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BOZORDARA

bozordaraBOZORDARA, dimnai shahri qadimii asrhoi 10-12 dar vodii d. Oqjilga, shokhobi chapi Murgob dar Pomiri Sharqi. On az korvonsaroy, iqomatgoh, qabriston, hammom va otashkada iborat bud. Korvonsaroy az devorhoi sangini chorkunjashakl sokhta shuda, masohatash 2000 m2 meboshad. Kuchai markazii korvonsaroy 43 m darozi doshta, 2 daromadgoh – shimoli sharqi va shimoli garbi dosht. Dokhili korvonsaroy az du havlii ba ham nazdik (bo masohati 90 m2), yake baroi iqomat va digare baroi hayvonot iborat bud. Khonahoi iqomat dar shaqli rostkunja va chorkunja (masohat 11,8-20,2 m2) darun ba darun sokhta shuda, baromadgohash ba kuchai markazi budaast. Korvonsaroy oshkhona niz doshtaast. Az du tarafi kor­vonsaroy du khonacha baroi sitonidani andoz az savdogaroni khoriji sokhta shudaand. Az ruyi malumoti khatti dar asri 10 az 1 ushtur 2 diram va az 1 tup mato 1 diram andoz sitonda meshudaast. Vaqti hafriyot az korvonsaroy boqimondai matohoi pashmin, pakhtagin, abreshimin va kilku kogaz paydo gardidand, ki onhoro tojiron baroi furush meovardand. Mavzei sokhtmon (100-130 m2) az kuchai dutarafa iborat buda, dar har du tarafi on ziyoda az 80-90 khonai hammonandi jamiyatiyu iqomati sokhta shudaand. Hamai khonakhoi iqomati az 3 kism: oshkhona, anbor (khazina) va joy baroi hayvonot iboratand. Dar nazdi khonahoi iqomati ustokhona mavjud buda, az dokhi­li on boqimondai ohan, oroishoti zanona va poyafzor yoft namudaand. Oshkhona az otashdon, anbor va suffacha iborat ast.

Qabriston berun az iqomatgoh joygir buda, dar on cho 448 qabr bo du tarz mavjudand, ki yak qismi qabrhoi rostkunja az sang sokhta shuda, boloyash bo takhtasang va khok pushonda shudaast. Balandii onho 15-30 sm-ro tashkil medihad. Qismi digari qabrho barobari zamin hamvor buda, az du taraf (sar va po) du sang rost monda shudaast. Umqi dokhili qabrho 40-70 sm buda, chor tarafi onho bo sanghoi mayda devor karda, boloyash bo takhtasang pushonda shudaast. Dar dokhili qabr dastu poyi jasadro rost namuda, sarashro ba tarafi shimoli sharqi tob medodand. In tarzi gurkuni dar Badakhshon az asri birinj malum ast.

Durtar az qabriston dar nazdikii rud hammom joygir ast. Azbaski mardum otashparast budand, dar nazdi khona­hoi zist mabadi otash niz joy dosht. Mabad az se khonai darunbadarun iborat buda, devorhoyash az sang (60-70 sm) va loy sokhta shudaand. Bozyofti nodirtarini otashkada degi birinji ast. Az Bozordara bostonshinoson donahoi gandum, jav, birinj nakhud, mosh, tarbuz, harbuza (hamchunin pustash), kadu, az darakhtu buttahoi mevador: seb, nok, zardolu, tut, anjir, chormagzi zamini, anbarborisu bodomro paydo namudand, vale vobasta ba vazi nisbatan sardi iqlim ruyondan va parvarishi in ziroatho muammost. Poleozologho dar Bozordara ustukhoni 3723 hayvoni khonagi (buz, gusfand, khushgov, gov, asp, ushtur) va vakhshi (nakhchir, meshak (arkhar), guroz, khargush, sugur) va chandin navi parandahoro paydo namudand. Az mahsuli dasti ohangaron paykonu nayzahoi az khulahoi gudokhta qolabrezi shuda, mekhhoi khurdu buzurg, kord, zanjir, suzan, dirafsh, khoisk (bolga), az hunari dasti zargaron – angushtari, dastponayu gushvorhoi misi va digar navi filiz; az hunari najjoron sutunu boloru daru darichahoi khonaho yoft shudaand. Hamchunin asbobu anjomi farovoni ruzgor – kosayu tabaq, qoshuq, zinu abzori asp, fona va boli chubi, sikhi jurobbofi, boqimondahoi sozhoi musiqi (rubob, tor, mizrob) va donahoi az ustukhon sokhtashudai shatranj ba dast omadaand. Az matohoi pakhtagin, pashmin, shokhivorii rangavu naqshin, inchunin pust va charm libos medukhtand. Poyafzorashon namadi va charmii gulduzishuda bud.

Tobistoni soli 1966 ekspeditsiyai bostonshinosi tahti rohbarii M. A. Bubnova az Bozordara zarfi kadugiero paydo namud, ki dar dokhili on boqimondai 67 sanadi kogazi va kilkhoi qamishi mavjud budand. In bozyofthoro khodimi Instituti sharqshinosii AI IJShS O. F. Akimushkin, D. M. Flyate va shogirdash K. Vera tahqiq namudand, ki onho dar ruyi mato va kogazi samarqandi (az chubi darakhti tug) bo khatti forsi va arabi bo rangi siyohi mahalli na­vishta shudaand. Bozyofthoi madaniyati moddi guvohi onand, ki Bozordara bo Pomiri Garbi, navohii Osiyoi Markazi, Turkistoni Sharqi, Afgoniston, Eron va Hinduston robitai madani va tijorati dosht.

Adabiyot: Istoriya Gorno-Badakhshanskoy Avtonomnoy oblasti. T. 1. Dushanbe, 2005.                                                                                          M. Bubnova, S. Gulomshoev.

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