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BOZDOShT

arestBOZDOShT, dar huquqi jinoyati dastgir kardani shakhs – ba maqomoti taqibi jinoyati ovardan va ba muhlati kutoh dar joyhoi makhsus bo tartibi muqarrarkardai qonunguzori nigoh doshtan (az ozodi mahrum sokhtan)-i shakhs, dar yak vaqt kharakati taftishoti va chorai majburkunii huquqi-murofiavi buda, az jonibi tahqiqkunanda yo mufattish bo maqsadi daqiq kardani shirkati vay dar jinoyat, muqarrar namudani holathoi baroi parvanda ahammiyatdoshta va halli masalai marbuti u tatbiq namuda­ni chorai peshgiri ba amal barovarda meshavad. Shakhsro maqomoti peshburdi taqibi jinoyati dar doirai vakolathoi khud dar sodir namudani jinoyat ba sharte gumonbar hisobida, Bozdosht karda metavonad, ki yake az asoshoi ze­rin mavjud boshad:

  • dar vaqti sodir kardani jinoyat yo bevosita badi so­dir kardani on Bozdosht shuda boshad;
  • shohidoni hodisa, az jumla jabrdida, bevosita shakhsi jinoyatsodirnamudaro nishon dihand;
  • dar badan, libos, ashyoe, ki khamrohi shakhs boshad, dar chizhoi istifodakarda, manzil, joyi kor yo vositai naqliyoti u osori baraloi jinoyat oshkor karda shuda bo­shand, ki az sharik budani u dar sodir namudani jinoyat darak dihand;
  • agar asoshoi digari kofii gumonbar shudani shakhs dar sodir namudani jinoyat mavjud boshand, ba sharte ki vay kushishi az joyi hodisa yo az maqomoti taqibi jinoyat pinhon shudanro karda boshad, yo shakhsiyatash muayyan karda nashuda boshad (Kodeksi murofiavii jinoyati, moddai 92).

Bo in holatho Bozdoshti shakhs to ogoz  kardani parvandai jinoyati mumkin ast. Boyad masalai ogoz  kardani parvan­dai jinoyati az tarafi maqomoti taqibi jinoyati dar davomi 12 soat az lahzai Bozdosht hal karda shavad. Dar surati dar muhlati muqarrargardida kabul nakardani qaror oid ba ogozi parvandai jinoyati va yo rad kardani ogozi parvandai jinoyati shakhse, ki Bozdosht shudaast, boyad ozod karda shavad (KMJ, moddai 94). Shakhsro bo asoshoi zikrshuda az lahzai Bozdosht ziyoda az 72 soat nigoh doshtan mumkin nest. Badi guzashtani in muhlat shakhse, ki Bozdoht shudaast, boyad az habs ozod karda shavad yo dar khaqqi u chorai digari peshgirii dar qonunguzorii murofiavii jinoyati peshbinishuda tatbiq karda shavad (KMJ, moddai 95).

Pas az ovardani dastgirshuda ba maqomoti taqibi jinoyat shakhsi mansabdor dar davomi se soat protokol tartib doda, dar on asos, joy va vaqti dastgirkunii voqei bo nishon dodani ruz, soatu daqiqa, natijahoi koftukovi shakhsi va vaqti tartib dodani protokolro darj menamoyad. Protokol ba dastgirshuda elon karda shuda, huquqhoiu, az jumla huquq ba davat namudani himoyatgar va dar huzuri vay dodani nishondod bo sabti in amal dar protokol fahmonida, dar on shakhsi protokolro tartibdoda va dastgirshuda imzo menamoyand.Tahqiqkunanda yo mufattish vazifadorand, ki dar davomi 24 soat az lahzai Bozdoshti gumonbarshuda dar in bora ba prokuror tariqi khatti khabar dihand (KMJ, moddai 94).

Bozdosht dar huquqi mamuri khamchun jazoi asosii mamuri baroi sodir namudani huquqvayronkunii mamuri dar shakli Bozdoshti mamurii amali ijozatnoma baroi mashgul shudan ba namudhoi muayyani faoliyat va Bozdoshti mamu­rii namudi muayyani faoliyat peshbini shudaast (Kodek­si huquqvayronkunii mamurii Jumhurii Tojikiston, moddai 36, kismi 1 zerbandhoi 3 va 6). Bozdoshti amali ijozatnomai mashgul shudan bo namudi muayyani faoliyat, ki az jonibi maqomoti vakolatdor ba shakhsi voqei va yo huquqi doda shudaast, hangomi az jonibi ijozatnomador rioya na­kardani shartu talaboti ijozatnoma, tanho bo holatkhoi peshbininamudai Kodeksi huquqvayronkunii mamurii Tojikiston mumkin ast. Muhlati Bozdoshti mamurii amali ijozatnomai mashgul shudan bo namudi muayyani fao­liyat az shash moh ziyod buda nametavonad. Onro maqomoti ijozatnomadihanda tayin menamoyad (Kodeksi huquqvay­ronkunii mamurii Jumhurii Tojikiston, moddai 40).

Bozdoshti mamurii namudi muayyani faoliyat az qatshavii muvaqqatii faoliyati shakhsi voqei, ki faoliyati sohibkoriro be tasisi shakhsi huquqi anjom dodaast va az qatshavii muvaqqatii faoliyati shakhsi huquqi, fi- lialho, namoyandagiho, sokhtorhoi tarkibi va qitakhoi istehsolii on, hamzamon istifodai tajhizot, obektho, imoratu inshoot, amali namudani namudhoi muayyaii faoliyat, kor va khidmatrasoni iborat meboshad. On dar holathoi tahdid ba hayot va salomatii odamon, rukh dodani epidemiya, epizootiya, zahroludshavi (iflosshavi)-i obekthoi tahti karantin qarordoshta ba vositai obekthoi karantini, sar zadani sadamahoi radiatsioni yo falokati tekhnogeni, rasonidani zarari jiddi ba holat va khususiyati muhiti zist yo hangomi sodir namudani huquqvayronkunii mamuri dar sohai muomiloti mavoddi nashador, vositahoi psikhotropi va prekursorhoi onho, istehsol va muomiloti spirti etili, mashrubot, mahsuloti spirtdor, inchunin mahsuloti tamoku va digar holathoi bevosita peshbininamudai KHM Jumhurii Tojikiston ba muhlati to se moh muqarrar gardida, az tarafi maqomoti vakolatdor dar asosi holatho va tartibi peshbinishuda tayin megardad (KHM Jumhurii Tojikiston, moddai 43).

Bozdoshti taftishi peshaki yo muhokimai sudi dar huquqi murofiavii jinoyati tanaffusi muvaqqati dar istehsoloti parvandai jinoyati meboshad, ki onro qonun peshbini namudaast va sababash gaybi aybdorshavanda va gayrimumkin budani ishtiroki u dar barrasii parvanda buda, baroi idoma va khatmi on monea shuda metavonad. Tibqi talaboti qismi 1 moddai 230 KMJ Jumhurii Tojikiston hangomi mavjud budani yake az holatkhoi zerin taftishi peshaki Bozdosht meshavad: vobasta ba muayyan karda nashudani shakhse, ki boyad ba sifati aybdorshavanda ba javobgari kashida shavad; dar holate, ki aybdorshavanda az taftish yo sud pinhon shudaast, yo bo sababhoi digar mahalli buduboshi u muayyan karda nashudaast; dar surati ba bemorii ruhi yo bemorii digari vaznin giriftor shudani aybdorshavanda, ki az jonibi dukhturi muassisai tabobatii davlati tasdiq karda shudaast; dar surate, ki mahalli buduboshi aybdorshavanda malum ast, vale vo­basta ba halli masalai mahrum kardani aybdorshavanda az masuniyat yo suporidani u ba davlati khoriji, inchunin binobar dar ekspeditsiya yo safari khidmati ziyoda az du moh budanash imkoni voqeii shirkati u dar kori parvan­da mavjud nest.

Dar borai Bozdoshti taftishi peshaki mufatgish qarori asosnok barovarda, nuskhai onro ba prokuror mefiristad. Dar holati az bayn raftani asoshoi Bozdosht yo ba miyon omadani zarurati peshburdi amali taftishi, ki metavonad be ishtiroki aybdorshavanda niz anjom doda shavad, inchu­nin bo qarori asosnoki prokuror, ki bo on qarori mufattishro dar khususi Bozdoshti taftish bekor namudaast, taf­tishi peshakii Bozdoshtshudaro az nav sar kardan mumkin ast (moddai 233 KMJ Jumhurii Tojikiston).

Hangomi muhokimai sudii parvanda agar sudshavanda pinhon shavad yo ba bemorii ruhi, yo bemorii digari vaz­nin giriftor shuda, yake az in holatkho ishtiroki uro dar majlisi sud imkonnopazir gardonad, sud peshburdi parvandaro nisbat ba in sudshavanda to koftukov namudan, yo shifo yoftani u, yo giriftani khulosai ekspertiza bozmedorad. Dar holati nisbat ba yakchand sudshavanda budani parvanda peshburdi on nisbat ba digar sudshavandagon idoma doda meshavad, vale agar muhokimai alokhida halli durusti parvandaro mushkil gardonad, peshburdi parvan­da purra Bozdosht meshavad. Dar khususi Bozdoshti parvanda hangomi muhokimai sudi tayinoti sud qabul va elon karda me­shavad (moddai 286 KMJ Jumhurii Tojikiston).

Bozdoshti barrasii parvanda dar huquqi murofiavii graj­dani niz tanaffusi muvaqqati dar barrasii parvanda me­boshad, ki onro qonun peshbini namudaast. Vale dar huquqi murofiavii grajdani qonunguzor holatkhoi Bozdoshti bar­rasii parvandaro ba du guruhi alohida: ukhdadori va huquqi sud oid ba Bozdoshti barrasii parvanda judo namudaast.

Tibqi talaboti moddai 220 KMJ Jumhurii Tojikiston sud uhdador ast, ki hangomi mavjud budani holathoi zerin barrasii parvandaro bozdorad: favti shahrvand, agar munosibathoi bahsnoki huquqi vorisii huquqiro ijozat dihad; aznavtashkilshavii shakhsi huquqi, ki dar parvanda taraf yo shakhsi seyumi doroi talaboti mustaqil meboshad; gayri qobili amal etirof namudani taraf yo nabudani namoyandai qonunii shakhse, ki gayri qobili amal etirof shudaast; shirkati javobgar dar amaliyoti jangi, ijroi vazifaho dar sharoiti vaziyati favquloda va yo holati jangi, inchunin dar sharoiti munoqishahoi musallahona, yo bo khohishi davogare, ki dar amaliyoti jangi ishtirok mekunad, yo vazifahoro dar sharoiti vaziyati favquloda va holati jangi, inchunin dar sharoiti munoqishahoi musallahona anjom medihad; imkonnopazirii barrasii hamin parvanda to hal namudani digar parvandae, ki dar murofiai sudii grajdani, jinoyati yo iutisodi barrasi karda meshavad; khangomi murojiati sud ba Su­di konstitutsionii Jumhurii Tojikiston dar borai konstitutsioni budani qonuni tatbikshuda, yo tatbikshavanda oid ba parvandai barrasishavanda.

Huquqi sudro oid ba Bozdoshti barrasii parvanda qonunguzor dar moddai 221 KMG Jumhurii Tojikiston pesh­bini namudaast, ki inhoyand: hangomi dar muassisai tabobati budani taraf; justujui javobgar; az jonibi sud tayin namudani ekspertiza; tayin namudani sanjishi sharoiti iqomat az jonibi maqomoti vasi va parastor oid ba parvandahoi farzandkhoni va digar parvandahoe, ki ba huquq va manfiathoi kudakon dakhl dorand; dar sa­fari khidmati budani taraf; az jonibi sud irsol namu­dani suporishi sudi.

Shirkatdoroni parvanda nisbat ba tayinot oid ba Bozdoshti barrasii parvanda metavonand shikoyati khususi peshnihod namoyand.

Adabiyot: Kodeksi murofiavii grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston. Dushanbe, 2008; Kodeksi murofiavii jinoyatii Jumhurii Tojikiston. Dushanbe, 2009; Farhangi istilohoti khuquq. Dushanbe, 2009; Kodeksi khuquqvayronkunii mamurii Jumhurii Tojikiston. Dushanbe, 2013.                                                                                    

D. Abdulloev.

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