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Jazirai SAKhALIN

SAKhALIN, jaziraest dar sohili sharqii Osiyo, dar hayati viloyati Sakhalini Respublikai Sovetii Federativii Sotsialistii Rossiya RSFSR. Az Shimol ba.Janub (az dim.- Elizaveta to dim. Krilon) ba masofai 948 kilometr tul kashidaast. Barash ba hisobi miyona taqriban 100 kilometr. Masoh. 76,4 hazor kilometr2. Bo bahrhoi Okhota va Yapop ihota shudaast. Sakhalinro az materik gulugoh Totor va dar Janub az jazirai Khokkaydo (Yapopiya) gulugohi Laperuz judo kardaand.

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Sohilhoi Sakhalin nisbatan kaju kileb, khalijhoi kalon — Aniva va Terpeniya, nimjazirahoyash Shmidt, Terpeniya, Tonino-Aliva va Krilon. Sohilhoi nohiyahoi kuhi farozand. Relefi Sakhalinro kuhhoi balandiashon miyonayu past va hamvoriho (kalontarinashon Sakhalini Shimoli) tashkil medihand. Dar qismhoi markazi va janubi, qad-qadi sohilho kuhhoi Sakhalini Garbi va Sakhalini Sharqi (balandiash to 1609 metr, kuhi Lopatin) voqe gashtaand, ki onhoro pastihoi Tim-Poronay va Susunay az ham judo kardaand. Az sarvathoi zerizamini neftu gaz va angisht ahamiyati sanoati dorad. Dar Sakhalin inchunin konhoi tillo, madani simob va gayraho mavjudand. Iqlimash mussonii mutadil. Ba Sakhalin nisbat ba materik zimistoni khunuki beshtar serborish va tobistoni salqinu serboron khos ast. Sohilhoi sharqiash nisbat ba garbiash khunuktarand. Harorati miyonai yanvar dar qismi shimoli jazira az —17,7 to — 24,5°Selsiya, dar Janub az — 6,2 to — 12°Selsiya. Dar Sakhalin zimiston 5—7 moh va tobiston hamagi 2—3 moh davom mekunad. Borishoti solona dar sohilhoi garbi 600—850 millimetr, dar qismhoi miyona 500—750 millimetr, dar shimoli Sakhalin beshtar az 400 millimetr, dar kuhho 1000—1200 millimetr. Daryohoi asosiash: Tim va Poropay. Olami hayvonot: khirs, ruboh, rosomakha, sa- mur, sanjob, burunduq, gavazni shimoli, kabarga va gayra. Dar obhoi nazdi sohilho hayvonoti bahri (sivuch, kalan, gurbai obi) zindagi mekunand. Dar borai khojagi va aholii Sakhalin nigared, niz Sakhalin, viloyat.
Sakhalinro dar asri 17 evropoiyon kashf kardaand. Okhiri asri 18 bahrnavardi fransavi J. F. Laperuz va avvali asri 19 admirali rus I. F. Kruzeyshtern Sakhalinro omukhtand. Solhoi 1848—49 ekspe- disiyai G. I. Nevelskiy jazira budani Sakhalinro muqarrar namud. Muvofiqi shartnomai rusu yapon (1875) Sakhalin mulki Rossiya donista shud. Az solhoi 60 asri 19 hukumati podshohi in joro ba badargagoh tabdil dod. Az nimai duyumi asri 19 rusho ba tadqiq va az khud kardani Sakhalin shuru namudand. Soli 1890 Anton Pavlovich Chekhov ba Sakhalin omada bud. Badi Jangi rusu yapon (1904—1905) muvofiqi shartnomai sulhi Portsmut (1905) Sakhalini Janubi ba Yaponiya guzasht. Soli 1909 dar territoriyai Sakhalini Shimoli viloyati Sakhalin (markazash shahri Aleksandrovsk) tashkil yoft. Solhoi 1918—1920 Sakhalini Shimoliro gvardiyachiyoni safsd ishgol kardand, s-hoi 1920 —25 on dar zeri istilop Yaponiya mbnda bud. Az mai 1925 ba hayati Respublikai Sovetii Federativii Sotsialistii Rossiya RSFSR guzasht. Avgusti 1945 qushunhoi soveti Sakhalini Janubiro ozod kardand va dar asosi qarori konfereyasiyahoi Qrim va Potsdam (1945; on ba Ittifoqi Respublikahoi Sovetii Sotsialisti Soyuz Sovetskikh Sosialisticheskikh Respublik SSSR bargardonida shud. Soli 1940 dar hayati kishvari Khabarovsk viloyati Sakhalini Janubi tasis yoft. 2 yanvari 1947 viloyati mustaqili Sakhalip tashkil gardid, ki on jazirai Sakhalin, galajazirai Kuril, jazirahoi Mo- noron va Tyuleniyra dar bar megirad.

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