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BOKU

bakuBOKU (Baki), shahr, poytakhti Jumhurii Ozarboyjon, bandari kaloni Bahri Kaspiy va shahri buzurgtarini Qafqoz. Dar sohili janubii nimjazirai Apsheron (Obshoron) voqe ast. Aholiash 2 092 400 nafar (2011, bo atrofash 2 600 100), asosan ozariho (to soli 1990 sermillat bud; zimni baruykhatgirii soli 1989-um 66 darsadi aholiash ozariho budand). Tariqi guzargohi kishtiho (rohi kishtigard) bo shahrhooi Turkmanboshi, Bekdashem (Turkmaniston) va Oqteppa (Qazoqiston) mepayvandad. Markazi rohi ohan dar Ganja, Darband, Imishli, Salani va Lenkoran. Aeroporti baynalmilali va metropoliten dorad. Boku bori nakhust dar makhazhoi asri 5 va asarhoi jugrofii asrhoi 9-10 («Hududu-l-olam» va dar osori Istakhri, Masudi, Muqaddasi) zikr shudaast. Az asri 11 bandari bahrii asosii Shervon, dar okhiri asri 12 va asri 15 markazi mamurii davlati Shervonshohiyon bud. Muallifoni asrhoi 12-15 (YOquti Hamavi, Zakariyoi Qazvini, Bakron va gayra) koni naft doshtani Bokuro (dar asarhoi khud) qayd kardaand. Soli 1540 Bokuro sipohiyoni Safaviyon va dar okhiri asri 16 Imperiyai Usmoni tasarruf namudand. Soli 1604 qalai Bokuro lashkari shoh Abbosi 1 kharob kard. Solhoi 1723-35 va 1796-97 zeri tasarrufi sipohiyoni rus qaror dosht. Soli 1747 markazi khonigarii Boku bud. Dar solhoi jangi bayni rusho va forsho (1804—13) ba Russiya hamroh karda shud (1806). Dar nimai duvvumi asri 19 Boku bo sanoati istikhroji naft bosurat taraqqi kard. Aprel-iyuli 1918 tahti nazorati bolshevikon, avgusti 1918 dar tasarrufi lashkariyoni anglis qaror doshta, dertar Bokuro turkho ba dast darovardand. Solhoi 1919-20 poytakhti Jumhurii Demokratii Ozar­boyjon bud. Apreli 1920 ba Boku Artishi Surkh vorid gardid; solhoi 1920-91 poytakhti JShS Ozarboyjon bud. Az soli 1991 poytakhti Jumhurii Ozarboyjon.

Boku markazi buzurgtarini iqtisodii mamlakat buda, doroi se zavodi puriqtidori korkardi naft ast. Bokui muosir markazi sanoati moshinasozi, kishtisozi, elektro­tekhniki (zavodhoi moshinasozii elektriki, «Elektrosvet», istehsoli yakhdon va konditsioner), naftu kimiyo (zavodi korkardi kislotai sulfat, istehsoli shina va yodi Surakhan), korkardi sement, sanoati sabuk (istehsoli matohoi pakhtagin, shohi va mohuti mahin, kombinati duzandagi, fabrikai poyafzor) va sanoati khurokvori meboshad. Markazi Boku ba du qism – kuhna va nav (avrupoi) judo meshavad. Dar shahri qadima Shahri darun, Qalai shikasta (asri 11), Qalai Dukhtar (asri 12), majmaai Qalai Shervon shohiyon (asri 11), manora va masjidi Sinik-qala (1079), Devonkhona, manorai Masjidi jome, maqbarai sitorashinos Saidi Bokuvi, korvonsaroyi Multon (asri 14) boqist. Dar qismi avrupoii Boku binohoi okhiri asri 19 va avvali asri 20, az jumla binoi Dumai shahri (1900), teatrhoi musiqi-mazhakavi, Akademiyai ilmho, Filarmo­niya, khonai A. Quliev (1899), osorkhonai adabiyoti Ozar­boyjon ba nomi Nizomi va digar maydonu khiyobonhoi Ozarboyjon, Naftchiyon, ba nomi R. Beybutov, Istiqloliyat; maydonhoi markazii Azaldi, Ozneft, Fuzuli, masjidhoi Toza-Pir (1914), masjidi Imom Huseyn, Khoji Sultonli joy giriftaand. Dar Boku donishgoh (1919), 8 maktabi oli, Akademiyai ilmho (1945), 32 Osorkhona (az jumla osorkhonahoi tarikhi Ozarboyjon, sanat, osorkho­nai qolinbofi), 8 teatr, Sirk, Bogi botaniki va Bogi hayvonot mavjud ast.

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