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BOZGAShTI ADABI

bozgashtBOZGAShTI ADABI, padidai muhimme dar adabiyoti asrhoi 18 – 19 Eron. Aksari muhaqqiqone, ki dar khususi Bozgashti adabi andesha rondaand, onro chun sabki tozai adabi ba qalam dodaand. Yahyoi Oriyonpur onro nahzati adabi va D. Komissarov “Maktabi shirin” nomidaast. Binobar in Bozgashti adabiro na sabk, balki raviyai adabi guftan behtar ast, zero az lihozi sabku uslub osori badeii in davra az ofaridahoi sabkhoi khurosoniyu iroqi tafovuti jiddie nadorad.

  Chunonki malum ast, dar asrhoi 16 – 18 murakkabiyu pechdarpechii sukhan, khayolbofiyu sukhanbozihoi sabki hindi payvasta bo digar omilhoi ijtimoi, siyosi  va farhangi boisi tanazzuli hayoti adabi gardidand. Az in ru, adibon baroi rahoi bakhshidani adabiyot az in pareshoniho rohi asosiro dar ru ovardan ba sabkhoi khurosoniyu iroqi didaand. Bad-in vasilaraviyai tozae dar sheru adab ba vujud omad. Shoironi in davra asosan ba tarzi bayoni sukhanvaroni asrhoi 10 – 14 payravi mekardand. Dar mavridi avvalin shoire, ki asosi in raviyaro guzoshtaast, yo dar tashakkuli on beshtar khidmat kardaast, muhaqqiqon andeshai gunogun dorand. Az jumla, Nusrati Tajribakor az rohnamoyoni Bozgashti adabi Hotifi isfahoniro muqaddam bar digaron meshumorad. Ibrohimi Safoi, najoti va Lutfalii suratgar Fathalikhoni Saboro poyaguzori in raviya medonand. Chande az donishmandon, monandi Malikushshuaro Bahor, Abbos Iqbol va Yahyo Oriyonpur shoiri namoyoni nimai avvali asri 18 Saydalii Mushtoqro asosguzori Bozgashti adabi shumoridaand. Dar voqe, Mushtoq yake az nakhustin shoironest, ki az sabki hindi ru ba sabkhoi qadimi sheri forsi ovard va dar Isfahon bo nomi “Mushtoq” anjumani adabie tasis doda, shoironro dar in raviya rohnamoiyu tashviq mekard. Dar indavra bo pushtibonii Nishoti Isfahoni dar Isfahon anjumani “Nishot” va bo sarvarii Fathalishohi Qojor dar Tehron anjumani “Khoqon” amal mekard, ki faoliyati onho niz ba targibu tashviqu tarviji Bozgashti adabi nigaronida shuda bud. Bad-in vasila raviyai Bozgashti adabi ba zudi dar sarosari Eron pahn shud va az jonibi shoiron khub dasgiri yoft. Aksari adiboni davr az sabki hindi, ki sabke dushvorfahm bud, dast kashida, ru ba raviyai Bozgasht adabi ovardand va dar payravii shoironi qadim, misli Firdavsi, Farrukhi, Unsuri, Khoqoni, Anvari, Muizzi, Sadi, Hofiz ejod mekardand. Ba tabiri digar, asosi raviyai mazkurro taqlidu payravi ba sabkhoi peshin tashkil medod.

  Tatabbu va naziranavisi dar tamomi davrahoi tarikhi adabiyoti Eron mamul bud, vale dar davrai Bozgashti adabi on rivoj yofta, barukni asosii in raviya tabdil yoft. Dar ejodiyoti shoironi in davra tarzi mamulu sunnatii naziranavisi, ki sheri guzashtaro az har jihat – ham az lihozi qolabu shakl, ham az jihati mavzu va mundarija payravi namuda, aksaran yak misrai sheri mavridi tatabburo iqtibos mekardand, mushohida meshavad. Tazminu nazirahoi ustodona ba sherhoi Farrukhi, Anvari, Muizzi, Khoqoni, Sadi va Hofiz dar devoniau ashori Sabo, Surushi Isfahoni, Qooni va amsoli onho beshtar ba nazar merasad. Vale yak guruh shoironi in davr, az qabili Nishot, Mijmar, Visol, Furugi usuli digari payraviro pesh giriftaand, ki onro payravii kulli yo umumi nomidan mumkin ast. Dar ejodiyoti in shoiron, makhsusan, dar gazaliyoti onho besh az hama tasiri amiqi ejodiyoti Sadiyu Hofiz mushohida meshavad.

  Yake az muhimtarin khususiyathoi adabiyoti davrai Bozgashti adabi, ki muhaqiqon ba on ishora kardaand, sodagii shaklu usul ast. Taqlidu payravi ba sheri shoironi guzashtadoirai nazar va chashmandozii adiboni davrro mahdud kard. Kushishi shoiron beshtar ba on ravona shuda bud, sabku tarzi andeshavu bayoni shoironi peshinro az nav barqaror namochnd. Az in jost, ki dar osori onho ruhi zamon, muhimtarin khususiyathoi hayoti ijtimoii davr khele kam ehsos meshavad.

  Bo vujudi in raviyai Bozgashti adabi dar sodataru ba mardum nazdiktvuar kardani adabiyot tasiri muhim guzoshta, baroi tashakkuli adabiyoti maorifparvari va demokratii Eron dar ibtidoi asri 20 zaminai musoide faroham ovard.

  Adabiyot: Braginskiy I. S., Komissarov D.S. Persidskaya literatura. Moskva 1963; Mulloahmadov M. Nishot va Mijmar (Az tarikhi adadbiyoti Eron dar asri XIX). Dushanbe 1983; Hamon. Dar olami eronshinosi. Dushanbe 2005; Mulloakhmedov M. K voprosu o formirovanii  i razvitii napravleniya «Bozgasht» («Vozvrashenie») v literature Irana. Sredniy Vostok. Istoriya i filologiya. Dushanbe 1983.

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MUHAMMADShAFYOI ShEROZI

MUHAMMADShAFYOI ShEROZI  (1783, Sheroz —1846, hamon jo), khushnavis va shoiri fors. Padarash Muhammadismoil nom dosht. …