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Asari Nasr

Nasr (ar. — kalomi gayrimanzum, sukhani poshida), yake az du navi asari adabist, ki be vaznu qofiya navishta meshavad. Dar guzashta Nasri badei az navhoi Nasri ilmi farqi kulli nadosht. Khususiyati asosii shakli zohirii Nasr mutobiqati on ba qonunu qoidahoi zaboni guftuguist. Nasr va nazm shaklan az yakdigar farq mekunand, vale bo ham nazdiki niz dorand. Ba sukhani manzum nazdik kardani Nasr az tamoyuli asosii Nasri klassikii fors-tojik meboshad. Nasr dar adabiyoti klassikii fors-tojik ananai qadima doshta boshad ham, vale ba manoi komili istilohi adabi tanho dar solhoi 20 asri hozira inkishof yoft.

Avvalin namunahoi Nasri badeii zaboni for­sii dari asosan silsilai dostonhoi qahramonii «Shodnoma» budasd. Si­nas romanhoi qahramonii khalqi ba miyon omadand «Abumuslimnoma», «Iskandarnoma», «Samaki ayyor» va gayra.  Barobari in, asarhoi qahramonii dini niz vujud doshtand: «Qisas-ul- anbiyo», «Jangnomahoi Ali», «Hafdah gazo» va gayra. Dar Nasri guzashta yak raviyai makhsusi qissahoi ramziyu tamsili inkishof yoftaast. «Kali­la va Dimna», «Sinbodnoma», «Tutinoma» va gayra ba in raviya mansuband.

Dar in kitobho asosan ramzu tamsil bartari doshta, hikoyaho musalsal va chun hikoya andaruni hikoya bayon meshavand. Hikoyat az shaklhoi mamuli Nasri adabiyoti klassikii fors-tojik ast. Yak silsila asarhoi nasrii adabiyoti klassikii fors- tojik dar shakli yoddosht va safar- nomaho navishta shudaand. «Safarnoma»-i Nosiri Khisrav (asri 11), «Badoe-ul-vaqoe»-i Vosifi (asri 15), «Navodir-ul-vaqoe»-i Admadi Donish (asri 19) va gayra az hamin qabil asarhoand. Yak silsila kitobhoi nas­ri oid ba nazariyai adabiyot talif shudaand: «Tardumon-ul-baloga»-i Muhammadi Roduyoni (asri11), «Hadoiq-us-sehr fi daqoiq-ish-sher»-i Rashiduddini Vatvot (asri 12), «Al- mujam fi maoiri ashor-il- Avam»-i Shamsuddin ibni Muhamma­di Qaysi Rozi (asri 13), «Meyori Jamolyi-i Shamsi Fakhrii Isfahoni (asri 14), «Badoe-ul-afkor fi sanoe-il-ashor»-i Husayni Voizi Koshifi (asri 15) namunahoi in navi Nasr ba shumor meravand, ki mohiyati ilmi dorand. Nasri klassikii fors- tojik se nav dorad: Nasri musajja — sukhanest, ki qofiya doradu vazn ne. Dar on hamohangii okhiri jumlaho khususiyati asosii uslub va ohangi sukhan ast. Dar saj jumlaho musalsal buda, okhiri jumlahoi sodda ba misli anjomi misrahoi sher hamohangii ba qofiya monande do­rand.

2) Nasri murajjaz — sukhanest, ki vazn doradu qofiya ne.

3) Nasri ori, irsol yo risolat — sukhanest na qofiya dorad va na vazn. Chunin tasnifoti Nasr ba se nav sof nazariyavist, zero asare nest, ki sarosar musajja boshad yo murajjaz va yo ori. In se navi sukhan dar yakjoyagi ba kor burda meshavand. Dar ada- biyoti tojik, makhsusan Nasri toinqilobii on, mavqei saj khele kalon ast. Dar zamoni soveti mavqei Nasr  dar adabiyot va hayoti manavii khalq khelo afzud. Navhon asosii Nasr ro­man, povest, hikoya va ocherk dar asosi ananahoi Nasri klassikii mil­li va adabiyoti peshqadami olam, makhsusan Nasri realistii rus ka­mol yoftand. Doirai Nasr az jihati mavzu va mazmun vusat yoft. Dar Nasri sovetii tojik asarhoi tarikhi, ijtimoi ba vujud omadand. Mazmuni onho doirai vasei hayoti tarikhii khalqro az davrahoi pesh az inqilob, muborizaho baroi barqaror kardani Hokimiyati Soveti va sokhtmoni sosialistiro darbar giriftand.

Dar Nasr tavajjud ba tasviri ruhiyai qah- ramon (romanu povesthoi Ikromi «Tori ankabut», «Man gunahgoram» va «Dukhtari otash»), namoishi muhassan va lirikii khislatho (romani «Palatai kunjaki»-i Fazliddin Muhammadiev), inikosi hodisahoi buzurgi tarikhi va haqiqati voqei (romani Sotim Ulugzoda «Vose» va «Shurob»-i Rahim Jalil) khele vus­at yoft. Nasr shakli asosii ofaridani asarhoi epiki va drama buda, asarhoi sirf liriki bo in navi adabi, ba istisnoi baze hikoyahoi khurd, navishta nashudaast.

Tagyiroti muhime, ki dar Nasri muosiri tojik nisbat ba Nasri adabii guzashta ba vujud omad, jori shudani tarzi navi marifati ba­dei, inikosi realistii hayot mebo- shad. Avvalin shuda dar in roh ustod Ayni iqdom nihod. Asarhoi barjastai vay «Dokhunda», «Gulomon», «YOddoshtdo» va gayra namunahoi barjastai Nasri realistii tojik meboshand.

Adabiyot: Musulmonqulov R., Saj na sayri tarikhii on dar nasri tojik, Dushanbe 1970; Salimov Yu., Nasri rivoyatii forsu tojik, Dushanbe, 1971; Slovar li­teraturovedcheskikh terminov. Moskva, 1974.

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