai memoroni mahalli va usulhoi peshtarai kandakori va gajkoriyu naqqoshi asos yoftaand. Barobari intishori islom navhoi navi binoho — masjidhoi manordor, madrasaho, maqbaraho, khonaqohho va korvonsaroyho paydo shuda, tadrijan usuli bompushii gunbaziyu toqi usuli asosii sokhtmoni binohoi kalon gardid. Sanati memori alalkhusus dar asri 10, yane dar ahdi davlati mutamarkazi Somoniyon va itmomi tashakkuli khalqi tojik ba avji olii inkishof rasid va in boloravi to asri 12 davom karda, az behtarin komyobihoi zamon bahra bardosht. Shahrho boz ravnaqu rivoj yofta, markazi madaniyat shudand. Vusati shahr boisi muqarrar gardidani se qismati tarkibii on — kuhandiz, shahriston, rabot va qabriston gardid. Alalkhusus Bukhoro va Samarqand, inchunin shahrhoi nohiyahoi janubi Tojikiston — shahrhoi Hulbuk va Sayyod khele taraqqi kardand. Inkishofi matematika va geometriyai amali ba sanati memori imkon dod, ki usulhoi murakkabtari binosozi, navhoi navi bomhoi gunbaziyu toqi va anvoi naqshahoi murakkabi handasiro mavridi istifoda qaror dihad.

Dar asrhoi 9—10 ba joi khishti khom istifodai khishti pukhtai chorkunja mamul shud, ki in peshrafti azim dar binokori bud. Tarzi oddii chidani khisht zohiran namudi dilkashe paydo kard. Shaklu usulhoi gunogunu murakkabi khishtchini binoro ba asari notakroru mukammali sanat tabdil medod. Namudi barjastai sanati khishtchini dar maqbarai Ismoili Somoni ba goyati kamolot rasid. Dar bandubasti in maqbara ham nafosatu latofati sanati memorii ananavii toislomi va ham komyobiyu usulhoi memorii davrai minbada tajassum yoftaand. Memoroni Osiyoi Miyona tarzi bo gunbaz va toq pushidani boloi binohoro paziruftand, ki on baroi tamomi navi oinhoi jamiyati va dini qobili qabul va muvofiq aftod. Odatan gunbaz dar boloi ustuvonai chorkunja qaror doshta, bo devorhoi bino ba vasilai bagalaho mepayvast, ki dar natija kunji saqfi in binoho hashtruya meshud. Badtar gunbazi «balkhi» mamul gardid, ki on be takyai peshaki bevosita az gushahoi bino bardoshta meshud.Az sanati memorii asrhoi 10-12 to imruz yakchand namunai barjastai osori on rasidaand. Yake az yodgorihoi shoyoni asri 10 madrasai Khojamashhad (dehai Oayyodi nohiyai Shahrtuz ) ast, ki az jumlai qadimtarin madrasahoi Osiyoi Miyona meboshad. Shavkatu shukuhi zohirii in madrasa nafosatu latofati toq va saqfu gunbazhoi on, ki bo usuli zargarona chidani khishti pukhta bardoshta shudaand, in yodgoriro ba qatori behtarin osori sanati memorii Osiyoi Miyona meguzorand.

Maqbarai Amir Hamza (yo khud Hazrati Bobo) va alalkhusus Mazori Chorkuh (dar Isfara) yodgorii beamsol va yagonai chubii asrhoi 10—13 ast. Dar kandakorii boloru nijvonhoi mazor ham ananai sanati naqqoshii toislomi va ham raviyai kandakorii davrahoi minbada ba nazar merasad. Rasmi jonvaron bo naqshi nabotiyu handasi omekhta, yak tasviri tome paydo shudaast. Kandakorii mazori Chorkuh usluban ba kandakorii ashyoi chubii asrhoi 10—12            sargahi Zarafshon shabohat dorad (mehrobi Iskodar, sutunhoi kandakorii dehahoi Fatmev, Obburdon va Kurud). Maqbarahoi Muhammadi Bashoro (dar dehai Mazori Sharifi Panjakent) va Shaykh Muslihuddin (Leninobod) niz ba asri 12 taalluq dorand. Dar asri 12 usuli khishtchini tarzi nav pesh girifta istifodai khishti pardozyofta va safoli naqri mamul megardad. Koshii rangin paydo shuda, vusati yakrangi surkhchatobi devorhoi khishtiro mulavvan mesozad. Katibahoe, ki zimni naqshi islimi ba kor meraftand, maqomi namoyonro sohib meshavand. Tadrijan uslubi sokhtani namoi bino ham tagyir meyobad, yane agar peshtar har chor namo ba yak surat sokhta shavand, aknun yake az onhoro muhtashamtar mekardand, ki on odatan peshtoqi bino bud. Dar asri 13            hangomi tokhtutozi Chingiziyon ham sanati memorii tojikon az peshraft namond. Ibtidoi asri 14 dar maqbarai Muhammadi Bashoro peshtoqi purshukuhe sokhta shud, ki bo safolporahoi besiri naqrador va koshihoi gunogunrang oro yofta bud. Dar asri 14 maqbarai Shaykh Muslihiddin (Leninobod) ham az nav tamir gardid.

Dar okhiri asri 14 dar Osiyoi Miyona davlati muqtadiri Temuriyon tasis yoft. Khususiyati asosii sanati memorii in davra nishon dodani shukuhu salobat va qudratu tavonoii davlat bud. Imoratho zohirai base kalonu bosalobat va pur az naqshu nigor va oroishoti dabdabanoki rangbarang sokhta meshudand. Baroi afzudani hashamati binoho usuli gunbazi dubolo mamul gardid, ki yake gunbazi asli va digare gunbazi khosi oroishi bud (masalan, maqbarai Guri Mir, masjidi Bibikhonum dar Samarqand, qasri Oqsaroyi Shahrisabz va gayra). Namunai yodgorihoi uslubi memorii davrahoi minbadai ahdi Temuriyon Masjidi Kukgumbaz, Maqbarai Abulqodiri Jeloni, Maqbarai Bobotago va Maqbarai Sarimazor (dar Uroteppa), Maqbarai Amir, Maqbarai Saidi Hamadoni (dar Kulob), Maqbarai Shaykh Muslihuddin (dar Leninobod), Masjidi Mavlono Yaqubi Charkhi dar nazdikni Dushanbe) va gayra meboshand, ki bo zeboi, shukuhu salobat, oroishoti boy va nafosati khud jolibi diqatand. YOdgorihoi memorii davrahoi okhiri feodalizm (asrhoi 17—20) Madrasai Mirrajabdodkhoh (dar Konibodom), Madrasai Kuhna, Madrasai Nav (har du dar Hisor), Madrasai Miroshim Dodkhoh (dar Panjakent), Maqbarai Domullo Ikrom, Masjidi Shohi Khomush (har du dar nohiyai Leningradi viloyati Kulob) va gayra komyobihoi sanati memorii asrhoi 14—16-ro tajassum namudaand. Behtarnn ananahoi sanati memoriyu oroishii tojikon — naqqoshi, kandakori, koshikori, minokori, khattoti va gayra shukuhu shahomati in yodgorihoro afzudaand.

Tajribai chandinasrai memori va binosozii khalqi tojik na tanho dar sokhtmoni binohoi mamuriyu dini, balki dar bunyodi binohoi istiqomati niz tajassum yoftaast. Khonai istiqomatii tojikon ba sharoiti obu havo, relef, navu namudi masolehi binokory, shumorai ahli oila va gayra vobasta buda, odatan az se qism — khona, dahlez va ayvon iborat bud. Dar nohiyahoi shimoli Tojikiston (Khujand, Konibodom, Isfara, Uroteppa) odatan dar peshgohi havli, oinoi isgiqomati va girdogirdi on binohoi khojagi sokhta meshud. Dar nohiyahoi kuhiston khonaho asosan dar yonai talu teppaho joygir bud, bomi khonai poyoni odatan ba sifati havli khizmat mekard. Chunin binoho beshtar khosi kuhistoniyon buda, har kadom az se qism — khona, darundahlez va ayvon iborat bud. Mehmonkhonai tojikon khonai kaloni bisyorbolorai vassajuft buda, boloru vassaho, inchunin saqfi ayvonu sutunho bo naqshu nigor oro doda meshud. Devori khona gajkori shuda, bo toqchaho oro meyoft.

Sanati memori dar davrai soveti. Sanati memorii sovetii tojik hamchun uzvi tarkibii memorii soveti dar jarayoni taraqqiyoti beshtar az nimasrai khud az ananahoi behtarini memorii milli, komyobihoi barjastai memorii rus va Sharq bahravar shud. Dar ibtidoi kor binoho az masolehi ananavii mahalli sokhta meshudand, vale tarhi binoho bar khilofi binohoi peshtara tagyir yoft: Binoho balandu barhavo va tirezahoyashon kalon shudand. Soli 1930 avvalin loihai naqshai shahri Stalinobod tasdiq gardida, soli 1936 ba tahiyai naqshai generalii on shuru kardand. Az hamon solho sar karda dar Stallnobod binohoi navu zamonavii khosa hayoti sosialisti — binohoi mamuri va istiqomatii bisyoroshyona, bemorkhonaho, bogchahoi bachagon, maktabho, kinoteatru klubho va gayra sokhta meshavand. Behtarin binohoi nimai avvali solhoi 30 (binohoi Shuroi Komissariati khalqi, Komissariati khalqii ziroat, pochtamt, binoi kinoteatri dutolora, hozira binoi Filarmoniyai davlati va gayra) zeri tasiri raviyai konstruktivizm bunyod shudand, ki namudi zohiriashon yakrangu beoroish buda, asosan tainoti onho ba etibor girifta meshud. Soli 1936 Ittifoqi memoroni Tojikiston tasis yoft. Solhoi 1936—40 naqshahoi generalii navsozii shahrhoi Stalinobod (memor M. Baranov), Leninobod (memor V. G. Veselovskiy), Qurgonteppa (memor I. Tkachyov), Kulob (memor Anjeykovich) va digho tasdiq shudand, ki muvofiqi on simoi in shahrhoi qadimai Tojikiston dar yak muddati kutoh tagyir yoft. Yake az behtarin va kalontarin binohoi Dushanbe — binoi Teatri opera va baleti ba nomi S. Ayni (1939—46, memoron A. Yunger, D. Bilibin, V. Golli) meboshad, ki dar on unsurhoi memorii klassikii evropoiro hamchun asos girifta, ba vositai naqshu nigor, oroishot va kandakorii gaj ba bino khususiyathoi milli bakhshidaand. In anana makhsusan dar uslubi memorii okhiri solhoi 40 va nimai avvali 50 zimni hamkorii memoron va naqqoshonu kandakoron inkishof yoft. Dar sokhtmonu oroishi binohoi in davr, alalkhusus Khonai hukumati Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston (1940—49, memoron S. Anisimov, M. Zakharov, hozira binoi Komiteti nazorati khalqii Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston), Kitobkhonai davlatii respublikavii ba nomi Firdavsi (memor S. L. Anisimov), Teatri davlatii dramai ba nomi A. Lohuti (memor A. Bobokhonov), Muzeyi muttahidai respublikavii tarikhu kishvarshinosii ba nomi Behzod (memor A. Knopmus), Mehmonkhonai «Vakhsh» (memor A. Antonenko), makhsusan dar oroish, kandakori va naqshu nigori choykhonai «Rohat» (memoron D. Gendlin, K Terleskiy), Qasri madaniyati kolkhozi ba nomi S. Urunkhujaevi rayoni Khujand ananahoi naqqoshi, kandakori, gajkori va gardanaqqoshi farovon istifoda shudaand.

Afzoishi bosurati aholi talab mekard, ki surati industriyavii sokhtmoni shahrho afzuda, az oroishi ziyodatii binoho qati nazar karda shavad. Solhoi 1969—65 naqshai mikrorayonho takmil yofta, sokhtmoni ansambli binohoi bisyoroshyona rasm shud, ki in dar sharoiti kamii zamin ahamiyati kalon dosht. Taqriban az nimai duyumi solhoi 60 dar shahrhoi Tojikiston az panelhoi kaloni ohanubetoni sokhtani binoho avj girift. Inkishofi sanoati respublika ba bunyodshavii shahrhoi navi hozirazamon — Norak, Tursunzoda va YOvon musoidat kard. Dar viloyathoi Kulob, Leninobod, Qurgonteppa va VABK yak qator binohoi balandoshyonai istiqomati va mamuriyu jamiyati sokhta shudand. Az soli 1970 dar Dushanbe yak silsila mikrorayonhoi istiqomati va binohoi zamonavi — Khonai maorifi siyosi (memor E. Brzovskiy va Yu. Parkhov), Khonai Dusti (memor G. Ayzikovich), Markazi hisobbarorii Gosplan (memor V. Lyakh), Qasri ittifoqhoi kasaba, Mehmonkhonai «Tojikiston», kompozisiyai memoriyu mujassamavii Sadriddin Ayni, kompozisiyai memoriyu mujassamavii Abuali ibni Sino va gayra bunyod shud, ki komyobihoi sanati memorii solhoi okhirro tajassum namudaast. Dar ibtidoi solhoi 80 amaliyai memori ba rafi yakrangii binoho, justujui rohhoi tozai halli masalahoi sanati memorii muosir va irtiboti amiq bo ananahoi sanati memorii milli ravona shuda bud. Dar oroishi binohoi hozirai istiqomatii ohanubetoni unsurhoe paydo shudand, ki ba sharafa va panjaravu toqhoi qadima shabohat dorand. Misoli in binoi mamurii kuchai F. Dzerjnnskiy (memor Yu. Parkhov), binon Fondi dastnavishoi sharqii Akademiyai Fanhoi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston, binoi Qasri adibon (memor E. Solehov), binoi choykhonai «Saodat», «Maqbarai Mirzo Tursuneoda» (memor B. Zuhuriddinov), binoi Khonai maorifi siyosi dar Khorug (memor D. Kursheitov va gayra) meboshand. Namudi mikrorayonho behtar shuda, dar qatori binohoi choroshyona binohoi 9—12 va 16-oshyona qomat afrokhtand. Binohoi ohanubetonii mikrorayonhoi hamai shahrhoi Tojikiston bo usuli hozirazamoni binokori sokhta shuda, dar tarhi umumii onho oroishot va naqshhoi ananavii milli afzud. Memoroni muosir kushish dorand, ki dar bunyodi binohoi mamuri va istiqomatii ohanubetoni uslub va unsurhoi sanati memorii milliro istifoda burda, imorathoi zeboi zamonavi ofarand.

Sanati tasviri. Sanati tasvirii khalqi tojik tarikhi khele qadim doshta, namunahoi ibtidoii on (shikori khirs, khuki yoboi va gayra) dar magorai Shakhtai Pomiri Sharqi (davrai mezolit, hazorahoi 15—10 to melod) vomekhurad. Osori sanati davrai eneolit va birinji (hazorahoi 4—2 to melod) dar musavvarahoi ruidevori, masnuoti zargari va kuloli tajassum yoftaast. Suzanaku sarsuzan, sagaku halqaho va haykalchahoi ramzii hayvonot az hafriyoti Qayroqqum (asri 1 to melod) guvohi on meboshand. Mujassamahoi ramzii insonu hayvon, tasviroti asotiriyu khayoli va voqeii mavjudot dar masnuoti safoli va filizi tajassum meyoft. Dar bayni niyogoni tojikon ofaridani masnuoti zargari va zevarot beshtar rivoj yofta bud, ki Khizonai Omu (asri 4 to melod) namuiai jolibi on meboshad. Khizona az zaru zevaru tangahoi gunogun, mujassamahoi buzhoi boldor, abulhavli zansimoi muybaland va digar Haykalchahoi odamivu hayvonot iborat buda (alhol dar Muzei Britaniya mahfuzand), az zavqi balandi niyogoni khalqi tojik guvohi medihand. Dar janubi Tojikiston osori sanati tasvirii mansubi Madaniyati Hisor (asr hoi 6—5 to melod) namunahoi nisbatan sodda va asosan ba yak rang ifodashudai musavvarahoro dar bar megirand. Dar ahdi Iskandari Maqduni va bo tasiri davlati Yunonii Bokhtar (asri 4—2 to melod) nufuzi sanati atiqa meafzoyad. Dar bisyor tangaho va zarfiyot rasmi shohonu khudoyoni yunoni va digari dinhoi mamuli Osiyoi Miyona — Dionis, Artemida, Anahito va gayra realistona tasvir meshudand (masalan, jomi doroi lavhai asotiri, ki az Leninobod yoft shudaast). Sanati tasviri, alalkhusus devornigori va musavvarahoi munaqqashi oroishi, dar ahdi Bokhtariho va Kushoniyon dar zimni sanati memori inkishof yofta (bozyofthoi Saksanokhur, Kayqubodshoh, Kuhnaqala, Kholchayon, Tuproqqala va gayra), tajassumi lavhahoi hayoti, maishi, dini va asotiri dar qasru mabad va binohoi istiqomati mamul gardid. Dar asrhoi 5—8 sanati tasvirii monumentali, oroishiyu amali va haykaltaroshi ba avji olii inkishof rasid. Haykali azimi 12-metrai Buddoi khobida, gorelefhoi ajoib, naqshu nigori zeboi ruidevori, ki az mabadi buddoii Ajinateppa yoft shudand, dalolat menamoyand, ki dar in davra sanati tasviriyu memori ba ham omekhta, har du ba ananai madanii Hinduston qarobat paydo kardaand. Az Istaravshan va Sugd bisyor devornigoraho, gorelefhoi giliyu chubi va haykalchahoi ajoibu garoib ba dast omadand, ki syujethoi dunyaviyu dini doravd. Tasvirhoi ruidevori nazar ba mujassamasozi afzaliyat paydo karda, ananai mahalli, yane osiyoimiyonagii sanati tasviri tashakkul yoft (osori Panjakent, Afrosiyob, Varakhsha, Istaravshan, Shahriston va gayra). Syujeti devornigoraho beshtar sahnahoi bazm, razm, maishat, marosimi qabul, lahzahoi shikor, tasviri lahzahoi asotiriyu qahramoni (simoi Rustam, Siyovush va gayra), simohoi muqaddasi khudoyon (Nana, Anahito, Shiva) va gayraro dar bar girifta, asosan tavassuti ranghoi mukhtalifi shireshi rui andozai loi va gaji ofarida meshudand. Badi istiloi arab va pahnshavii dini islom sanati tasviri dar Osivi Miyona ru ba tanaazul nihoda, joi musavvarayu surathoi peshtarai realistiro tadrijan naqshu nigor girift. Minbad musavvarayu surathos, ki bo usuli hakkokiyu kandakori dar chubu ohanu sang ofarida meshudand, shaklhoi ramairo sohpb shuda, beshtar ba naqshu nigor shabohat paydo mekunand. Masalan, dar gulgaji qasri Tirmiz (asri 12) rasmi du hayvoni babrmonandero vomekhurem, ki pusht ba ham chaspidaandu yak sar dorand va tamomi badani onho puri naqshu nigor ast. Dar saqfu araqavu bolor va digaron unsurhoi oroishi mazori dehai Chorkuh (asri 11) rasmu surathoe hakkoki shudaand, ki ba anor, mor, mohi, anvoi parrandaho va makhluqoti khayoli shabohat dorand. Badi istiloi arab alalkhusus gireu ba avji olii inkishof rasid, ki on yak nav naqshi handasii murakkab buda, asosan dar oroishi binoho istifoda meshud. Namunai onro mo dar oroishi maqbarai Muhammadi Bashoro, qasri Hulbuk va Sadbd (asrhoi 11—12), ansambli Shohizindai Samarqand va digar madrasayu maqbarahoi davrai Temuriyon mebinem. Barobari gireh naqshi islimi ham mamul gardid, ki on bo mururi zamon az hisobi namudhoi navi shaklhoi ramzii hayvonotu nabobot, asbobu anjom, saybravu sitora, obu daryo va lavhu manzarahoi tabiat gani meshud. Alalkhusus naqshu nigori binohoi nohiyahoi shim. Tojikiston — Khujand, Uroteppa, Isfara, oargahi Zarafshon, masnuoti safoliyu zargari va duredgarii Kulob, Qarotegin va Badakhshon jolibi diqqat meboshand.

Dar asrhoi miyona sanati oroishi kitob — ofaridani minyotur khele ravnaq yoft, ki on komyobii azimi sanati tasvirii khalqi tojik meboshad. Odatan devon va risolavu bayonhoro khattotoni nomi nuskha bardoshta, sahifahoi onro bo rasmhoi rangai minyoturi musavvar mekardand. Doirai mavzuho va mazmunu mundarijai minyotur vase buda, beshtar lavhahoi tarikhiyu maishi, jangu muhoribahoi tan ba tan, lahzahoi shikor, muloqoti oshiqon, bazmu boziho, ziyofatu marosimhoi qabul, manzarai tabiat, portret va gayraro dar bar megirift. Usuli vositahoi tasvir dar ibtidoi minyoturnigori ba devornigorihoi Afrosiyob va Panjakent qarobat dorand. Qadimtarin minyoturho ba asri 11 mansuband. Dar miyonahoi asri 13 Maktabi minyoturi Tabrez markazi minyoturnigori shud, badtar Maktabi minyoturi Sherov shuhrat yofta, dar asosi syujeti asarhoi manzum ofaridani musavvaraho mamul gardid. Az osori minyoturnigorii in davra alalkhusus musavvarahoi «Shohnoma»-i Firdavsi va «Khamsa»-i Nizomi jolibi diqqatand. Dar okhiri asri 14 va ibtidoi asri 15 Maktabi minyoturi Hirot paydo shud, ki dar on yak zumra naqqoshonu minyoturnigoroni zabardast bo sarvarii Behzod kor mekardand. In maktab ba tashakkuli Maktabi minyoturi Movarounnahr asos guzosht. Maktabi minyoturi Bukhoro (nimai duyumi asri 16) uslubi rohhoi tasviri realistona va ba khud khosi sanati tasvirii tojikro zinae bolo burd va inro dar misoli musavvarahoi «Tuhfat-ul-ahror»-i Jomi va «Tarikhi Khizrkhon»-i Khusravi Dehlavi mushohida metavon kard. Soli 1556 Muhammadmurodi Samarqandi dar mazmuni «Shohnoma» chand rasm kashid, ki namunai osori in maktab ast. Mahz dar hamin davra musavvarahoi ajoibi «Zafarnoma» (1628, Samarqand) paydo meshavad, ki dar on jushu khurush, dahshatu vahshati muhoribahoi khunini Temur baso realistona inikos yoftaand. Sanati tasvirii tojik alalkhusus dar solhoi Hokimiyati Soveti hartarafa inkishof yofta, namudhoi gunoguni on sanati rassomi, haykaltaroshi va grafika rivoju ravnaq paydo kard. Solhoi 20 asosan plakatnigori, oroishi idonai kuchaho va grafikai gazeta dar maddi avval istod. Musavvarahoi «Zarafshon», «Ovozi tojik», «Mashrab» va «Mushfiqi» barin gazetavu jurnalho mardumro ba idroki sanati tasvirii realisti omoda mekardand. Dar ravnaqu rivoji plakatnigori khizmati A. Bure, A. Nikolaev (Usto Mumin), V. Ufimsev kalon ast.

Soli        1933 Ittifoqi rassomoni Tojikiston tasis yoft va az soli 1934 muntazam namoshphoi asarhoi rassomon tashkil meshavand. Dar in namoish asarhoi B. Bursev, P. Falbov, M. Khushmuhammadov, A. Ashurov, Yu. Barotbekovro meguzoshtand. Jambasti inkishofi sanati tasvirii respublika namoishgohi asarhoi rassomoni tojik gardid, ki soli 1941 dar Moskva hangomi dahai sanati tojik kushoda shuda bud. Solhoi 30 davrai paydoish va tashakkuli namudhoi dastgohii sanati tasvirii tojik ast. Solhoi Jangi Buzurgi Vatani beshtar navhoi ommabobu nishonrasi sanati tasviri — plakat va karikatura rivoj yoftand. Asarhoi rassomoni tojik — A. Ashurov («Ba joi ba jang raftagon»), M. A. Zbreeva «Tuhfa ba front», M. Khushmuhammadov («Bachai evakuasiyashuda dar oilai tojikon») va digaron lavhu manzarahoi aqibgohi dur va mehnati qahramononai khalqro inikos menamudand. Badi jang dar sanati tasvirii Tojikiston marhalai nav sar shud. Safi rassomon az hisobi onone, ki maktabhoi olii rassomii Moskva, Leningrad va digar shahrhoi mamlakatro tamom karda budand, khele afzud. Muzei muttahidai respublikavii tarikhu kishvarshinosi va sanati tasvirii ba nomi Behzod kushoda shud. Dar sanati tasvirii tojik alhol janrhoi sanati rassomi, grafika, haykaltaroshi va sanati oroishi teatr khele inkishof yoftaast. Barobari in sanati ananavii khalqi — zarduzi, kuloli, kandakori, naqqoshi, zargari va gayra ravnaqu rivoj dorad. Naqqoshonu kandakoron binohoi kaloni jamiyati, qasrhoi madaniyat va mehmonkhonavu choykhonahoro dar hamkori bo memoron va rassomon oro medihand. (masalan, Qasri madaniyati kolkhozi ba nomi Urunkhujaevi rayoni Khujandi viloyati Leninobod, amali naqqoshon O. Fayyozov, M. Solehov, G. Mansurov; binoi Mehmonkhonai Tojikiston va Sirki tojik amali S. Nuriddinov bo hamkorii rassomon S. Sharifov, V. Odinaev, S. Qurbonov va D. Abdusamadov). Solhoi 60 dar respublika dar barobari shaklhoi ananavii sanati oroishii amali shaklu namudhoi navi on — naqqori (O. Okhunov), gobelen (D. Abdusamadov va S. Qurbonov), vitraj, senografiya, qolinbofi, shohibofi va gayra inkishof yoft.

Dar peshrafti shaklu janrhoi gunoguni sanati tasviri rassomoni nasli kalonsol A. Ashurov, A. Kamelin, A. Haydarov, V. Boborikin, P. Falbov, B. Serebryanskii, I. Lisikov va digaron hissai kalon guzoshtaand. Dar solhoi 50—60 safi musavvironi tojik az hisobi rassomoni boistedod — 3. Habibulloev, X. Khushvaqtov, A. Aminjonov, A Rahimov, haykaltaroshon B. Tatarinova, K. Jumagozin, A. Ganiev, grafikho K Turenko, D. Safoev, H. Rasulov va digaron khele afzud. Solhoi 70—80 dar Tojikiston makhsusan rassomi, sanati monumentalii oroishi va grafika ravnaqu rivoj yoft. Nasli navi rassomon — V. Nazarov, S. Qurbonov, S. Sharifov, haykaltaroshon— M. Abdurahmonov, G. Yaralova, grafikho — S. Vishnepolskiy, R. Azimov, T. Samandarov, I. Muhammadov va digaron dar asarhoi khud mavzuhoi navu tozai grajdaniro inikos mekunand.

Musiqi. Sanati musiqii khalqi tojik tarikhi qadima dorad, ki az in khusus sarchashmahoi adabi, namunahoi sanati minyotur, musavvarahoi ruidevori va risolahoi musiqi guvohi medihand. Osori tasviri va haykalchahoi gilii musiqichiyon (Samarqand, asrhoi 3—2 to melod) nishonai takomuli musiqii tojikon meboshand. Nijvoni sangii Ayrtom (qaribii Tirmiz, asrhoi 1—2), ki guruhi navozandagonro tajassum namudaast (mard va zan), dar musiqii on davra maqomi namoyon doshtani ansamblro sobit mekunad. Musavvarahoi ruidevorii Panjakenti qadim (asrhoi 7—8) oid ba sanati musiqii sugdiyon malumoti farovon medihand. Masalan, dar yake az musavvarahoi ruidevori raqsi marosimie bo dastai navozandagon va dar musavvarai digar zani changnavoz aks yoftaast. Muarrikhi asri 10 Narshakhi dar «Tarikhi Bukhoro» oid ba surudhoi marosimivu mavsimii sokinoni in nohiya, alalkhusus «Kini Siyovush», ki ba sugvorii Siyovush nom qahramoni asotiri tasnif gardidaast, malumoti mufassal meorad. Sanati musiqi va sozqoi mukhtalifi on az asrhoi 13—14 sar karda dar yak qator minyoturhoe, ki mahfilu majlisho, ziyofatu tantana, vokhurii dildodagon va gayraro tasvir mekunand, khele ravshan tajassum yoftaast. Dar minyoturhoi «Shohnoma» lavhai mutribii Borbad dar nazdi Khusrav va Shirin, inchunin bo navoi changi Ozoda ba shikor raftani Baqromi Gur dar «Khamsa»-i Nizomi va gayra tasvir shudaand. Musiqii tojik hamchun sanati yakovoza zimni ananaqoi shifohi dar du uslub — khalqi va kasbi inkishof meyoft. Musiqii tojik diatoniki buda, ba on pardahoe khosand, ki qatorovozi onho bo qatorovozi pardahoi naturali muvofiq meoyand. Inchunin pardahoe mamuland, ki fosilai onho dar zinahoi 2-yum va3-yum tul mekashand (alalkhusus in navi musiqi dar noqiyahoi Badakhshon va Kulob mamul bud). Asosi har yak ohangro zinahoi 1—4—5 (diatoniki) tashkil mekunand. Vusati ohangi surud ba sokhti on vobasta ast. Sokhti surud shakli zer dorad: daromad, bozgui, miyonaavj, avj, farovard. Zimnan in unsurhoi ohangi ba digarshavii lahn, parda, daroz yo kutoh shudani meyori ovozho vobastaand. Vaznu zarbi musiqii khalqi tojik gunogunu ganiand. Mamultarin vazni musiqii folklori 6/8 ast, ki az omezishi qismhoi ohangii surudu raqs paydo meshavad. Inchunin silsilai asarhoi ovoziyu sozie hastand, ki az 3 qism tarkib yoftaand: daromad, qismi ovozi va ufar. Har yake az in qismho doroi fosila va vaznu zarbi khos meboshand. Musiqii tojik odatan chunin usuli zarbho dorad: 5/4, 5/8, 7/4, 3/4, 3/8 va gayra. Ba musiqii mardumi Badakhshoni soveti zarbhoi 8/8, 3/8, 2/8 niz khos ast. Musiqii khalqi asosan se uslub dorad: musiqii shimoli (viloyati Leninobod va Bukhorovu Samarqand, musiqii viloyati Qashqadaryo va gayra), musiqii markazi (Kulob, Garm, Hisor), musiqii Badakhshoni (VABK). Janrhoi musiqii khalqii tojik niz gunogun ast: epiki, mehnati, marosimivu mavsimi, liriki va gayra. Ohangi «Gurugli» ba fosilai kvarta yo kvintai kholis muvofiqat mekunad. «Gurugli»-ro odatan bo ovozi hanjaravi ijro mekunand. Surudhoi «Mayda» («Hup-hup») va «Man dog», inchunin surudi chupodon, surudi ruzgordorii zanon va gayra zistu zindagonii mardumro tarannum mekunand. Surudhoi marosimiyu mavsimi navhoi ziyod dorand, ki yake surudi marosimii istiqboli baqor ast («Gulgardoni», «Boychechak», «Navruz» va gayra). Surudhoi marosimi tuy odatan se kheland: surudi muysargiron yo sartaroshon, surudi domodbiyoron yo kelinbiyoron (naqshhoi gunogun, «yor-yor», dar kuhiston «shah omad» va gayra) surudhoi bazmi. Surudhoi marosimii motam bo unvoni «sadr» (nomi digarash «jar», «samo»), dar Badakhshon «falak», «maddoh», «ovozandozi», «girya», «marsiya» mamuland. Surudi liriki dar musiqii tojik janri mamul buda, asosan ishqu muqabbatro tarannum mekunad. Surudhoi liriki ohangi ravonu mavzun doshta, beshtar ruboiyot, dubayti, gazalro dar bar megirad. Tojikon niz sozhoi musiqii bisyore dorand: dutor, dumbura, rubobi qoshgari, tanbur, sato, gijjak, nay, karnay, surnay, dunay (qushnay), chang, labchalg, chanavoz, tablak, naqora, doyra (daf), qayroq, zang, setor, tutik, rubobi badakhshoni va gayra. Holo dar dastahoi navozandagoni khalqi va havaskoroni sanat akkordeon, tor, mandolina, gitara va klarnet niz istifoda meshavand. Musiqii klassikii kasbii tojik beshtar dar shahrho va markazhoi madanii Osiyoi Miyonayu Khuroson, Hirot, Bukhoro va Samarqand ba avji olii inkishof rasida bud. Dar aksari in shahrho jamiyathoi musiqii kasbi vujud doshtand (jamiyati maqomkhonon, sozandagon, mavrigikhonon). Qullai madaniyati musiqii klassikii khalqi tojik «Shashmaqom» meboshad, ki dar zaminai silsilai maqomoti Sharq «Duvozdahmaqom» paydo shudaast.

Dar sanati saroyandagii tojik se usuli khonish — ishkami, dimogi va qanjaravi mamul bud. Musiqii tojik az qadimulayyom bisyor qofizonu mashshoqoni mashquru zabardast dosht, ki Borbadi Marvi, Zalzali Rozi, Abulaobosi Bakhtiyor, Sittii Zarrin, Qulmuhammadi Udii Samarqandi, Hasani Balaboni, Ahmadi Gijjaki, Alii Kuchaki Tanburi, Yusufi Mavludi Dutori, Darveshalii Changi va digar az jumlai onhoyand. Shashmaqomkhononi nomii asri 19 va ibtidoi asri 20: Otagiyos, Otajalol, Kalkhoti Vorukhi Samarqandi, Hoji Abdulaziz Abdurasulov, Domullo Halim Ibodov va Bobokhonov Levi (Levicha), Bobosharifov Sodirkhon va dig. Dar asri 20 shashmaqomkhonon T. Davlatov, K. Isrofilov, Usto Pulod, Hakimov, B. Najmiddinov, B. Fayzulloev, Sh. Soqibov, F. Shahobov va digar mashhur budand. Shashmaqomkhononi nomii imruza B. Ishoqova, A. Boboqulov va J. Murodov meboshand. Silsilai «Shashmaqom» bo sayi B. Fayzulloev, Sh. Sohibov va F. Shaqobov dar panj jild (1950 —67) ba shakli notavi ba tab rasid. Musiqii klassiki shakli mutamadi sabti notavy nadosht. Vale makhazhoi khatti (asarhoi Safiuddini Urmavi va Mahmud ibni Masudi Sherozi) dalolat mekunand, ki dar asri 13 usuli zikri notaho (advor) vujud dosht. Risolaqoi sershumori musiqi oid ba tarikhi sanati musiqii tojikon malumoti farovon medihand. Avvalin risolahoi musiqi dar davraqoi tashakkuli davlati Somoniyon (asrqoi 9— 10) paydo shuda budand. Inho asari Forobi «Kitob-ul-musiqi-al-kabir» va Ibni Sino «Risola-fi-l-musiqi» meboshand. Dar asri 13 Safiuddini Urmavi oid ba musiqi «Risolat-ush-sharafiya» va «Kitob-ul-advor»-ro talif mekunad, ki dar inkishofi nazariyai musiqi sahmi muqim dorand. Dar «Durrat-ut-toj li-gurrat- id-dabboj» nom asari ensiklopedii Qutbuddini Sherozi va «Nafois-ul-funun fi arois-il-uyun»-i Muhammadi Omuli oid ba inkishofi ilmi musiqii tojik malumoti purqimat gird ovarda shudaast. Dar «Jome-ul-alhon»-i Abdulqodiri Guyanda, «Risolai musiqi»-i Abdurrahmoni Jomi va «Qonuni ilmi va amalii musiqi»-i Zaynulobidini Husayni masalahoi nazariyu amalii musiqi, inchunin anvoi ovoz, iaand. Dar asrhoi 16—18 ham oid ba musiqi bisyor risolaho talif yoftaand. Masalan, Darveshalii Changi dar «Tuhfat-us-surur» nomi 120 mashshoq, musiqishinos, hofiz, ustod va rovii musiqiro zikr mekunad. Aksari shoironi klassikii fors-tojik donandagoni merosi musiqii guzashtagon budand va khud niz az in navi sanat bahramand gardidaand. Masalan, Abuabdullohi Rudaki ud, chang va barbat barin sozhoi musiqiro bo kamoli mahorat menavokht, shoir Abutolib Tohir ibni Muqammadi Khusravoni (asri 10) dar ijroi ohanthoi «Khusravoni» hamto nadosht. Bisyor shoiron ikhtirogaroni sozhoi musiqi niz budand. Masalan, Abuqafsi Sugdi shohrud (yak navi chang), Ibni Sino musiqor (yak navi nay), Khusravi Dekhlavi sato barin sozho ba vujud ovardaand, shoiron inchunin musannifi bisyor ohangu surudho budand. (Masalan, Abdurrahmoni Jomi musannifi naqshhost). Surudhoi Amir Khusravi Deqlavi to kunun dar nohiyahoi shimoliyu markazii Hinduston mashhurand. Abdulqodirkhujai Savdo va Ahmadi Donish yake az donandagon va ijrokunandagoni «Shashmaqom» budaand. Musiqii klassikii okhiri asri 19 va ibtidoi asri 20 dar baze asarhoi S. Ayni niz zikr yoftaast».

Musiqii muosir, Hokimiyati Soveti baroi musiqii khalqi tojik sahifai nave kushod. Surudu taronahoi toza ejod meshudand, ki dar itshoyashon hissai S. Ayni, A. Lohuti, M. Rahimi va digar buzurg ast. Dar majlisu mitingho va vokhurihoi dehqononu korgaron surudhoi ba ohangi «Marseleza» navishtashuda sado dodand. Baroi hifz va takomuli merosi ganii musiqii niyogon zarurati tasis va tashkili maktabhoi kasbi pesh omad. Omuzishgohhoi musiqi dar Bukhoro (1925), Khujand (1929) va Instituti khoreografiyu musiqi dar Samarqand (1928) tasis yoftand. Soli 1929 dar Stalinobod Teatri davlatii dramavii musiqi (holo Teatri davlatii akademii dramai ba nomi A. Lohuti) tasis meyobad va hayati on az soli 1934 ba du qism — dramavi va musiqi chudo meshavad. Hayati musiqi baroi tashkili teatri alohidai musiqi zamina faroham ovard va minbad dar musiqi raviyavu uslubhoi nav (bisyorovozi, janrhoi opera va baleti — musiqii simfoni va gayra) paydo shud. Az solhoi 30 in raviya toraft avj girift. Ba maydoni sanati musiqii tojik musiqichiyon va ustodoni ilmi musiqii rus (ohangsozon S. Balasanyan, S. Urbakh, A. Lenskiy va E. Budkevich, N. Budkevich va digar) qadam meguzorand. Bo hamkorii onho kombinati badei (1934; az 1937 maktabi musiqiyu baleti, ki shubahoi sozhoi milli, fortepiano, skripka, violonchel va gayra dosht), Filarmoniyai davlatii Tojikiston va kabineti folklori-musiqi. (baroi sabti namunahoi musiqii khalqi, 1938) tasis meyoband. Dar nimai duyumi solhoi 30 namoishnomai musiqii «Lola» (S. Balasanyan, S. Urbakh, librettoi S. Saidmurodosh) va dramai musiqii G. Abdullo «Shurishi Vose» (musiqii S. Balasanyan) az padidahoi nazarras dar tarikhi musiqii tojik budand. Dar in davra yak guruh saroyandagon (A. Mulloqandov, X. Tohirov, B. Turaev, T. Fozilova, R. Golibova va digar) ba arsai musiqii tojik vorid gardidand. Nakhustin Dahai sanati tojik dar Moskva (1941), ki namoishnomai «Lola», operai «Shurishi Vose», «Kovai ohangar» va baleti «Du gul»-ro namoish doda bud, bomuvaffaqiyat guzasht. Soli 1940 Ansambli etnografii Pomir tashkil yoft, ki dar tarikhi musiqii on solho voqeai muhimme bud. Soli 1945 omuzishgohi musiqii shahri Stalinobod tasis gardid. Baleti «Layli va Majnun» (S. Balasanyan 1947), ki bo Mukofoti davlatii SSSR (1949) taqdir shudaast, az komyobihoi barjastai sanati musiqii khalqii tojik bud. Dar repertuari teatr barobari opera va balethoi milli namoishnomahoi klassikoni rus, soveti va khoriji («Evgeniy Onegin», «Motkai qaramashshoq», «Kuli quvod»-i P. I. Chaykovskyay, «Arusi shoh», «Afsonai Shoh Sulton», «Shabi mohi may»-i N. A. Rimshiy-Korsakov, «Shoh Igor»-i A. P. Borodin, «Karmen»-i J. Bize, «Chio-chio-san»-i J. Puchchini, «Favvorai Bogchasaroy»-i B. V. Asafev) namoish doda shudand. Talimi musiqii kasbivu khalqi dar respublika besh az pesh vusat meyoft. Ohangsozoni tojik asarhoi nav ba nav ejod mekardand va repertuari teatr ganitar megardid. Ejod shudani operahoi «Komde va Madan» (1950) va «Gulomon» (1981) -i 3. Shahidi, «Domodi mashhur»-i S. Urbakh, «Bozgasht»-i Ya. Sabzanov (1967), «Lanatkardai khalq» (1973), «Qishloqi tilloi» (1981) va «Sarbozoni inqilob»-i (1984) D. Dustmuhammadov, «Pulod va Gulru» (1957), «Rudaki» (1976) va «Ayni» (1978)-i Sh. Sayfiddinov, «Parastu»-i A. Odinaev (1976), «Sherak»-i S. Hamroev (1970) va balethoi «Rivoyati kuhsor» va «Pisari Vatan»-i Yu. Ter-Osipov, «Margi sudkhur»-i (1978) T. Shahidi, «Dostoni kuhsor»-i (1985) Yu. Mamedov va gayra musiqii tojikro boz ham ganitar gardonidand. Musiqii simfonii tojik bo paydo shudani simfoniya va dostonhon snmfoni (simfoniyahon D. Sustmuhammadov, A. Odinaev, G. Aleksandrov, Q. Yahyoev, A Solehov, T. Shahidi, F. Bahor, Yu. Mamedov va digaron) konsertho baroi sozhoi musiqi va uvertyuraho toraft takmil meyoft. Dostoni simfonin «Qishloqi tilloy»-i Sayfiddinov, oratoriyai «Charoghoi Norak»-i Ya. Sabzanov, simfoniyai dramavii «Voqeanomai Aspanzod»-i A. Soliev, Dostoni simfonii «Marokand»-n F. Bahor, dostoni simfonii «Jilvai Pomiri oftobru»-i 3. Mirshakar dar in janri musiqi mavqei khosu muhim dorand. Inchunin dar janrhoi musiqii romans, surud, asarhoi kameravii soziyu ovozi, musiqi baroi spektaklho va kino ohangsozon 3. Shahidi, Sh. Sayfiddinov, X. Abdulloev, Ya. Sabzanov, M. Atoev, F. Bahor, Q. Yahyoev, G. Sattorov, G. Aleksandrov, H. Niyozovva digaron hissai munosib meguzorand. Ohangsozoni kasbii tojik zimni merosi boyi musiqii klassikii tojik, mardumi respublikahoi barodar va dar asosi behtarin namunahoi osori klassikii khoriji asarhoe ofaridaand, ki onho ba ganjinai musiqii khalqhoi soveti dokhil gardidaand.          Z. Tojikova.

Raqs, «argusht», «usul», «bozi»-i tojik tarikhi qadima dorad. Tasviroti ruisangii magorai soyi Maliktosh (vodii Fargona), kuhi Sarmish (nazdikii shahri Navoi) va raqshoi taqlidii dar Avesto ovardashuda, az mavqei khos doshtani in navi sanat dar ruzgori mardumi tojik darak medihand. Raqsi tojik dar jarayoni zindagiyu mehnat, zimni sayru tamoshoho, idhoi ommavi, marosimhoi khalqi bo tarzi imovu ishora ibtido yofta, mamul gashtaast. Raqsi imovu ishorati sanati qadim buda, mavridi ijroi on hunarvaron ba ruyashon niqob mekashidand va ba hayvonotu parrandagon taqlid mekardand (chunonchi, «Sherbozi», «Uqobbovi», «Rubohbozi», «Laklakbozi» va gayra, ki to hol in navi Raqsro dar bayni mardumi tojik mushohida kardan mumkin ast. Raqshoi marosimivu mavsimi (chunonchi raqsi motamii «Alvido» va «Poyamal») va raqshoi mehnati («Gilembofi», «Shibitz», «Argushti oshpazi» va gayra) niz dar zamonhoi qadim ba vujud omadaand. Raqshoi ifodakunandai shujoatu mardonagi bo harakati qavi, charkhzanihoi bosurat va isthoi nogahoni ijro meshavand («Shamsherbozi», «Kaltakbozi», «Otashbozi» va gayra). Yak guruhi raqsho bo asbobhoi ruzgor — qoshuq, kuza, choynik, taqsimcha va gayra ijro meshavand. Raqshoe hastand, ki khususiyati teatri doshta, sahnai mustaqilu komili khoreografiro ba khotir meorand. («Aspakbozi», «Ushturbaqator», «Kemabozi»). Dar dramahoi musiqii khalqi («Bobopirak», «Mugulbozi») raqs vositai umda buda, bazan bo tarzi imovu ishora ba joi mukolama va monologhoya qahramoni spektakl meoyand. Raqsi tojik mazmuni muayyan va uslubhoi gunogun dorad. Dar on beshtar ba harakati dastho, sar va kitfho etibor medihand. Harakati po vositai yorirasoni badei buda, harakati daston va chashmu vajohati ru bo harakati badan muvofiqat mekunand. Raqsi tojiki bo hamovozii doyra va dastai navozandagoni sozhoi khalqi ruzhoi sayr, tuy va tantanaho, bazan bo ishtiroki sozhoi nafasi va zarbi — surnay, karnay, nagora va gayra ijro megardand. Raqqoson havaskor va kasbi meshavand. To Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sosialistii Oktyabr ijrokunandagoni kasbi tanho dar shahrhoi kalon budand. Onhoro «Raqqosbacha» (mardho), va «sozanda», «yallachi» (zanho) menomidand. Dar barnomai sozandaho raqshoi klassikii tojikii «Qayroqbozi», «Ravona», «Soqinoma», «Zang» va gayra mamul budand. To solhoi 30 raqshoi khalqii tojiki kharakteri folklori doshtand va badi tashkil yoftani teatrhoi kasbii respublika khususiyathoi millii raqshoi tojiki sayqal yoftand. Gayri raqshoi yakkasa va dukasan mardu zan, raqshoi chorkasayu guruhi va syuitahoi raqsi ba vujud omadand. Dar zaminai raqshoi folklori raqshoi nav Ejod shudand. Raqshoi «Kuza», «Suzani», «Pakhta», «Tuy», «Subhi bahor» va gayra dar asosi ohangu bozihoi khalqi ofarida shudaand. Minbad raqsho takomul yofta, shaklu uslubi nav giriftand (chunonchi, «Sho diyona», «Dugonaho», «Vokhuri», «Tovus», «Lola» va gayra) va zindagii mardumi mehnatiro beshtar tarannum menamudand. Dar bobati tashviqu targibi ananahoi milli va takmil dodani namunahoi behtarini sanati raqsi tojik Filarmoniyai davlatii Tojikiston, Teatri davlatii akademii opera va baleti ba nomi S. Ayni, teatrhoi kasbii Leninobod, Kulob, Khorug, Konibodom, Nov, Qurgonteppa va teatrhoi khalqiyu dastahoi havaskoron hissai arzanda guzoshtaand. Soli 1965 Ansambli davlatii raqsi «Lola» (rohbari badeiash G. Valamatzoda), soli 1978 Ansambli «Zebo» (rohbari badeiash 3. Aminzoda) va soli 1981 Ansambli «Firuza» (rohbarash G. Mirjumaeva) tasis yoftand. Ustodoni Raqsi tojik B. Homidov, S. Khujaev, H. Pasarov, G. Valamatzoda, O. Isomova, U. Rabimov, A. Ishoqova, M. Qobilov, A. Azimova, A. Nosirova, L. Zohidova, 3. Aminzoda, G. Mirjumaeva, 3. Karimova, M. Kalontarova, H Erkaeva, E. Asanova va digaron dar peshravii sanati raqsi tojik khizmati sazovor namudaand.

Balet. Sanati baleti tojik dar zaminai ananahoi boyi raqsi milli va tajribai sanati khoreografini rus va mamlakathoi khoriji ba vujud omadaast. Nishonahoi avvalini balet dar raqshoi khalqi va klassikii tojik («Kordbozi», «Kaltakbozi», «Nagorabazm», «Zang», «Larzon» va gayra) mushohida meshudand. Pas az Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sosialistii Oktyabr dar zaminai baleti klassiki va sanati raqsi milli baleti kasbii tojik tavlid yoft. Soli 1936 bo qarori Soveti Komissaroni Khalqii Tojikiston (9 iyuli 1936) dar nazdi Teatri musiqii tojik dastai balet (iborat az 26 nafar) tasis yoft. In  guruh tahti rohbarii rakqoson G. Valamatzoda, S. Khojaev, M. Fayziboeva, H Pasarov, U. Homidov baroi dramahoi musiqi, operaho va namoishnomahoi musiqi («Shurishi Vose»-i S. Balasanyan, «Kovai ohangar»-i Sh. Bobokalonov va S. Balasanyan, «Lola»-i S. Urbakh va S. Balasanyan va gayra) sahnahoi raqsi ejod namudand. Soli 1940 dar Dushanbe Teatri opera va baleti tojik tasis yoft. Dar nakhustin baleti tojik «Du gul» (musiqii A. Lenskiy, ustodi raqs K. Goleyzovskiy) A. Azimova, A.         Ishokova, O. Isomova, G. Valamatzoda, M. Qobilov, U. Rabimov, S. Bahor va digaron hunarnamoi kardaand. Badtar teatr yak qator asarhoi klassiki «Ehtiyotkorii behuda»-i P. Gertel «Favvorai bogchasaroy»-i B. Asafev, «Kuli quvon»-i P. I. Chaykovskiy, «Zolushka»-i S. Prokofev va gayraro manzuri tamoshobinon gardonid. Baroi sanati raqsii khud L. Zohidova unvoni Artisti Khalqii SSSR-ro girift. Sipas baleti tojik ba mavzuhoi zamonavi, tarikhivu qahramoni va ishqivu afsonavi ru ovard: «Dilbar» (A. Lenskiy), «Afsonai kuhiston», «Pisari vatan», «Vinni Pukh va hama chiz» (Yu. Ter-Osipov), «Temurmalik» Sh. Ashrafi), «Margi sudkhur (T. Shahidi), «Alibobo va chil rohzan» (G. Aleksandrov). Hamchunin az osori klassikon yak qator asarho ba sahna guzoshta shudand («Shelkunchik»-i P. I. Chaykovskiy, «Jizel»-i A. Sh. Adan, «Romeo i Juletta»-i S. Prokofev, «Don Kikhot»-i A. Minkus, «Bolero»-i M. Ravel, «Khonum va avbosh»-i D. Shostakovich va digaron),ki repertuari teatrro boy gardonida, mahorati ejodii hunarmandonro sayqal dodand.

Solhoi 1958—60 ba hayati ejodii Teatri opera va baleti ba nomi S. Ayni yak guruhi tamomkunandagoni studiyai tojikii Omuzishgohi khoreografin Leningrad hamroh shudand va minbad baroi ba sahna guzoshtani balethoi murakkab imkoniyat paydo shud. Javononi hunarmand M. Sobirova, B. Isoeva, M. Burhonov,S. Azamatova, S. Uzoqova, K. Kholov,V.            Aliboev, 3. Ruziboeva ba arsai ejodi omadand. Iyuni 1977 hayati artistoni baleti tojik dar Festivali baynalkhalqii «Kuopio meraqsad», ki dar Finlyandiya barguzor gardid, ishtirok namuda «Layli va Majnun»-i S. Balasanyan va «Jizel»-i A. Sh. Adanro namoish dod. Inchunin dastai hunarii baleti tojik dar yak qator mamlakathoi Osiyoi Janubu Sharqi — Malayziya, Singapur, Tayland, Hinduston, Pokiston hunarnamoi kardaast. N. Nurjonov.

Teatr. Qadimtarin unsurhoi sanati teatri tojikro dar naqshhoi rui sang paydo kardaand. Dar onho manzarahoi shikor tasvir yofta, odamon niqobhoi hayvonoti gunogunro pushidaand (musavvarahoi ruyisangii davrai avvali neolit dar magorai Shakhtai Pomiri Sharqi, davrai paleolit dar magorai Zarovutsoyi viloyati Surkhondaryo, rasmhoi hazorai 2—1 to melodi magorai soi Maliktoshi vodii Fargona va gayra). Nishonahoi sanati teatrro dar surudhoi mehnati niz ehsos mekunem. Chunin padidaho dar rasmu oinhoi toislomii tojikon (dar idhoi Navruz, «Guli lola», Sayri Gul, Guli Surkh va jashnhoi «Sada», «Mehrgon», «Bahmanjana»), ki dar Avesto qayd shudaand, duchor meoyand. Dar nohiyai Porti Qadim (janubi Turkmaniston) niqobi teatrii maskharaboze ba dast omadaast, ki ba okhiri asri 3 va avvali asri 2 to melod mutaalliq ast va az Tuproqqala niz niqobi aktyori maskharaboz yoft shudaast, ki on ba asri 1 melodi mansub meboshad. Inchunin dar ruyi ustadone az Afrosiyob chor kas tasvir shudaand, ki dar dast niqobhoi teatri dorand. Dar araqai qasri dimnai Kholchayon (Bokhtar, dar havolii Dehnavi hozira), niz haykali maskharaboz dida meshavad. Dar asrhoi 14—15 dar Hirotu Samarqand namoishhoi botantanai teatri barpo meshudand va Navoy dar «Hayrat-ulabror», Bobur dar «Boburnoma» az namoishi maskharabozon malumot dodaand. Zaynuddini Vosifi (asri 16) dar «Badoe-ul-vaqoe» menavisad, ki dar Khuroson Shodi nom guyandai mumtoz, Burhoni Gurg nom askiyagui behamto, Said Giyosuddin va Hiloli Sahhob barin maskharabozoni mohir zindagi mekardand. Mahfilhoi adabii Hirot na faqat shoiron, balki hofizonu guyandaho ham doshtand. Dar «Tarabkhona» nom joi in shahr hofizon, mashshoqon, raqqoson va shirinkoron hunarnamoi mekardand. Dar in davra sanati maddohi ham ba avji aloi taraqqi rasida bud. Maddohon ba zaboii faseh az hayoti avliyovu anbiyo va karomoti onho hikoyaho mekardand va az «Shohnoma» dostonho mekhondand. Dar minyoturhoi achrhoi 15—17 maskharabozoni kulohpushu niqobdore tasvir shudaand, ki ba havoi musiqi meraqsand. Dar asri 19 va avvali asri 20 tojikon sohibi navhoi gunoguni teatri shifohii khalqii kasbi budand. Dar tuyu ziyofatho, alalkhusus tojikoni kuhiston, dar sanati onho unsurhoi qadima beshtar mahfuz mondaand, namoishhoi folklori pantomimiyu raqs khele mamul budand. Khususiyati asosii in namoishho syujeti boy va usulu tarzhoi gunogun meboshad. Pantomimahoro ham ba vositai niqobhoi gunogun va ham ba usuli ramzii realisti ijro mekardand va onho az ruyi mazmun ba se guruh taqsim meshudand: pantomimahoe, ki makhluqoti afsonavii khayoliro ifoda menamudand (masalan «albastibozi»), pantomimahoe, ki raftori darrandagon va parrandagonu charandagonro nishon medodand (masalan, «Sher», «Gusfand», «Ruboh», «Sugur», «Uqob»), pantomimahoe, ki lahzahon gunogunn maishatu ruzgorro inikos mekardand (masalan, «Nishollopazi», «Margi sudkhur» va gayra). Timsoli teatrhoi musiqiyu raqsii qadim to ba ruzhoi mo omada rasidaand. Chunonchi teatrhoi musiqie, ki dar Pomir vujud doshtand, az se-chor mutrib faroham omada, dar tuyho va digar marosimhoi dehot ishtirok mekardand. Hunarmandon odatan havaskor buda, aslan ba dehqoni mashgul budand. manbai asosii in teatrho surudu raqs bud. Dar onho beshtar «Mugulbozi», «Bobopirak», «Qalandarbozi» barin dramahoi ovoziyu raqsi ijro meshudand. Teatri khalqii raqqosaho, ki onro odatan «Sozandaho» menomidand, dar Bukhoro va baze digar shahrho vujud dosht va on tanho dar marakahoi zanon baromad mekard.

Teatri khalqii zochabozi az davrahoi qadim vujud dorad va muvofiqi malumoti Umari Khayyom dar asri 11 ham vujud doshtaast. In teatr asosan dar shahrhoe baromad mekard, ki hayati on az 4 to 9 nafar (zochaboz, se-chor navozanda, yak-du raqqos, du-se maskharaboz, dorboz 6 shubadaboz)-ro tashkil medod. Dar okhiri asri 19 va avvali asri 20 mamultarin namoishho «Kalonshavandaho», «Polvonkachal», «Oftobkhon va Mohtobkhon» budand. In namoishho hayoti ijtimoii tojikonro tasvir mekardand va dar onho surudu musiqiyu raqs ba ham omezish meyoftand.

Teatri shifohii anayaavii maskharobozon (nigared Maskhrrabozi), ki shakli beshtar takmilyoftai sanati teatri peshazrevolyusioni bud, ba teatri zochabozi nazdik ast. In teatri qadima dar zaminai shaklu namudhoi gunoguni sanati khalq paydo shudaast. Dar dehot asosan maskharabozoni havaskor va dar shahrhoi kalon maskharabozoni kasbi baromad mekardand. Maskharabozon asosan dar tuyu ziyofatho va idu jashnho hunarnamoi mekardand. Beshtar pesahoi mazhakaviero namoish medodand, ki az yak soat ziyod davom namekard (masalan, «Khirsbozi», «Bulbulbozi», «Qoribozi», «Hindubozi», «Rais» va gayra). Matni namoish muvofiqi qolabi muayyan badehatan dar rafti namoish ofarida meshud. Dar baromadi maskharabozon na faqat amaliyoti dramavi, balki pantomima, surud, raqs va shubadabozi niz vujud dosht. Repertuari teatr masalahoi gunoguni hayoti jamiyati feodaliro hartarafa namoish medod va az namunahoi madaniyati demokratii tabaqahoi mazlumi jamiyat bud.

Badi ba Rossiya hamroh shudani Turkiston madaniyati teatri rusho, ozariho va totorho dar Osiyoi Miyona nufuz kard. Bo tasiri in madaniyat dar ibtidoi solhoi 10 asri 20 teatri jadidon paydo shud, ki dar tasisi on ziyoiyoni burjuazii Samarqand va Bukhoro faol budand. Teatri evropoinavi tojik badi galabai Revolyutsiyai Kabiri Sosialistii Oktyabr tasis yoft. Soli 1919 dar Khujand, badtar dar Konibodom, Uroteppa va Isfara tahti tasiri teatri rus, ozar, totor va uzbek teatri havaskoroni tojik ba vujud omad, ki on baroi tasisi teatri imruzai kasbi zamina guzosht. In dastahoi havaskor «Muborizai sinfi» nom pesai muallifash nomalum (1921), «Kuri Shermat»-i X. Umarov va A. Sattorov (1924), «Farmonbek»-i M. Kholmatov va M. Alizoda (1927), «Eshon va komsomol»-i J. Bagdodbekov (1929), «Fojiai Garm»-i M. Burhonov (1929), «Boy va Odina»-i M, Yusufbokov (1929) va gayra-ro ba sahna guzoshtand. Realizmi sanati teatri tojik ba ananahoi tanqidgaronavu demokratii teatri torevolyusionii maskharabozonu zochabozon va ba prinsiphoi ejodii sanati teatrii rus asos meyobad.

Soli        1929 dar zaminai mahfili havaskoroni sanati Dushanbe avvalin teatri kasbi — Teatri dramai tojik (hozira Teatri davlatii akademii dramai ba nomi A. Lohuti) va soli 1934 dar Leninobod teatri dramai musiqi tasis yoft. Kollektivi teatrho, ki solhoi 1931—32 faqat pesahoi khurdi tashviqoti namoish medodand, ba namoishi spektaklhoi bisyorpardagi shuru kardand. Asosan pesahoi az rusi va uzbeki tarjumashudaro ba sahna meguzoshtand (masalan, «Du kommunist» va «Mesuzem»-i K. Yashin, «Halima»-i G. Zafari, «Zarrarrasonandagoni pakhta»-i U. Ismoilov, «Qujum»-i V. Yan, «Balvo»-i D. Furmanov va S. Polivanov, badtar «Davati zindagi»-n V. Bill-Beloserkovskiy, «Tifli begona»-i V. Shivarkin va gayra). Pesahoi «Muboriza»-i A. Usmonov (1933), «Dushman»-i J. Ikromi

(1935)  «Vodii bakht»-i G. Abdullo (1936), «Hukm»-i M. Tursunzoda (1934), «Saodat»-i R. Jalil (1935), «Sharaf»-i M. Aminzoda (1936) va gayra ba rivoji minbadai teatr zamina guzoshtand.

Nimai duyumi solhoi 30 va avvali solhoi 40 davrai omuzishi tajribai teatri realistii rus, ravnaqu rivoji goyaviyu ejodi va poydorshavii realizmi sosialisti bud. Spektaklhoe paydo shudand, ki dar onho prosessi sokhtmoni sosialistii respublika inikos meyoft. Behtarin pesahoi in davra masalahon navi hayotro mavridi tasvir qaror medodand. In ast, ki soli 1938 S. Saidmurodov va I. Ismoilov dar mavzui muborizai ziddi kulakho va tashakkuli kirdoru raftori odami nav «Tuhmat» nom pesa navishtand, ki dar sahnai teatrho khush istiqbol gardid. S. Ulugzoda soli 1939 dar borai hayoti dehqononi kolkhozi «Shodmon» va dar borai muborizai qahramononai khalq soli 1941 «Kaltakdoroni surkh» nom pesa talif kard. Dar ayni zamon teatri tojik ba repertuari romantiki mayl mekunad; pesai «Rustam va Suhrob»-i A. Pirmuhammadzoda va V. Volkenshteyn, ki soli 1941 dar asosi «Shohnoma»-i Firdavsi ofarida shudaast, spektaklhoi «Makr va muhabbat»-i F. Shiller (1937) va «Otello»-i U. Shekspir (1939) niz khususiyati romantiki doshtand. Dar miyonahoi solhoi 30 dar Khorug, Kulob, Isfara, Panjakent va digar shahrho teatrhoi rayoniyu viloyati tasis yoftand. Bo namoishi spektakli «Zamin» (pesai N. Virta) soli 1937 Teatri dramai rusi (holo Teatri davlatii akademii dramai rusi ba nomi V. Mayakovskiy) ba kor shuru namud. In teatr dar zaminai Studiyai Moskva tasis yoft, ki ba on A. D. Dikiy rohbari mekard.

Folklori qadimai boyi musiqi va raqsi tojik baroi takmili teatri musiqi musoid bud. Soli 1936 dar nazdi Teatri musiqii tojik dastahoi hofizon, balet, khor, orkestr tashkil shudand va dar muddati 3—4 mavsimi teatri rivoj yoftand.

Soli 1940 dar zaminai Teatri musiqii tojik Teatri opera va balet tasis gardid (holo Teatri davlatii akademii opera va baleti ba nomi S. Ayni).

Dar solhoi Jangi Buzurgi Vatani Teatri dramai ba nomi A. Lohuti va Teatri dramai musiqii Leninobod pesahoi S. Ulugzoda «Dar otash» (1944), «Dili modar» (1942), pesai J. Ikromi va A. Fayko «Khonai Nodir» (1943), Teatri opera va balet operai S. Balasanyan «Surudi gazab» va mazhakai lirikii S. Balasanyan va 3. Shahidi «Roziya»-ro ba sahna guzoshtand. Tiramohi 1943 dar Stalinobod Teatri frontii Tojikiston tasis yoft, ki rohbari badeii on G. P. Menglet bud. Artistoni rusu tojik yakjoya konsertspektakli «Salom, duston»-ro tahiya kardand. Teatr dar panj front qarib hazor konsert dod.

Solhoi 50—70 teatri tojik ba mavzuhoi tarikhiyu inqilobi ru meorad. Doir ba muborizai khalq, bahri istiqlolu saodat va barpo kardani Hokimiyati Soveti dar Tojikiston, Teatri dramai ba nomi A. Lohuti pesahoi J. Ikromi «Dokhunda» (1954), «Dilhoi suzon» (1967), «Garnizon taslim nameshavad» (1975), pesai M. Mirshakar «Korvoni bakht» (1970), Teatri dramai rusii ba nomi Mayakovskiy (1965) va Teatri mazhakai musiqii ba nomi A. S. Pushkini Leninobod «Dostoni Bibizaynab» (1967)-ro ba sahna guzoshtand. Dramai G. Abdullo va Sh. Qiyomov «Tufon» (1957), asarhoi G. Abdullo «Hurriyat» (1964) va «Sarbozoni inqilob» (1970) dar tarikhi dramaturgiyai tojik ahamiyati kaloni goyaviyu ejodi doshtand, zero dar in asarho bori nakhust obrazi V. I. Lenin va hamsafoni vay — N. K. Krupskaya, G. K. Orjonikidze, M. V. Frunze va digar ofarida shudand. Repertuari teatri tojik aa hisobi asarhoi klassikoni rusu Garb — Pushkin, Gogol, Ostrovskiy, Shekspir, Moler, Goldoni, Balzak, inchunin dramaturgoni muosiri uzbek, ozar, boshqird, eston, latish, qirgiz, turkman, gurji, arman, ukrain va gayra khele gani gardid. Repertuari Teatri davlatii opera va baleti ba nomi S. Ayni tadrijan bo operahoi navi tojikin «Tohir va Zuhro»-i A. Lenskiy (1944), «Bakhtiyor va Niso»-i S. Balasanyan (1954), «Pulod va Gulru» (1957), «Rudaki» (1976), «Ayni» (1980)-i Sh. Sayfiddinov, «Komde va Madan» (1960) va «Qishloqi tilloi» (1984)-i D. Dustmuhammadov, bo balethoi nav — «Layli va Majnun (1947, soli 1949 sazovori Mukofoti davlatii SSSR,tahriri seyum soli 1970)-i S. Balasanyan, «Dilbar»-i A. Levskiy (1954), «Gilemi kabud»-i Volberg (1958), «Rivoyati kuhiston» (1964), «Pisari Vatan» (1967), «Pisarak va Karlson» (1977), «Vinvi Pukh va hama» (1981)-i Yu. Ter-Osipov, «Margi sudkhur»-i T. Shahidi (1978) va gayra ganitar gardid.

Dar peshrafti teatri tojik bisyor rejissyoron (X. Mahmudov, F. Umarov, M. Saidov, A. Saidov, S. Saidmurodov, V. V. Tikhonovich, E. I. Mitelman, V. Ya. Lange, R. A. Korsk,V.        Ya. Reybakh, H. Rahmatulloev, Sh. Qiyomov, X. Maybaliev, H. Abdurrazoqov va digar), dirijyoron (L. G. Kaufman, L. Ya. Levin, E. D. Ayrapetyans, I. Abdulloev, A. Niyozmamadov), baletmeysterho (A. i. Prosenko, K. D. Goleyzovskiy, G. Valamatzoda, S. Azamatova, M. Burhonov va digaron), rassomon (E. G. Chemodurov,B.      I. Fufigin, M. M. Mukhin, R. Safarov, 3. Sobirov, Ya. Mamadqulov, N. Qurbonqulov, Sh. Shobutolibov, G. G. Mirzokhonov), ki dar solhoi gunogun dar teatrho kor mekardand, sahmi arzanda dorand. Teatri kasbii tojik az solhoi avvali takomuli ejodiash ba mamlakathoi khorija safar karda, madaniyat va sanati balandi tojikonro dar on jo namoish dod. Tiramohi 1941 va 1942 artistoni Teatri davlatii opera va balet va Filarmoniyai davlatiiTojikiston dar Eron hunarnamoi kardand. Dar okhiri solhoi 40 va solhoi 50—60 baze namoyandagonp sanati musiqi va khoreografii tojik ba bisyor mamlakathoi khoriji safarhoi hunari kardand. Soli 1964 va 1968 Teatri dramai ba nomi Lohuti dar Afgoniston bomuvaffaqiyat hunarnamoi namud. Soli 1971 ba on jo teatri mazhakai ba nomi Pushkini Leninobod safar kard.

Coli 1977 dastai baleti Teatri davlatii akademii opera va baleti ba nomi S. Ayni dar Finlyandiya dar festivali baynalkhalqii «Kuopio meraqsad» shirkat varzid. Az noyabri 1978 to yanvari 1979 ustodoni baleti tojik ba yak qator mamlakathoi Osiyoi Janubu Sharqi — Malayziya, Singapur, Tayland, Hinduston va Pokiston safari bomuvaffaqiyati hunari kardand. Solhoi 50—60 rejissyoroni tojik ba kalontarin teatri davlatii dramai Afgoniston «Puhani» rohbari namudand.

Teatri tojik dar dahayu haftahoi sanat va madaniyati respublikahoi barodari va mamlakathoi khoriji dar namoishu festivalhoi respublikaviyu umumiittifoqi ishtirok mekunad. Sanati teatrii Tojikiston bisyor aktyoroni sohibhunaru boistedod dorad, ki har yake rohu ravish va tarzu usuli khosi ejodi dorad. Artistoni khalqii SSSR M. Qosimov, G. Valamatzoda, T. Fozilova, A. Burhonov, L. Zohidova, H.Mavlovova, A. Boboqulov, M. Sobirova, J. Murodov, L. Kabirova, N. Volchkov, M. Qalandarova, Artistoni Khalqii Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston S. Tuyboeva, H Rahmatulloev, A. Qosimov, A. Azimova, T. Gafforova, G. Zavqibekov, M. Burhonov, O. Usmonova, B. Karamkhudoev, M. Ibrohimova, M. Vohidov, H. Gadoev, M. Isoeva, A. Muhammadjonov, B. Alifbekova, S. Shoismoilova, X. Nazarova, R. Tolmasov, B. Isoeva, G. Saveleva va Artistoni Khizmatnishondodai Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii  Tojikiston S. Isoeva, B. Rajabov, K. Kholov, S. Uzoqova, H. Ahmadov imruz malumu mashhurand.

Dramaturghoi nomii tojik G. Abdullo, J. Ikromi, S. Ulugzoda, M. Mirshakar, A. Sidqi, A. Bahori, S. Safarov, M. Bakhti va digaron bo teatrho hamkori karda, asarhoi balandmazmun meofarand.

Teatrhoi Tojnkiston ananahoi millii khudro bo shakli navi ijro mohirona mepayvandand. Murojiat ba osori shoironi tojik, takmili mahorati hunarnamoi shakli navi teatrro ba vujud ovard, ki on teatri yak aktyor nom dorad. Muassis, rejissyor va aktyori on M. Vohidov bud. Kollektivi teatrhoro khatmkunandagoni maktabhoi olii Moskva, Leningrad, Toshkent va Dushanbe besh az pesh takmil medihand. Holo dar respublika chunin teatrho amal mekunayad: Teatri davlatii akademii dramai tojik ba nomi A. Lohuti, Teatri davlatii akademii opera va baleti tojik ba nomi S. Aini, Teatri davlatii dramai rusii ba nomi V. Mayakovokiy, Teatri mazhakai musiqii ba nomi Pushkini Lelinobod, Teatri mazhakai musiqii Khorur, Teatri dramai musiqii Kulob, Teatri dramayu mazhakai Konibodom, Teatri mazhakai musiqii Kurgonteppa, Teatri davlatii javononi Tojikiston ba nomi Mahmudjon Vohidov, Teatri dramayu musiqii uebekii Nov, Teatri lukhtaki Dushanbe va Teatri lukhtaki shahri Chkalov. Dar bisyor mavzeho (Hisor, Orjonikidzeobod, Isfara, Rushon, Qurgonteppa, Moskva va gayra) teatrhoi khalqi kushoda shudand. Soli 1973 Instituti davlatii sanati Tojikiston ba nomi M. Tursunzoda tasis yoft.       N. Nurjonov.

Estrada. Musiqii estradai kasbii tojik dar zaminai musiqii khalqi va musiqii estradii jahoniyu soveti paydo shudaast. Soli 1962 dar nazdi Filarmoniyai davlatii Tojikiston Ansambli estradii sozi tashkil yoft, ki ba hayati on Laylo Sharifova (rohbari badei), A. Boboqulov, M. Bohirova, M. Kasparova va dastai mutribon dokhil meshudand. Soli 1964 dar nazdi Komiteti davlatii Soveti Vaziroii Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston oid ba televizion va radioshunavoni bo unvoni «Gulshan» kollektivi ejodie tasis yoft. Kompozitori tojik D. Dustmuhammadov nakhustin surudhoi estradii khudro baroi in dasta navisht («Kabutari safedi man», «Mavjigul» va gayra), ki zud malumu mashhur gardidand. Dar asosi in kollektivi hunari soli 1965 dar nazdi Vazorati madaniyati Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston Ansambli davlatii «Gulshan» tasis yoft. Rohbari in ansamblro khatmkardai Konservatoriyai Boku, solisti Teatri opera va baleti ba nomi S. Ayni O. Orifov ba uhda dosht. Soli 1971 Ansambli estradii «Gulshan» ba hayati kollektivi ejodii Komiteti davlatii Soveti Vazironi Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston oid ba televizion va radioshunavoni dokhil gardid. Dar takomul va ravnaqi estradai millii tojik yak guruh kompozitoroni javon, az qabili X. Abdulloev, . F. Odinaev, 3. Zulfiqorov,Q. Yahyoev, Sh. Pulodi, F. Bahor, A. YOdgorov, 3. Nishonov va digar khizmati bosazo namudaand. Ejodkoron 3. Shahidi, Sh. Sayfiddinov, Ya. Sabzanov, D. Dustmuhammadov va digaron dar asarhoi khud gunogunjanbagii musiqii tojikro sobit kardaand. Surudhoi «Tojikistoni Bakhtiyor», «Komsomol», «Dar vasfi Dushanbe», «Sukhani oshiq», «YOdat mebarad» (D. Dustmuhammadov), «Kui roz», «Hamkhona shav» (3. Zulfiqorov), «Shabhoi Dushanbe» (Ya. Sabzanov), «Gulhoi Dushanbe» (Yu. Lyadov), «Sitorai Man» (3. Shahidi), «Khanda-khanda», «Lolachin», «Pakhtachindukhtar» (X. Abdulloev) va gayra dar mavzuhoi gunoguni hayoti ofarida shuda, ba dili mukhlison zud roh yoftand. Solhon okhir kompozitoroni javoni tojik A. YOdgorov, Sh. Pulodi, 3., Mirshakar va digaron baroi musiqii estradai tojik asarhoi khubi zamonavi navishtaand. Soli 1973 dar nazdi Filarmoniyai davlatii Tojikiston ansambli estradii sozivu ovozii «Orzu» (rohbari badei G. Avakov) tasis yoft va badtar (soli 1981) «Sugdiyon» nom girift. Barobari ansamblhoi estradii zikrshuda dar respublika chandin ansambli estradii sozivu ovozii havaskor — «Ravshan» (1969, nazdi Elektroseti rayoni Lenin), «Dilovar» (shahri Leninobod), «Nigor», «Asal», «Dilorom», «Nargis» amal dorand, ki az baynashon ansambli estradii «Ravshan» sazovori laureati Konkursi respublikavii «Torhoi zarrin» va laureati Konkursi umumiittifoqii kollektivhoi estradi (Toshkent), Ansambli «Dilovar» Laureati Konkursi «Torhoi zarrin» va ansambli estradii «Dilorom» laureati konkursi mintaqavii «Sadohoi javon» gashtaand.

Dar takomul va ravnaqi estradai tojik Artistoni Khizmatnishondodai Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston M. Nabieva (1947—79), M. Hamroqulova, R. Shaloer, T. Muhiddinov, saroyandagon X. Shirinova, U. Ziyoev, B. Nematov va digaron kalon

ast. M. Hamroqulova avvalin Laureati Konkursi estradii ansamblhoi kasbi (Minsk, 1974), Laureati Festivali umumijahonii javonon va studenton (Berlin, 1976) va Laureati Konkursi umumiittifoqii «Surudi soveti» (Toshkent, Moskva,1979)         meboshad. (Baroi tabligu targib va ravnaqi musiqii estradi va mahorati ijroish hayati ejodii «Gulshan» sazovori unvoni laureati Mukofoti komsomoli leninii Tojikiston (1976) va badtar Laureati Mukofoti davlatii Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston ba nomi A. Rudaki gardid. In ansambl ba Polsha (1977) va Afgoniston (1981) safarhoi hunari kardaast.

D. Dustmuhammadov, A. Rajabov.

Sirk. Sanati sirki tojik tarikhi qadim doshta, bo jarayoni mehnat, maishat, raqsu bozi va marosimhoi khalqi aloqamand ast. Raqshoi taqlidi («Sherbozi», «Uqobbozi», «Rubohbozi») va ifodakunandai shujoatu mardonagi («Shamsherbozi», «Kaltakbozi», «Otashbozi»), ki bo harakathoi tez charkhzanihoi bosurat va isthoi nogahoni ijro meshudand, nakhustin padidahoi sirk meboshand. Inchunin gushtingiri, aspdavoni, quvvaozmoii pahlavonon dar paydoishi sirki tojik roli kalon bozidaand. Makhsusan ananai artistoni khalqii sirk — dorbozon (nigared Dorbozi), maskharabozon (nigared Maskharabozi), nayrangbozon (nigared Nayrangbozi), zochabozon (nigared Zochabozi), tabaqbozon, poychubinbozho va gay      ra hangomi jashnhoi Navruzu Sada va digar marosimhoi khalqi inkishof yofta, zaminai sirki millii tojikro nihodaand. Dar «Badoeul-vaqoe» Vosifi oid ba romkunandai hayvonot Bobojamol (asri 16), ki bo ushtur, maymun, khar, buz va parrandaho yak repertuari mukammale tartib doda budaast, malumot medihad. Sirki tojik bo ananahoi teatri khalqi, sanati musiqi va khoreografiya aloqai zich dorad. Shinosoii tamoshobinoni tojik bo sirki kasbii rus badi hamrohshavii Osiyoi Miyona ba Rossiya, khususan solhoi 80 asri 19 ogoz yoftaast. Ba Tojikiston dastahoi artistoni sirk safari hunari kardand. Badi Revolyutsiyai Oktyabr khususan baromadi dastai artistoni sirk dar Toshkent, Samarqand, Bukhoro, Khujand shuhrat yoft. Baroi tashakkuli sirki kasbii tojik sanati sirki rus va digar respublikahoi barodari roli kalon bozid. Ba Dushanbe artistoni mashhuri sirki soveti — Tarasovho, Buslaevho, Denisovho, Durovho, Kantemirovho va digaron safari hunari kardand. Baroi tasisi sirki kasbii tojik Soli 1968 bo qarori Vazorati madaniyati respublika Studiyai sirki tojik kushoda shud. Hayati asosii sirki tojik az hisobi havaskoron, sportsmenhoi razryaddor va artistonu khodimoni sirk purra gardid. Pedagoghoyu treneroni purtajriba — A. B. Dashevskiy, A. V. Denisova, P. G. Myurenkov, Yu. I. Khazov, D. Baron, R. Kokh, D. A. Shnayder, rejissyor — Artisti Khizmatnishondodan Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Moldaviya V. T. Khers dar tashakkuli sirki tojik hissai kalon guzoshtand. Bo tashabbusi rohbari badeii sirki tojik Khodimi Khizmatnishondodai Sanati Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Latviya N. P. Barzilovich kollektivi javoni sirki mazkur nomerahoi murakkabi jonglyori, akrobatika, ekvilibristika, aspsavori, romkunii hayvonot, chashmbandi, maskharabozi va gayraro tayyor namud. Hangomi tahiyai barnomahoi murakkab barobari jihathoi khosu mahorati kasbii artiston shakli milli niz ba inobat gnrifta shud. 22 apreli 1970 dar Dushanbe baromadi kollektivi sirki kasbii tojik «Navruz» barguzor shud. Kollektivi mazkur behtarin komyobihoi sirki rus, respublikahoi barodari va ananahoi sirki khalqii tojikro ba asos girifta, barnomai boy va shavqovar tartib dodand. Unsurhoi milli khususan dar nomerahoi «Bozihoi khalqii tojiki» (programmai V. Valiev), «Dukhtari kuzabadast» (ijrokunanda M. Qodirova), ,«Korvoni Lomiri balandkuh» (programmai P. Yusupov), «Bachahoi kharsavor» (programmai R. Aliev), «Duston» (programman N. Alieva) va gayra ravshan tajassum yoftaast. Sirki tojik qarib 20 barnomai purmazmunu shavqovar — etyudhoi akrobati (programmai R. Qosimova va D. Boyqadamova), gimnastikai havoi (programmai khoharon Qurbonovaho), dorbozi (T. YOqubov va R. Risqulova) va gayraro dar bar megirad, ki onho mahorat, jasorat, choloki, beboki, uhdabaroi va nafosatu zeboii jismonii artistoni sirki tojikro namoish dodaand. Baroi inkishofi sanati sirki tojik P. Yusupov ba giriftani unvoni Artisti Khalqii Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston, N. Alieva va A. Turdiev — Artisti Khizmatnishondodai Resspublikai Soveti Sotsialistii Tojikiston musharraf shudand. Artistoni sirki tojik ananahoi milli va tajribai boyn sanati kasbiro ba asos girifta, dar hamai janrhoi sirk ba bozyoftho noil gardidaand. N. Nurjonov, M. Sharopov.

Kino. Oktyabri 1929 baroi vakiloni Sezdi 3-yumi favqulodai Sovethoi Tojikiston nakhustin kinojurnale namoish doda shud, ki dar borai ba Dushanbe omadani poezdi avvalin va chand lahzai digari hayoti respublikai javon hikoyat mekard. Badi on boz yak tedod filmi khronikavi ofarida shudand, ki ba paydoishi kinojurnali «Tojikistoni Soveti» zamina guzoshtand. Inkinojurnalhoro V. Kuzin, A. Shevich va N. Gezullin ba navor giriftaand. Soli 1930 yak qator filmhoi kutohmetraji hujjati ofarida shudand, ki namunahoi behtarinashon «Voqeanomai kishtukor», «Dar rohi kollektivoni», «Panj soli Tojikistoni Soveti» meboshand. 11 avgusti 1930 Soveti Komissaroni Khalqi respublika qaror kard, ki baroi rohbari ba kinofikasiya, prokati filmho va ofarinishi filmho dar Stalinobod, tresti «Tojikkino» tasis shavad. Navhoi asosii kinoi hujjatii ibtidoi solhoi 30 filmhoi tashviqotiyu targiboti — «agitpropfilm»- ho budand. Filmhoi hujjatii in solho — «Ba Tojikiston avvalin traktorho omadand», «Kollektivoni dar rayoni Kuktosh», «Kaltakdoroni surkh», «8-umi Mart», «Az pakhta to gazvor», «Az omoch ba plug» va gayra ahamiyati kaloni marifati doshtand. Filmi hujjatiyu badeii avvalin kinorejissyori tojik K. YOrmatov — «Huquqi fakhri» (1932) baroi ba maydoni sanati kino omadani filmhoi badei zamina guzosht. Dar avvalin asarhoi kinematografiyai badeii tojik — filmhoi «Vaqti halokati amiron» (1932, rejesyor L. Pechorina) va «Muhojir» (1934, rejesyor K. YOrmatov) muborizai siifii mardumi dehoti tojik va digargunshavii psikhologiyai onon aks yoftaast. Soli 1935 kinoi ovozdor ba vujud omad va minbad kinojurnalhoi ovozdori «Tojikistoni Soveti» ba navor girifta shudand: «Dushanbe — Stalinobod», «Injeneroni ruhi odamizod», «Javononi Tojikistoni oftobi», «Tojikistoni oftobi», «Asphoi laqayi», «Bomi jahon», «Irodai khalq», «Kanali Hisor», «Rohi Pomir», «Be faranji» va gayra. Kinopublisiotikai ovozdori tojik dar borai digargunihoi azimi solhoi Hokimiyati Soveti dar Tojikiston hikoyat  mekard. Avvalin filmhoi badeii ovozadori tojik «Bog» (1938, rejesyor N. Dostal) va «Duston az nav vomekhurand» (1939, rejesyor K. YOrmatov) ba sokhtmoni hayoti sosialisti oidand. Soli 1938 dublyaj (tarjuma)-i filmho ba zaboni tojiki ogoz yoft.

Solhoi Jangi Buzurgi Vatani studiyai «Soyuzdetfilm»-i Moskva ba Stalinobod kuchida omad va bo kinostudiyai «Stalinobod» — «Tojikfilm» muttahid shud. Kormandoni kinematografiyai tojik bo kinematografistoni rus hamkori karda, filmhoi badeii «Pisari Tojikiston» (1942, rejesyor V. Pronin) va «Kinokonserti tojiki» (1943, rejesyor K. Mins)-ro ofaridand.

Solhoi avvali badi jang tanho filmhoi hujjati istehsol shudand, ki mashhurtarinashon inhoyand: «Tojikiston» (1946, hamon sol dar kinofestivali baynalkhalqii Venesiya medali birinji girift), «Vodii Vakhsh» (1947, rejisyor va operator I. Baramikov), «Quvvai buzurg» (1949), «Dar sarzamini niyogon» (1949, rejisyor T. Braginskiy va gayra), «Kishvari javoni» (1950), «Tojikistoni Soveti» (1951; soli 1952 Mukofoti davlatii SSSR, rejesyor B. Kimyogarov). Minbad «Tojikfilm» boz ba istehsoli filmhoi badei shuru kard. Dar borai hayoti torevolyusioni va khudshinosii mardumi tojik filmi «Dokhunda» (1956, az rui romani S. Ayni, rejisyor B. Kimyogarov), oid ba sokhtmoni Kanali Vakhsh va mehnati fidokoronai odamoni soveti dar solhoi panjsolahoi avval filmi «Odam pusti khudro ivaz mekunad» (1959, rejisyor R. Perelshteyn) va doir ba tarikhi guzashtai duri khalqi tojik filmi «Qismati shoir» (1959, rejisyor B. Kimyogarov) ofarida shud. Filmhoi mazhakavii «Man bo dukhtare vokhurdam» (1957, rejisyor R. Perelipteyn), «Vaqti zangirii pisar rasid» (1959, rejisyor T. Sobirov) shuhrat yoftand.

Dar ibtidoi solhoi 60 kinoi badsii tojik ba inikosi mavzui hozirazamon, ba justujui qahramoni ruz ru ovard. Filmi «Zumrat» (1962, rejisyor A. Rahimov va A. Davidson), ki ba ozodii manavii zani tojik oid ast, namunai durakhshoni filmhoi on solho bud. Filmi «Bachagoni Pomir» (1963, rejisyor V. Motil; Mukofoti davlatii rejisyor ba nomi Rudaki, 1964) yake az behtarin filmhoi tarikhii solhoi 60 bud, ki az pahn gardidani goyahoi lenini dar Pomiri durdasti balandkuh hikoyat mekunad. Filmhoi «Ayyomi osoishta»

(1965)   va «Hasani arobakash» (1966, az rui dostoni M. Tursunzoda, rejisyor B. Kimyogarov) az hifzi muzaffariyathoi revolyusiya va hayoti navi sosialisti naql mekardand. Dar in davra T. Sobirov «Margi sudkhur»(1966)  , «Khiyonat» (1967) va «Ifsho» (1969)-ro ba navor girift. Nimai duyumi solhoi 60 ibtidoi 70 dar kinoi tojik yak guruh tahiyagaroni javon (badi khatmi VGIK) ba kori ejodi shuru namudand. Filmhoero, ki M. Qosimova, M. Orifov, S. Homidov, A. Turaev, V. Ahadov, B. Arabov va digaron ofaridand, az justujui mavzuhoi toza, janrhoi nav, vositahoi navi tasvir darak medihand. Ba hayoti nav qadam guzoshtani dukhtari kuhiston («Niso»-i M. Orifov, 1966), khulqu atvor va kirdoru raftori dehqoni asil («Jura Sarkor»-i M. Qosimova, 1968), hayoti vaznini solhoi Jangi Buzurgi Vatani va inikosi baze pahluhoi zindagii ijtimoii mardumi tojik («Dukhtari seyum»-i A. Turaev, 1970) mavzuhoi umdak rejissyoroni balayoqati in solho gardida budand. In anana dar filmhoi solhoi 70 ham davom kard. Rejisyor B. Kimyogarov dar asosi «Shohnoma»-i Firdavsi yak silsila filmho ofarid: «Dostoni Rustam», «Rustam va Suhrob» (har du film soli 1971, soli 1972 filmho sazovori Mukofoti davlatiya Respulikai Soveti Sosialistii Tojikiston ba nomi Rudaki gardidand) va «Dostoni Sibvush», Filmi «Sitorae az aulmot» (rejisyor A. Rahimov va I. Usov, 1972) niz davomi mantiqii filmhoi boloist. Dar in davra iichunin filmhoi mazmunan interiasionali ba vujud omadand: «Asrori qabila» (rejisoyor M. Orifov, 1972) va «Subhi Gang» (yastehsoli mushtaraki sovetiyu hind, az rui dostoni M. Tursunzoda, rejisyor L. Fayziev, 1975).

Soli 1969 dar «Tojikfilm» sektori filmhoi televizioni tasis yoft va on chandin film istehsol namud, ki az onho khususan kinoromani «Chor nafar az Chorsang» (M. Qosimova, 1972), filmi televizionii segonai «Hejbudagon…» (T. Sobirov, 1974— 75), «Oilai Gayurovho» (1975), «Ki ba Truskaves meravad» (V. Ahadov, 1977), «Ishqi avvalini Nasriddii» (A. Turaev, 1977), «Zane az diyori dur» (T. Sobirov, 1978). «Odam pusti khudro ivaz mekunad» (B. Kimyogarov, 1978), «Niso» (D. Khudonazarov, 1960) jolibi diqqatand.

Dar ibtidoi solhoi 80 yak guruh rejissbronn javon — D. Khudonazarov, B. Sodiqov, 10. Yusufov, O. Tulaev, S. Qurbonov, A. Quddusov ba ofaridani filmhoi badei kamar bastand. Rejissyoroni javon, ki navtarin vositahoi tasviri kinoro nagz az khud kardaand, ba mavzuhoi navu janrhoi dilchasp mayl dorand. Onho baroi televizion yak qator filmho giriftand: «Ayyomi tumanhoi zimiston» (B. Sodiqov), «Aspho dar mahtob», (O. Tulaev), «Jinoyatkoru advokatho» (Yu. Yusufov), «Subhi nakhustini javoni» D. Khudonavarov) va gayra.

Mashhurtarin filmhoi solhoi 80— «Shildirrosi obi barf» (D. Khudonazarov, 1982) va «Sirri oila» (V. Ahadov, 1983) masalahoi tezu tundi akhloqiyu manavii zamoni moro mavridi bahs qaror doda, barkhurdi manavii qahramononro nishon medihand. Filmi tarikhiyu revolyusionii «Mahbubi man, inqilob» (rejisyor O. Tulaev) va filmhoi sarguzashti «Garavgon» (rejisyor Yu. Yusufov) va «Dastgirkuni» (rejisyor M. Mahmudov) niz jolibi diqqatand.

Az soli 1969 injonib filmhoi multiplikasioni istehsol meshavand. Avvalho in guna filmhoro rejissyoroni aa digar shahrho omada megnriftand: «Nasimi nakukor» (1970, rejisyor N. Kotovshikova), «Afandi, khar va duzdon» (1971, rej. I. Lesner) va gayra. Holo dar ofaridani filmhoi multpplikasnoni kadrhoi mahalli ham shirkat dorand; «Mohichai guldor», «Juyandagon» va «Chinor» (rejisyor M. Mansurkhojaev) aa on qabiland. Kinoi hujjatii tojik niz tadrijan takmil meyobad va beshtar ba mavaui hayoti respublika ruy meorad: «Chor surud dar borai Tojikiston» (1964) va «Sadriddin Ayni»-i B. Kimyogarov (1978), «Subhi Norak» (1961) va «Sarchashmai zindagi» (1965)-i V. Kuzin, «Rivoyati sangin» (1968)-i N. Tilloev, «360 qadam» (1968)-i I. Saburov va gayra.

Solhoi 60—70 rejissyoronu operatoroni javoni tojik ba tahiyai filmhoi hujjatie dast zadand, ki beshtar ba hayoti khalqi tojik oidand. «Yak kaf khoki vatan» (1968), «Khonai furushi» (1973), «Ivan tojik» (1975)-i B. Kuzin, «Alla» (1966)-i D. Khudonazarov, «Abdullo Rahimboev» (1967), «Ravshani» (1969) va «Hashar»-i E. Kimyogarova (1972), «Kino» (1970)-i V. Ervays, «Man — zamin» (1971), «Kishie soz» (1974)-i V. Fomin az jumlai chunin filmhoyand. Chunin anana dar solhoi 70 va 80 boz ham beshtar taqviyat meyobad. Yak guruh rejissyoroni javon chandin filmhoi siyosivu publisisti ofarida, mavzui umumii filmhoro boz ham ganitar gardonidand: «Dialog» (1975), «Obu havoi nomusoid» (1978), «Mavluda» (1978)-i B. Sodiqov; «Mirob» (1975),            «Ob»

(1976), «Sohili seyumi Vakhsh» (1978)-i rejisyor va operator G. Ortiqov, «Dahmarda» (1979)-i M. Mansurkhojaev, «Muysafedon» (1980)-i M. Yusufova, «Sazoi khiyonat» (1979), «Haqiqati inqilobi savr» (1980)-i B. Kuzin va gayra. Kinoi tojik holo dar ayni avji kamolot ast. Solhoi okhir kinematografistoni tojik yakqator filmhoi zamonaviro ofaridand, ki khush istiqbol gardidand: «Moro javoni rahnamo bud» (1983), «Lyotchik» (>1984), «Sarchashmaho» (1985, D. Khudonazarov), «Boz yak shabi Shahrzod» (1984, T. Sobirov), «Jura Shikorchi az Ming Arkhar» (1.984, V. Mirzoyans, S. Qurbonov), «U khushdori man ast» (1986) va gayra. Dar takmil va rivoju ravnaqi kinoi tojik behtarin rejissyoron K. YOrmatov, B. Kimyogarov, K. Olimi, operatoron V. Kuzin, I.. Baramikov, N. Tilloev, aktyoron M. Qosimov, 3. Dustmatov, T. Fozilova, M. Vohidov va digaron namuna budand. Imruz T. Sobirov, A. Rahimov, M. Orifov, M. Mahmudov, M. Qosimova, A. Turaev, V. Ahadov, B. Arabov, I. Azizboev, D. Khudonazarov, O. Tulaev, rejisyor dublyaj. A. Juraev, D. Qosimov, operatoron A. Mansurov, 3. Dakhte, rassomon D. Ilyaboev, X. Baqoev, V. Salimov, hujjatnigoron E. Kuzin, B. Sodiqov, E. Kimyogarova, M. Mansurkhojaev, M. Yusupova, ohangsozon Sh. Sayfiddnnov, T. Shahidi, F. Bahor, A. Odinaev, aktyoron S.     Tuyboeva, A. Burhonov, A. Qosimov, G. Zavqibekov, H. Gadoev, A. Muhammadjonov, H. Abdurazzoqov, G. Abdulloeva, adibon S. Ulugzoda, M. Mirshakar, J. Ikromi, F. Muhammadiev va digaron hissai bosazoe dorand.

A.                                              Ahrorov.

Adabiyot:       Tadjikskaya Sovetskaya Sosialisticheskaya Respublika, Dushanbe, 1984.

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SADII ShEROZI, dehaest dar Soveti posyolkai Hayoti navi rayoni YOvon, viloyati Qurgopteppa. Territoriyai sovkhozi «YOvon-6». …