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Jumhurii TOTORISTON

TOTORISTON, Respublikai Az.todom ii Sovetii Sosnal i st y (Tatarstan Avtonomii Soveti Sosialisti (Tatarstan Avtonomiyale Sovet Sosialistik Respublikasi), dar hayati RSFSR. 27 mayi 1920 tasis yoftaast. Masohat 68 hazor km2. Aholiash 3494 hazor vafot (1984); totorho (1642 hazor naf, muvofiqi baruykhatgirii aholi 1979), rusho, chuvashho va gayra. Aholii shahri 65%. Totoriston 37 rayon, 16 shahr va 23 ptsh dorad. Poytakhtash shahri Qazon.

tararistan
Sathi Totoriston asosan hamvor, dar sohili rosti daryoi Volga (balandii Nazdivolga) voqe gashtaast. Iqlimash kontinentii mutadil. Harorati miyonai yanvar az —13oS to —15oS, iyul 19— 20oS. Borishoti solona 360—510 mm. Hududi Totoristonro daryohoi Volga, Kama, Belaya va Vyatka burida meguzarand. Qarib nimi obanbori Kuybishev dar hududi Totoriston joygirast. 16% hududi Totoriston beshazor meboshad.
Dar asrhoi 10—14 tamomi sarzamini Totoriston ba davlati Bulgoriyai Volgayu Kama dokhil bud. Bulgorho va digar khalqhoi Povoljiya bar ziddi istiloi totoru mugulho (1223—40) qahramonona muboriza burdand. Soli 1241 Bulgoriyai Volgayu Kama ba hayati Oltinurda dokhil gardid. Badi parokanda shudani davlati Oltinurda dar hududi Totoriston khonii Qazon ba vujud omad (1438); soli 1552 ba davlati Rus hamroh karda shud. Totorho dar javghoi dehqonon (solhoi 1670—71 bo sardorii S. Razin) va (solhoi 1773—75 bo sardorii E. Pugachyov) ishtirok kardand. 8 noyabr 1917 dar Qazon Hokimiyati Soveti barqaror gardid. Solhoi 1916—19 gvardiyachiyoni safed Totoristonro du marotiba zabt kardand. Armiyai Surkh seveti soli 1918 Qazon va avvali iyuni soli 1919 tamomi Totoristonro az gvardvyachiyoni safed ozod kard. Bo qarori KIM-i Umumirossiya na SKKh-i RSFSR az 27 mayi 1920 Resspublikai Avtonomii Soveti Sotsialistii Totoriston dar hayati RSFSR tasis yoft.
Dar solhoi Hokimiyati Soveti Totoriston ba respublikai sanoati va khojagii qishloqi mutaraqqi tabdil yoft. Soli 1977 istehsoli mahsuloti savoat nisbat ba soli 1940-um 49 marotiba afzud. Makhsusan istikhroji neft, sanoati khimiya (kauchuki sintezy, plastmassa, kinofotomaterial, doruvor va gayra), moshinsozi (istehsoli avtomobilhoi borkashi KamAZ, motorhoi dizeli va gayra), sanoati sabuk (muina va gayra) va khurokvori rivoj yoftaast. GRES-i Zaivsk kor mekunad. Sokhtmoni GES-i Nijnekamsk (az 1962) davom dorad. Soli 1979 dar Totoriston 249 sovkhoz va 553 kolkhoz bud. Asosan gandum, javdor, kanab, kartoshka va sabzavot mekorand.
Bogdori niz rivoj yoftaast. Gov, khuk, gusfand, parranda va hayvoni muina meparvarand. Tuli rohi ohan ziyoda az 700 km. Daryohoi Volga va Kama kishtigardand. Dar hududi Totoriston nefteprovodi «Dusti» ibtido megirad. Respublika bo ordenhoi Lenin (1934), Revolyusiyai Oktyabr (1970), dustii Khalqho (1972) mukofotonida shudaast.

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