Malumoti ohirin
Home / Madaniyat va Sanat / Madaniyati Arabizabon

Madaniyati Arabizabon

MADANIYaTI ARABIZABON — madaniyatest, ki bayni asrhoi 7—10 dar Khilofati arab dar natijai omuzishi madaniyati arabho va khalqhoi az tarafi onho istiloshudai Sharqi Nazdik va Miyona, Afrikai Shimoli, janubi garbii Evropa ba vujud omadaast.

Madaniyati Arabizabon Pesh az madaniyati arab dar nimjazirai Arabistoin madaniyati arabhoi kuchmanchi va muqimii ziroatkore vujud dosht, ki onho dar marhalai guzarish ba shakli ibtidoii jamiyati sinfi budand. Onho aksaran bisyorkhudo va butparast budand. Dar asrhoi 4—6 ba in madaniyat tasiri madaniyati Yamani bostoni, suriyoniyu ellini, yahudi, eroni kalon bud. Unsuri khosi madaniyati toislomi (ba nom johidiya) adabiyoti mutaraqqii shifohii khalqi ast. Tashakkuli Madaniyati  arabizabon ba zamoni paydoishi islom (asri 7) va tashkili khilofate, ki dar natijai istiloi arabho ba davlati azime tabdil yofta bud, taalluq dorad. Umumiyati davlati-siyosie, ki arabho tashkil dodand, inchunin yagonagii din va dar bisyor nohiyaho yak khel budani zabon baroi paydoishi shaklhoi umumii hayoti madanii khalqhon Khilofat sharoiti musoid faroham ovard. Dar marhalahoi avvali tashakkuli khud, Madaniyati  arabizabon asosan prosesse bud, ki merosi madanii khalqhoi kishvarhoi istiloshuda (merosi Yunoni Qadim, ellini-rumi, oromi, eroni va g.)-ro dar vaziyati navi ideologi va ijtimoiyu siyosi akh khud mekard, ba on az nav baho doda, onro az jihati ejodi takmil modod.

Khudi arabho dar Madaniyati  arabizabon dini islom, zaboni arabi va ananahoi nazmi badaviro jori namudand. Ba Madaniyati arabizabon sahmi asosiro khalqhoe guzoshtand, ki islomro qabul karda, sohibikhtiyorii milliashonro nigoh doshtand, bad az istiqloliyati davlatii khudro niz az nav barqaror kardand (khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona, Eron, Zakavkaziya). Ba Madaniyati arabizabon inchunin yak qismi aholii Khilofat, in islomro qabul nakardaid (masehiyoni suriyoni, yahudiyon, zardushtiyoni Eron, namoyandagoni mazhabhoi gnostikii Osiyoi Pesh) niz sahmi bosazoe guzoshtand; ba faoliyati onho (khususan nastoriyoni suriyoni va sohbihoi sh. Harron) intishori goyahoi falsafiyu akhloqi va merosi ilmi atiqa va ellini marbut ast. Dar asrhoi 8—10 yodgorihoi ziyodi ilmiyu adabi, az on jumla yunoniyu suriyoni, forsii miyona va hindi ba zaboni arabi tarjuma shudaand. Onho dar shakli tarjumavu asarhoi az nav talifshuda ba adabiyoti khattii arab dokhil shuda, baroi mustahkam shudani robitai bayni madaniyati olami allini va tavassuti on tamadduni atiqa va Sharqi qadim yori rasonidand.

Az okhiri asri 7 to nimai asri 8 dar qatori poytakhti sulolai Umaviyon sh. Dimishq, shahrhoi Madina dar nimjazirai Arabiston, Kufa va Basra dar Iroq markazhoi asosii tashakkuli Madaniyati arabizabon budand. Goyahoi diniyu falsafi, komyobihoi nav va nakhustini ilmi, qonunu ananahoi sheri arabi, namunahoi memori va g. dar viloyathoi Khilofati umaviyon dar kishvarhoi az Pireney to havzai daryoi Hind voqebuda pahn shudand va minbad rivoju ravnaq yoftand.

Badi takhti Khilofatro zabt kardani Abbosiyon (soli 750) markazi Madaniyati arabizabon dar sharqii Khilofat az Suriya ba Iroq—Bagdod kuchid, ki on soli 762 bunyod gardida bud. In shahr dar tuli taqriban se asr makoni asosii behtarin quvvahoi ilmiyu adabii Sharqi islomi bud. Dar asrhoi 9—10 Madaniyati arabizabon ba avji kamolot va shukuhi khud rasid. Komyobihoi on madaniyati bisyor khalqho, az jumla khalqhoi Evropai asrimiyonagiro boy namuda, dar ganjinai madaniyati umumijahoni sahmi namoyon va barjastae shudand. Onho makhsusan ba inkishofi falsafa, tib, riyoziyot, nujum, jugrofiya, fanhoi adabiyu tarikhi, khimiya, madanshinosi dakhl dorand.

Dar taraqqi dodani Madaniyati arabizabon, yane dar inkishofi ilmu adab tamomi khalqhoi Khilofat (arabho va gayri arabho) shirkat varzidand, binobar in hamai in merosi madani moli hamai onhost. Baroi gani gardidani Madaniyati arabizabon imkoniyathoi vasei robita va mubodilai komyobihoi madanii bayni khalqhoi Sharqi islomi va digar khalqhoi Sharqu Evropa musoidat namudand.

Inqirozi Khilofati Abbosiyon (miyonai asri 10) va tashkili davlathoi mustaqil ba tang shuda in doirai intishor va sust shudani roli Madaniyati arabizabon dar inkishofi umumii madaniyati jahoni ovarda rasond. Dar Ispaniyai islomi, ki hanuz dar asri 8 az Khilofati Abbosiyon judo shuda bud, madaniyati ba nom arabu ispani mustaqilona nashunamo meyoft. Dar muzofothoi sharqii Khilofat dar okhiri asri ehyoi bosurati milli va madanii eroni mushohida megardid. Zaboni forsi zaboni arabiro avval az sohai sheru adab va dertar az baze ilmhoi jamiyati (tarikh, jugrofiya va g.) tang karda barovard. Vale zaboni arabi chun zaboni Quron, fanhoi diniyu qonunguzori (huquq, ilohiyot) va yak qator fanhoi ilmi-tabiatshinosi (tib, riyoziyot, sitorashinosi, khimiya), inchunin zaboni falsafa ahamiyati khudro gum nakard. Suriya, Misr, Ispaniya markazhoi Madaniyati arabizabon gardidand. Dar Afrikai Shimoli dar davrai hukmronii Fotimiyon (asrhoi 10—12) va Ayyubiyon (asrhoi 12—13) takmili behtarin ananahoi Madaniyati arabizabon dar sohai ilm, adabiyot, sanat va madaniyati moddi idoma dosht, ammo aknun nazar ba asri 8 — nimai yakumi asri 10 ba peshravii umumii madaniyati khalqhoi Sharqi islomi kamtar tasir merasond. Dar okhiri asri 10 Bagdod maqomi khudro hamchun markazi Madaniyati arabizabon az dast dod, joi onro Qohira girift.

Ahamiyat va qimati Madaniyati arabizabon asrhoi 8—10 dar tarikhi madaniyati jahoni az on iborat ast, ki namoyandagoni on ofaranda va kashshofi vositahoi navi ilmi, diniyu falsafi va badeii darkkunii olamu odam budand. Dar davrahoi minbada kushishi asosii namoyandagoni Madaniyati arabizabon ba tanzim va tadqiqi in meros ravona karda shuda bud.

Ananahoi ilmiyu estetikii Madaniyati arabizabon qat nagardnda boshand ham, ammo az nimai duyumi asri 13 dar ejodiyoti namoyandagoni on taqlidkori dar ilmu adab rivoj yoft. Ejodkoroni judogonae, ki taqlidkori namekardand, niz budand, vale onho Madaniyati arabizabonro az aqibmonii umumi barovarda nametavonistand. Az in ru, Madaniyati arabizabon az jihati surati peshravii madani az digar kishvarhoi islomi (Eron, Osiyoi Miyona dar asrhoi 14—15, Turkiyai Usmoni dar asri 16) va Evropa khele aqib mond. Dar Eron, Khurosonu Movarounnahr markazhoi obodi ilmiyu adabi ba vujud omadand (asrhoi 10—15) va dar in jo olimonu adiboni forsu tojike ba voya rasidand (Ibni Sino, Nasiruddini Tusi, Umari Khayyom va digar), ki osori khudro ham ba zaboni modariashon va ham ba zaboni arabi ejod kardand. Shuhrati onho dar Sharq va Evropa pahn, merosi ilmi va adabiashon ba ganjinai madaniyati jahoni dokhil gardid. Merosi ilmiyu adabii onho moli forshovu tojikon boshad ham, umuman madaniyati ba istiloh arabiro boytar gardonid. Az in ru, onhoro bisyor khalqhoi Sharqi islomi farzandoni khud meshumorand.

Dar asrhoi 10—15 madaniyati arabu ispani niz khele vase rivoj yoft. Markazhoi on shahrhoi Qurdob, Sevilya, Malaga va Granada budand. Dar in jo dar sohai sitorashinosi, riyoziyot, khimiya va tib komyobihoi azime ba dast ovarda shudand. Inkishofi raviyahoi peshqadami falsafai asrhoi miyonai Forobi (870—950), Ibni Sino (980—1037) dar osori Ibni Rushd (Averroes, 1126—98) idoma yoft. Dar sohai nazmu nasri badei asarhoe ba vujud omadand, ki az behtarin yodgorihoi adabii Madaniyati arabizabon ba shumor meravand. YOdgorihoi memorii ispani-mavritani ba sanati amalii in sarzamin shuhrati jahoni dodand.

Muarrikh va jamiyatshinos Ibni Khaldun (1332—1406) dar «Kitob-ul-ibar», nazariyai tarikhiyu falsafii inkishofi jamiyatro tadqiq karda baromad, ki on muvaffaqiyati barjastai ilmii Madaniyati arabizabon meboshad.

Dar asri 16 mamlakathoi arab ba muzofothoi imperiyai Usmoniya tabdil yoftand. Madaniyati arabizabon ru ba tanazzul nihod, ammo markazhoi qadimi madanii Suriya, Iroq va Misr az rui anana hanuz ham diqqati olimoni kishvarhoi islomiro ba khud mekashidand.

Davrai inkishofi sifatan navi Madaniyati arabizabon az nimai yakumi asri 19 ogoz yoft. Dar vaziyati avji hayoti iqtisodi va siyosii mamlakathoi arab, dar sharoiti vusati harakathoi milliyu ozodikhohi va nihoyat tavlidi davlathoi mustaqili arab madaniyati hozirazamoni arab tashakkul yofta istodaast. Madaniyati arabizabon aknun beshtar dar dokhili har yak kishvari arabi bo tarzi ba khud khos taraqqi yofta istodaast (Nig. niz ba faslhoi dakhldori maqolaho doir ba mamlakathoi judogonai arab), t. Mardonov.

Ilmhoi daqiq va tabiatshinosi. Markazi inkishofi ilmhoi tabiatshinosi dar Khilofat avval dar Suriya va qisman dar janubu garbii Eron bud. Dar in jo ba tarjumai arabi va tafsiri osori muallifoni atiqa asos guzoshta shud. Tavassuti tarjumaho az zabonhoi yunoniyu suriyoni olimoni kishvarhoi islomi bo qismi ziyodi adabiyoti ilmii atiqa shinos shudand. Aksar in tarjumaho yagona sarchashmae budand, ki az rui on dar Evropai Garbi bo ilmi atiqa shinos meshudand. Chunonchi «Mekhanika»-i Geroi va bisyor risolahoi Arkhimed faqat dar tarjumai arabi boqi mondaandu bas. Tufayli namoyandagoni Madaniyati arabizabon navigarihoi ilmiyu tekhnikii ziyode ba evropoiyon malum gashtand (kompas, bodboni kaj va g.), ki yak qismi onho az Khitoyu Hinduston girifta shuda budand.

Asrhoi 9—11 davrai inkishofi puravji ilm dar Khilofat bud. Bagdod ba markazi buzurgtarini ilmii doroi maktabhovu kitobkhonaho tabdil yoft. Dar barobari mavjudiyati adabiyoti ziyodi tarjumashuda va tafsiru taliqoti on dar in jo sohahoi navi ilm ba vujud omadand, ki ba halli masalahoi amalii sokhtmon, zaminchenkuni, savdo marbutand. Ilmhoi nujum, riyoziyot, huquq, madanshinosi, jugrofiya vase rivoj yoftand.

Dar natijai tanazzuli Khilofat va ba davlathoi alohidai mustaqil (asri 10) judo shudani on, dar barobari Bagdod boz yak qator markazhoi adabiyu ilmi ba monandi Dimishq, Khallb dar Suriya, Qohira dar Misr, Maroga dar Ozarboyjon, Samarqandu Bukhoro dar Osiyoi Miyona, Gazna dar Afgoniston, inchunin markazhoi madaniyati ispanu arab avval dar Qurtob, bad dar Sevilya va Granada ba vujud omadand. Dar davrahoi gunogun shahrhoi buzurgi Eron va Osiyoi Miyona az qabili Bukhoro, Utror, Marv , Isfahon va g. roli markazhoi muhimi madaniro bozidaand. Merosi ilmiyu adabii dar shahrhoi Epon va Osiyoi Miyona bavujudomada ganji bebahoi khalqhoi eronizabon buda, dar ayni hol madaniyati ba nom arabi va umuman madaniyati jahoniro boy gardonid. Chunonchi faoliyati ilmii olim va shoiri buzur­gi fors-tojik Umari Khayyom (1048— 1122), ki risolahoi khudro ba zaboni arabi talif namudaast, dar Isfahon meguzasht.

Dar Qohira az avvali asri 11 «Baytuya- ilm» vujud dosht, ki dar on sitorashinos Ibni Yunus (950—1009) va olimi riyoziyotu fizika Ibni Hay­sam (965—1039) kor mekardand. Soli 1004 dar in jo rasadkhona sokhta shud.

Ba tashakkuli riyoziyot dar kishvarhoi islomi, ba gayr az merosi yunoniyon, inchunin ananai ilmii hindi bo istifodai sifr, ki az ikhtirooti hindi moboshad, intishor yoft. Nakhustin asari ba zaboni ara­bi talifshuda doir ba arifmetika ba qalami barjastatarin namoyandai maktabi ilmii Bagdod, olimi eroninajod Abumashar ibni Musoi Khorazmi (asri 9) taalluq dorad. Dar asri 15 olimi fors-tojik az Samarqand Jamshedi Koshoni nasri dahkarataro ba istifodai ilmi dokhil namuda, tarzi kor kardani onhoro nishon dod. Dar asarhoi Abulvafoi Vuzajoni (940—998), Beruni (973—1050), Umari Khayyom, Nasiruddini Tusi  (1201-1274-77 yo 1280), Jamshedi Koshoni usulhoi barovardani reshai doroi raqamhoi naturali kor karda va ba tartib darovarda shudand. Sahmi Khorazmi va Umari Khayyom inchu­nin dar ofaridani aljabr (algeb­ra) chun fanni mustaqili riyoziyot nihoyat buzurg ast. Risolai «Al- jabr»-i Khorazmi tasnifoti muodilahoi kvadrati va tarzi halli onho, risolai Umari Khayyom boshad, nazariya va tasnifoti muodilahoi kubiro faro megirad. Beruni, Jamshedi Koshoni va digar usulhoi hisobbaroriro khele takmil dodand.

Risolai doir ba handasa ejodkardai «Pisaroni Muso» (Bani Muso) dar asri 9, osori Abulvafoi Buzajoni oid ba handasai amali, risolahoi Ibni Qurra (836—901), asari Ibni Haysam dar borai tarbei konushoi burida va jismhoi kubi, ki dar natijai davr zadani onho ba vujud meoyad, inchunin tadqiqothoi Nayrezi (asrhoi 9—10), Ibni Haysam, Uma­ri Khayyom, Nasiruddini Tusi va digaron doir ba nazariyai khathoi paralleli jolibi diqqat meboshand.

Olimoni riyoziyoti kishvarhoi is­lomi trigonometriyai hamvor va doirashaklro az fasli yorirasoni sitorashinosi ba fanni mustaqili matematiki tabdil dodand. Dar talifoti Khorazmi, Marvazi, al-Battoni, Beruni, Nasiruddini Tusi hamai shash khati trigonometrii dokhili doira, tobeiyati bayni funksiyahoi trigonometri muayyan karda shuda, tamomi holathoi halli sekunjahoi sferi tadqiq gardidand, muhimtarin teoremahoi trigonometri kashf shudand, jadvalhoi gunoguni trigo­nometrie murattab sokhta shudand, ki az haysi aniki va daqiqii khud mumtoz budand.

Ilmi sitorashinosi ba komyobihoi kalon noil gardid. Pesh az hama tarjuma va tafsiri asarhoi Ptolomey (Batlimus) va talifoti sitorashinosoni hind ba anjom rasonda shud. Markazi faoliyati tarjumoni asosan «Baytulhikma» va rasadkhonai on dar Bagdod bud. Tarjumai ri­solahoi sitorashinosii hind az tarafi padar (vafot soli 777) va pisar (vafotash soli 796) Fazariho va Yaqub ibni Toriq ba amal barovarda shud. Dar asrhoi miyona zichho — majmui jadvalho va qoidahoi hisobbarori dar ilmi nujum shuhrati kalon paydo kardand. To zamoni mo qarib 100 zichi asrhoi 13—15 omada rasidaast. Takhminan 20 zich dar asosi mushohidai bevositai olimon dar rasadkhonahoi shahrhoi gunogun: Beruni dar Gazna, Battoni dar Raqqa, Ibni Yunus dar Qohira, Nasiruddini Tusi dar Maroga, Koshoni dar Samar­qand va g. ejod gardidaand. Sitorashinosoni Sharq dar chen kardani mayli ekliptika mahorat va daqiqkorihoi benazir nishon dodand. Dar zamoni khalifa Mamun (asri 9) baroi muayyan kardani hajmi kurai zamin darajai meridian chen karda shud.

Tahqiqi merosi mekhanikai antiqi dar on davra idoma meyoft: riso­lai Ibni Qurra dar borai tarozui fishangi — korastun; risolahoi Be­runi, Umari Khayyom, al-Khozini (asri 12) dar khususi muayyan namudani vazni aslii ohanu madanho. Silsilai tadqiqot doir ba masalahoi umumii mekhanika az kori tarjuma va tafsiri asarhoi Arastu ogoz yofta bud.

Bisyor olimon dar sohai madanshinosi kor meburdand (Beruni, al-Khozini, olim va tabibi mashhuri fors-tojik Rozi). Malumot oid ba fizika, khususan fizikai kayhon va fizikai zamin, dar «Qonuni Masudi» va «Minaralogiya»-i Beruni, «Donishnoma»-i Ibni Sino mushohida meshavad.

medicine

Ilmi tib dar in davra ba komyobihoi ziyode muvaffaq shuda bud. Kitobi «Al-Qonun fit-tib»-i Ibni Sino dar tuli asrho baroi tibbi amalii chi Sharqi asrimiyonagi az chi Evropai Garbi chun sarmashq, va dasturi asosi khizmat kard. Dar bayni asarhoi Beruni va Ibni Sino risolahoi oid ba dorushinosi niz mavjudand. Asari barjastai Rozi (864— 925), ki qarib tamomi malumoti tibbi asrhoi miyonaro faro megirad, shuhrati kalon dorad. Hamchunin masalahoi muolijai kasalihoi puhi, chashm, dilu meda va g. kor kar­da meshudand. Khimiya va botanika niz dar inkishof budand.

Ilmi geografiyai arab dar asrhkhoi miyona ba vujud omada, dar hamon vaqt ba avji taraqqiyoti khud rasida bud. Sarchashmai inkishofi geografiyai ilmii arab, az yak taraf tarjuma va tafsiri asarhoi geogra­fiyu astronomii Ptolomey (Batlimus) va digar muallifoni atiqa bo­shad, az tarafi digar, ehtiyojoti dokhilii Khilofati javoni arab ba asar­hoi geografi bud. Khilofati arab, ki dar natijai zabtkorihoi arabho tashkil yofta bud, khalqiyatho va kish­varhoi mukhtalifi az yakdigar khele dur voqegashtaro dar bar megirift. Mahz zarurati munosibati bayni markazi Khilofat va kishvarhoi zabtshuda geografiyai arabro ba chunin poyai balandi inkishof ovarda rasond. Asarhoi sayyohon va geografhoi arab na faqat geografiyai mamlakathoi islomi, balki yak qator kishvarhoi qismi shimoli va markazii Afrika, yak qismi Evropa va Osiyoro to hududi Koreya dar bar megirand. Az in ru, geografiyai arab baroi omuzishi tarikhi baze khalqiyathoi asrimiyonagi sarchashmai av­valin va mutamad meboshad. Yak jihati jolibi diqqati geografiyai arab az on iborat ast, ki dar on ge­ografiyai Zamin az rui nazariyahoi geografii Ptolomey dar borai sokhti olam, az rui kharitahoi u yo kharitahoi Eroni Qadim sharh doda shudaand.

Paydoishi namunahoi avvalini ge­ografiyai tasvirii arab (asarhoi al-Balozuri (812—892), Ibni Khurdodbeh (820—912), Kudoma ibni Jafar (nimai avvali asri 10), Yaqubi (vafot 897) ba asri 9 taalluq dorad. Janri tasvirii geografiyai arab va umu­man adabiyoti on dar asri 10 ba darajai olii taraqqiyoti khud rasid. Namoyandagoni barjastai maktabi klassikii geografiyai arab Istakhri (vafot 951/2), Ibni Havqal (asri 10) va Muqaddasi (947—1000) meboshand, ki asarhoi onkho manbahoi boytarin va etimodnoktarini malumothoi geografii tarikhi donista shudaand. Asarhoi muallifoni mazkur ba­roi omukhtani geografiya az tarikhi asrhoi 9—10 sarzamini Tojikistoni imruza niz ahamiyati kalonro dorost. Dar asri 10 yak qator muallifoni digar niz (ba monandi Ibni Faqehi Hamadoni, Ibni Rusto, Ibni Fazlon, Abudulaf) oid ba geografiya asarho navishtaand. Dar asarhoi on­ho dar borai rohhoi safar az yak shahr ba shahri digar, masofai bayni onho, mavqei geografii har yak mahal, topografiyai shahrho, kasbu kori mardum va g. malumothoi ziyod ovarda meshavand. Janri safarnomanavisi dar geografiyai arab dar asrhoi minbada niz davom kardaast (asarhoi Abuhamidi Garnoti (vafot 1170), Ibni Jubayr (vafot 1217), Ibni Battuta (1304—77). Dar asarhoi geografii baze muallifon Abuzaydi Sayrofi (avvali asri 10) va Buzurg ibni Shahriyor voqeiyat bo rivoyathoi afsonavi omekhta ba qalam doda shudaand, khususan vaqte ki sukhan dar borai khalqhoi berun az Khilofati arab me­ravad.

Dar asrhoi 11—14 janrhoi navi ge­ografi: farhanghoi geografi va kosmografi — tasviri umumii olam paydo shudand. Asarhoi dar janrhoi mazkur ejodshuda tamomi mate­rialhoi geografii to in vaqt gunshudaro jambast mekardand: lugathoi geografii YOqut (1179—1229), Baqri (vafot 1094), asarhoi kosmo­grafii Qazvini (vafot 1283), Dimishqi (vafot 1327), Abulfido. Yake az geografhoi arab Idrisi (1100—65) dar Evropa hamchun geografi behtarin donista shudaast. Asari u, ki doroi 70 kharita bud, dar asrhoi miyona behtarin asari geografi hisob meyoft. Dar in asari u na faqat geo­grafiyai kishvarhoi islomi, balki yak qator mamlakathoi Evropai Garbi va Sharqi niz tasvir yofta budand.

Dar davrahoi minbada geografiyai arab kompilyativi pesh rafta, dar on malumothoi kosmografi omekhta bo malumothoi tarikhi va topografi ovarda shudaand (ba monandi asarhoi al-Maqrizi). Bobhoi geografii asarhoi ensiklopedii Nuvayri, Umari va Qalqashandi niz doroi ahamiyati ziyodand. Asarhoi Ibni Majid (asri 15) va Mahri (asri 16), ki dar onho nazariya va amaliyai bisyorasrai bahrnavardii arab jambast karda shudaand, sahmi bosazoe dar ilmi geografiyai arab meboshad.

Falsafa. Afkori falsafi to paydoishi islom baroi arabho qarib begona bud. Azbaski hayoti manavii onho mutanosiban ba hayoti moddiashon khele sodda bud, dar andeshai onho takhayyuloti badei bar tafakkuri mantiqi bartari dosht. Tanho badi paydoishi islom, tashkili Khilofat va shinosoi bo tamadduni khalqhoi peshqadami hamsoya inkishofi fal­safa va tafakkuri falsafi dar bayni khalqhoi arab imkonpazir gardid. Tarikhi asrimiyonagii afkori falsafii arabro asosan se jarayoni buzurg—kalom, mashshoiya, tasavvufi nazariyavi va muborizai bayni onho tashkil medihad.

Talimoti islom harchand doroi ziddiyatho va aqidahoi ba aqli mantiqi nomuvofiq bud, vale dar avval arabho onro bechunucharo garavidand. Dere naguzashta dar natijai ikhtiloti arabho bo khalqhoi gayr va shino­soi bo madaniyati onho in talimot az yak taraf ba muqobiliyati sakhti dinu aqidahoi gunogun duchor shud, az tarafi digar, khudi sohiboni on, ki ba tarzi nav andesha mekardagi shudand, nametavonistand bar khilofi aqli solim ba hamaguna qonunhoi dinu shariat be qaydu shart bovar namoyand.

In bud, ki hanuz dar zamoni Khilofati Umaviyon (660—750) masalahoi qazovu qadar va zotu sifoti khu­do mavridi bahs qaror girifta, har kas muvofiqi fahm va garazi khud onhoro tabiru tavil mekard. In bahsu munozira tadrijan shakli muayyan girift va badho bo nomi ilmi kalom maruf shud. Natijai bahshoi kalomi ba on ovarda rasond, ki dar nimai duyumi asri 8 az bayni mutakallimon firqai mutaziliya ba vujud omad.

Mutaziliho bar khilofi digar mutakallimon dar masalai qazovu qadar nufuzi khudoro mahdud karda, insonro dar korhoi khud sohibikhtiyor va foili mukhtor medonistand. Onho dar tavhidi ilokhi muboliga karda, nisbati hamaguna sifatro ba khudo, ki boisi paydoishi gumoni hissi meshud, inkor namudand. Az in jo ba chunin khulosa omadand, ki khudo sifati kalom nadorad va Quron hamchun kalomi doroi savtu sadoho hodis ast, na qadim. Dar in asos onho tavili jihathoi ziddiyatnok va ba aqli solim mukholifi kitobi muqaddasro ravo donistand. Mutaziliya aqidai «aql hamchun yagona meyori haqiqat»-ro pesh girifta, yakumin shuda dar olami islomi mantiqu falsafai Yunonro ba foidai khud istifoda namud. Dar zamoni hukmronii khalifa Mamun (813— 833) talimoti mutaziliya hamchun talimoti rasmi etirof shud. In boisi rivoj yoftani tarnima va targibi ilmhoi daqiq va falsafai bostoni ba arabi shud va bo hamin ba­roi intishori falsafai mashshoiya dar Sharq zamina tayyor namud. Ahli mutaziliya dar inkishofi afkori falsafii Sharq roli kalon bozid, vale siyosati irtijoiro pesha karda, az huquqi khud suiistemol namud. Ahli mutaziliya ziddi mukholifoni khud na faqat dar bahshoi nazariya­vi, balki bo tegu qamchin niz muboriza meburd. Onho masalai qadim va yo hodis budani Quronro meyori kufru imon qaror doda, har kiro, ki makhluqii Quronro etirof name­kard, ba kufr hukm mekardand va qatlashro ravo medonistand. Dar natija dar bayni khudi mutaziliya ikhtilofe cap zad, ki on boisi pay­do gardidani talimoti ashariya gardid.

Ashariya dar masalai kufru imon bar khilofi mutaziliya raftor karda, hama mutaqidoni yagonagii Allohro mumin mehisobid. Aa in ru, dar bayni omma ba zudi nufuz paydo karda, talimoti mutaziliyaro tamoman az bayn burd. Ahli ashariya davo mekardand, ki kalom du khel — lafzi va nafsi meshavad. Kalomi khudo ba aqidai onho nafsi buda, az alomathoi hissi kholist. Dar in asos onho Quron kalomi khu­do gufta, azali budani Quronro isbot kardani meshudand. Muvofiqi talimoti ashariya olam az zarrahoi khurdi taqsimnashavanda tarkib yofta ast va in zarraho dar bayni khud hej robitae nadoshta, har lahza az tarafi khudo nav shuda meistand. Ba in vosita onho aloqai sababiro dar olam inkor karda, baroi isboti mujizai dini asos medodand.

Falsafai Yunon dar bayni ahli islom ba du vosita roh yoft: yakum ba vositai mutaziliya, ki dar muborizai khud bar ziddi mukholifonash az mantiqu falsafa istifoda meburd; duyum ba vositai ehtiyoji ziyod paydo kardani musulmonon ba ilmhoi daqiq va tib. Azbaski fal­safa dar on vaqt az ilmhoi daqiq judo nabud va majmui hamai onho­ro dar bar megirift, binobar in mashgul shudan ba yake az in ilmhoi daqiq manoi ba falsafa mashgul shudanro dosht. Asosi talimoti mashshoiyai Sharqro falsafai Aras­tu, ki ba vositai tarjumahoi suriyoni ba arabho rasidaast va digar talimothoi falsafii Yunon tashkil medihad. Yakumin kase, ki falsafai mashshoro dar Sharq dar asosi asarhkhoi Arastu insho kard, padari fal­safai arabi al-Kindi (796—873) bud. Badtar in falsafa az tarafi du namoyandai buzurgi Osiyoi Miyona Forobi va Ibni Sino tahlil yofta, takmil doda shud va onho to andozae tavonistaid onro ba afkori Sharq nazdik va mutobiq kunand.

Falsafai mashsho az bisyor jihat ba talimoti islom mukholif bud. Khususan qadim hisobidani olam, etirofi prinsipi sababiyat va rad kardani bisyor aqidahoi ba maodi dini aloqamand boisi qahru gazabi namoyandagoni raviyahoi di­niyu idealist meshud. In bud, ki Gazzoli (1059—1111) ba muqobili falsafai mashsho, khususan du na­moyandai buzurgi on Forobiyu Ibni Sino kitobi «Tashofut-ul-falosifa»-ro talif namuda, talimoti onhoro tanqid va khudi onhoro ba kufr aybdor kard. Badi in hujumi Gazzoli inkishofi falsafa dar sharqi olami islomi ru ba tanazzul nihoda, dar asri 11 markazi afkori falsafi ba Isspaniya kuchid. Inkisho­fi afkori falsafi dar Ispaniya bo nomi se shakhsi buzurg Ibni Boja, Ibni Tufayl va Ibni Rushd aloqamand ast. Az bayni inho khususan Ib­ni Rushd ideyahoi mashshoiyonro az hujumi Gazzoli muhofizat karda, dar raddi dalelhoi u kitobi «Tahofut-ut-tahofut»-ro navshit. U bori digar qadim budani olam, aloqai sababi va fanoshavandagii nafshoi juziro isbot namud. Khizmati buzurgi Ibni Rushd az on iborat ast, ki falsafa ba tavassuti u ba Evropa guzashta, dar on az nav tajdid gardid.

Dar asri 14 dar qismi garbii olami islomi boz yak mutafakkiri buzurg Ibni Khaldun ba arsai tarikh qadam guzosht. Ibni Khaldun yake az asosguzoroni falsafai tarikh meboshad. Ilova bar in u bori avval dar tarikhi afkori iqtisodi roli mehnatro dar artishi mol qayd kardaast.

Dar muqobili kalom va mashshoiya tasavvuf tashakkul va inkishof yoft. Muvofiqi talimoti tasavvuf saodati komil in ba haqiqati mutlaq rasidan ast. Haqiqati mutlaq tanho az rohi riyozat, pok sokhtani ola­mi botini bo maqomot ba dast ovarda meshavand.

Onho kashfro bar khulosabarorii mantiqi va zavqro bar aql bari donista donishi kashfiro donishi haqiqiyu mutlaq medonistand. Tasav­vuf dar ibtido ba muqovimati sakhti ahli zohiriya duchor shud. Vale badho dar bayni peshvoyoni shariat nufuz paydo karda bo kushishi bazei onho, khususan Gazzoli, ohista-ohista ba rasmiyat daromad. Yake az bu­zurgtarin namoyandai tasavvufi nazariyavi, asosguzori nazariyai vahdati vujud Ibni Arabi (1165—1240) ba hisob meravad. In nazariya qullai balandi inkishofi tasavvufi nazariyavi buda, dar on bisyor unsurhoi mantiqi dialektikiro paydo kardan mumkin ast.

Muborizai du tamoyuli falsafi— materializmu idealizm dar falsafai asrimiyonagii arab ba tavri umum dar shakli muborizai aqlu imon, falsafayu din, muborizai falsafai mashshoiyavu jarayonhoi diniyu idealisti zohir megardad. Vale na hama vaqt tanqidi falsafayu aql daleli manfi va ba tarafdorii onho baromadai daleli musbat ast. Ze­ro lafzhoi «falsafa» va «aql» dar asrhoi miyona dar hamin mavrid na ba tamomi manohoi imruzai khud, balki ba yak qismi on dalolat mekardand. Aksar vaqt dar asri mafhumi falsafa va aql falsafayu mantiqi Yunon dar nazar doshta meshud. Chunki falsafai Yunon har chand ba zaboni arabi tarjuma shuda dar Sharq payravoni ziyode paydo karda boshad ham, vale shaklan mustaqiliyati khudro dar dokhili afkori falsafii Sharq purra nigoh dosht va yake az alomathoi on mustaqiliyat boqi mondani lafzi yunonii «falsa­fa» va ismi khosi on gashtani in lafz meboshad. Mutafakkironi Sharq, khususan arabho, na tanho dar fikri tagyir dodani sokhtu shakli on nabudand, balki kushish mekardand, ki muvaffaqiyathoi fikrii khudro har chi beshtar dar zamon shakl ifoda kunand. Binobar on fal­safa ba manoi asrimiyonagiash harchand dar shakli yunonii khud boqi mond, vale mazmunan tamoman yunoni nabud. Yagon kategoriyavu mafhumi falsafiero paydo kardan mumkin nest, ki ifodai qadimii khudro hifz karda boshad. Ilova ba in dar muboriza bo raviyahoi digari falsafai Yunon az imtihoni sakht guzashta, ta­momi jihathoi asilu susti on oshkor shud. Az in jo tanqidi falsafa va aql mahz in tanqidi jihathoi susti falsafa va metodi falsafii Yunon bud, na umuman tanqidi fal­safayu aql.

Khulosa, falsafai arab hamchun yak juzi falsafai khalqhoi Sharq dar tarikhi inkishofi afkori bashari maqomn khose doshta, halqai payvastkunandai davrai bostonii on bo davrai hozira ba hisob meravad va ba in vosita sayri inkishofi afkori falsafii umumibashari surati yak prosessi yagonavu muttasilro ba khud megirad.

Ad.: Istoriya filosofii, t. 1. M.. 1957; Izbrannie proizvedeniya mislite­le P stran Blijnego i Srednego Bosto­na IX—XIV vv., M., 1961; Bogoutdinov L. M., Ocherki po istorii tadjik­skoy filosofii, Stalinabad, 1961; Ley G., Ocherk istoriy srednevekovogo mate­rializma (per. s. nem.). M., 1962; Gri­goryan S. N., Srednevekovaya filosofiya narodov Blijnego i Srednego Vostoka, M.. I960.    S. Shahobiddinov.

Ilmi tarikhshinosii arab (arabizabon) hamchun ilmi mustaqil dar asrhoi 8—9 ba vujud omadaast. Avvalin navishtajoti tarikhi ba okhiri asri 7 taalluq dorand (Ubayd ibni Shariya (asri 7) va Vahhob ibni Munabbih (624—728). Avvalin asarhoi tarikhii arab dar asosi naqlu rivoyathoi nimafsonavi dar borai janghoi bayniqabilavi, ki bo nomi «Ayyom-ul- arab» mashhurand, malumothoi ta­rikhii genealogi (nasabshinosi) va rivoyathoi dahonii nimafsonavi oid ba davlathoi toislomii arab — kindiho dar janubi nimjazirai Arabiston, gassoniho dar Suriya va lakhmiho dar Iroq navishta shuda budand. Inchunin hadishoi dini va tarikhi oid ba hayoti Muhammad, paydoish va pahnkunii islom ba zuhur yoftani tarikhshinosi niz betasir nabu­dand. Muvofiqi shakli qabulshudai tarikhnavisi dar tarikhshinosii arab, muarrikh avval sukhanro az khalq kardani olamu odam cap karda, dav­rai har yak paygambarro sharh doda, pas ba tasviri hodisahoi zamoni khud mepardozad. In tarzi tarikhnavisi dar tasiri aqoidi quroni oid ba paydoishi olamu odam va tasavvurote, ki muvofiqi on guyo zamoni guzashta az silsilai paydarhami paygambaron iborat boshad, paydo shudaast. Kushishi nasabshinosoni islomii asrhoi 7—9, ki mekhostand nasabi arabhoro ba «jadvali khalqho»-i dar Injilu Tavrot zikrshuda burda rasonand, ba tarikhshinosii arab betasir namond. Dar paydoishi ilmi tarikhshinosii arab inkishofi donishhoi astronomi va tarjumai asarhoi tarikhiyu epikii forshoi davrai Sosoniyon (az qabili «Khudoynoma», «Shohnoma», «Ahdi Ardasher») va rivoyathoi dinii yahudiyu masehi niz roli kalon bozidaand.

Ilmi tarikhshinosii asrimiyona­gii arab rafti tarikhi umumijahoniro az nuqtai nazari teologiya sharh doda, dar on amali gardonidani irodai ilohiro nisbat ba inson mebinad. Dar ayni hol, on masuliyati insonro nisbat ba raftori khud etirof karda, chunin meshumorad, ki vazifai muarrikh talim dodani tajribai tarikh ast. Fikri ahamiyati didaktiki doshtani tarikh, ki onro aksari muarrikhoni arabizabon qabul karda budand, khususan az tarafi Ibni Miskaveykh (vafot 1030) khele ravshan ifoda gardidaast. Mu­arrikhoni arab bo vujudi ejod kar­dani asarhoi buzurg va muhim az chorchubai naqli tarikh berun baro­mada natavonistaand. Faqat Ibni Khaldun kushish kardaast, ki hodisahoro dar aloqamandi bo yakdigar tasvir namoyad. Az in ru, ba u muyassar shudaast, ki dar bobati qoidahoi umumii inkishofi jamiyati insoni talimoti originalie kor karda baroyad. Peshguzashtagoni mu­arrikhoni kasbii arab roviyon va nasabshinosone budand, ki onho nasabi qabilai khud va akhbori guzashtai on­ro ba khubi medonistand. Azbaski on akhboru rivoyatho faqat az dahon ba dahon meguzashtand va dar joe sabt nagardida budand, dar onho sahvu khatoi bisyore joy dosht. In rivoyathoi tarikhi va malumothoi genealogiro Muhammadi Kalbi (vafot 763) va pisarash Hishom (vafot 819) jam karda ba sistema darovardand. Pas az al-Kalbi digar muarrikhoni arab niz nasabnomaho navishtaand (ba monandi Muarrji Sadusi (vafot 811), Suhaym ibni Hafs (vafot 806), Musabi Zubayri (vafot 851), Zubayr ibni Bakkor (vafot 870),

Ibni Hazm (vafot 1030), al-Qalqashandi (1355— 1418) va digaron. Aavalin rivoyathoi tarikhie, ki ba voqeiyati reali nazdik budand, dar Madina paydo shuda, lahzae az hayoti Muhammadro (khusu­san jangho-gazohoi uro) dar bar megiriftand. In tarzi tarikhnavisi ba khud nomi «Magozi»-ro girift. Abon ibni Usmon (641—723), Urva ibni Zubayr (677—712) va Muhammadi Zuhri (671—742) namoyandagoni barjastai janri magozi budand. Dar bayni donishmandoni magozi Muhammadi Zuhri maqomi baland dosht, zero u avvalin kase bud, ki ba navishtani hodisahoi tarikhi pardokht. Navishtahoi u na faqat Magozii paygambar, mavzuhoi nasabshinosi va rivoyathoi qabilavi, balki aksari voqeahoi siyosii Khilofati arabro niz faro girifta, dar onho hodisaho ba yak tarzi ba voqeiyat nazdik va bo ham aloqamand tasvir yofta budand. Paydoishi nakhustin asari kaloni tarikhi ba qalami Muhammad ibni Ishoq (704—767/8) taalluq doshta, ba hayoti Muhammad va digar paygambaron bakhshida shuda bud. Dar payravii Ibni Ishoq asar­hoi ziyode ejod gardidand (ba monandi asarhoi Voqidi (747—823), Ibni Sad (782—844) va dig.). Dar asri 8 va miyonai asri 9 markazi tarikhshinosii arab az Madina ba Iroq kuchid. Dar Iroq asarhoi tarikhie navishta shudand, ki onho ba hodisahoi muayyani Khilofat (asosan futuhot — zabtkorihoi arabho va janghoi grajdani) bakhshida shuda budand (asarhoi Abumikhnaf, vafot 774, Sayf ibni Umar, vafot 796, Abubaydi, 731—826, Madoini, 752—839). Paydoishi asarhoi tarikhi, ki dar onho malumothoi tarikhi az rui mavzu intikhob karda shuda, hodisaho dar robitai mutaqobil va dar aloqamandii mantiqi ovarda meshudand, asarhoi Balozuri (812—892), Dinavari (vafot 895) va Yaqubi (vafot 897) ba nimai duyumi a. 9 ta­alluq dorad.

Az muarrikhoni maz­kur — Yaqubi ba janri navi tarikhshinosii arab — tarikhi umumi asos guzosht, ki on payravoni ziyode paydo karda, dar asarhoi 9—11 ba yake az janrhoi asosii tarikhshinosii arab tabdil yoft. In guna asarho dar shakli akhbor tartib doda shuda, muallifon sukhanro az tarikhi umumii olam cap karda, bad ofarinishi dunyo, tarikhi davrai avvali pay­doishi jamoai islom, hujumi arabho ba davlathoi hamsoya, tarikhi siyo­sii Khilofati arab (Umaviyon va Abbosiyon) va g-ro ayna ba ayna tas­vir menamudand. Asari buzurgtarin va bisyorjildae, ki dar in janr ejod gardid «Tarikhi paygambaron va shohon»-i Tabari (838/9—923) bud. Asarhoi kalonhajmi muarrikho­ni digar az qabili Masudi (vafot 956/7), Hamzai Isfahoni (vafot nimai duyumi asri 10), badtar Ibni Asir (1160—1233/4) va Ibni Khaldun niz dar janri mazkur navishta shu­da, doroi shuhrati jahoniand. Muar­rikhoni asrhoi 9—10 arab bo jahonbinii vase va donishhoi ensiklope­dii khud farq mekunand (khususan Yaqubi va Masudi, ki doir ba tarikh va madaniyati khalqhoi berun az hududi kishvarhoi islomi niz dar asarhoyashon malumyutho jam ovardaand).

Dar natijai tashakkuli shuuri khudshinosii siyosii mahalli, dar terr. Khilofati Abbosiyon az nimai duyumi asri 10 cap karda, dar ilmi tarikhshinosii arab mavqei asosiro tarikhhoi mahalli va sulolavi ishgol menamoyand. Muallifoni onho aksaran na olimon, balki muarrikho­ni darbori (kotibonu vaziron) bu­dand va asarhoyashon niz dar shakli khronika az hayoti vazironu kotibon naql mekardand (masalan, asarhoi Jahshiyori, vafot 943 va Khiloli Sobi, 969—1056, ba hayoti vaziron; asarhoi Vakii Qozi, vafot 918, al- Kindi, vafot 961, al-Hushoni, vafot 971, ba hayoti qoziho bakhshida shuda budand). Tarikhshinosii mahalli boshad az asarhoe iborat bud, ki onho tarikhi yagon shahr yo viloyatero faro girifta boshand (ba monandi «Tarikhi Maka»-i Azraqi, vafot 858, «Tarikhi Bagdod»-i Ibni Abutohiri Tayfur, 819/20—893, «Tarikhi Misr»-i Ibni Abdulhakam, 798—871, «Tarikhi Ispaniyai islomi»-i Ab­dulmalik ibni Habib, 796—853, «Tarikhi Bukhoro»-i Narshakhi).

Asari ensiklopedii tarikhii muarrikhi yamani —Hamdoni (vafot nimai duyumi asri 10), ki dar on malumothoi genealogi (nasabshinosi), tarikhi, arkheologi, geografi va adabi oid ba janubi nimjazirai Arabiston gird ovarda shudaand, dar tarikhshinosii arab mavqei khose dorad. Dar asrhoi badina muarrikhoni arab ba shakli navi tarikhnavisi, yane na­vishtani asarhoi tarjumaiholi meguzarand. Dar asarhoi onho tarjumai holi siyosatmadoron, ruhoniyon, olimon va digar shakhsoni mashhur vobasta ba hayoti siyosi va ijtimoii zamonashon bayon karda shudaast (ba monandi «Tarikhi Bagdod»-i Khatibi Bagdodi (1002—71), «Tarikhi Dimishq»-i Ibni Asoqir (1105—76) va Kalonisi (vafot 1160), «Tarikhi Halab»-i Ibni Adim (1192—1262), «Tarikhi Garnota»-n Ibni Khatib (1313—74). Tarikhi sulolavi, ki ba on Ibrohimi Sobi (vafot 994) bo asa­ri ba Buvaykhiho bakhshidaash va Utbi (961—1022, yo 1036, yo ki 1040) bo asari ba tarikhi Gaznaviho bakhshi­daash asos guzoshta budand, dar asrhoi 12—13 rivoji makhsus meyoband. Dar in asrho markazi tarikhshinosii arab ba Suriya mekuchad va tarikhi sulolahoi mahalli — Zangiho va Ayyubiho az tarafi Imomuddini Isfahoni (1125—1201), Ibni Shaddod (1145—1234), Abushoma (1203—68) va makhsusan Ibni Vosil (1207—98) hamajoniba navishta meshavad.

Dar ayni hol dar Suriya dar janri tarikhi umumi yak qator asarho ejod gar­didand: asarhoi Abulfido (1273—1331), Zahabi (1274—1353 yo 1347), Ibni Kasir (1300—73) va digaron. Dar asrhoi 15—16 dar tarikhshinosii arab mavqei asosiro muarrikhoni Misr ishgol mekardand. Onho muallifoni tarikhi mamlukho, ensiklopediyai tarikhi (Nuvayri, 1279—1332), khronikahoi umumi (Ibni Furot 1334—1405) va digar asarho bu­dand. Tarikhi siyosi, ijtimoi-iqtisodi va madanii Misr dar asarhoi muhim va bisyorjildai chunin mu­arrikhoni buzurgi misri, az qabili Maqrizi (1364—1442), al-Ayni (1362—1451), Abulmahosin ibni Tagriberdi (1409/10—1470) va Suyuti (1445—1505) sabt gardidaast. Yak sohai ilmi tarikhshinosii arabro adabiyoti tarjumaiholi dar bar megirad. Ba monandi asarhoi tarjumaiholii umumii YOqut Ibni Khallikon (1211—82), Zahabi, Safadi (1296/7—1363). Dar asarhoi Ibni Qifti (1172—1248) va Ibni Abuusaybia (1203—70) tarjumai holi fayl asufon, tabibon va tabiatshinoson gird ovarda shudaast.

Asarhoi tarikhi ba zaboni arabi na faqat dar mamlakathoi arab, bal­ki dar digar davlathoi Sharqi islo­mi, az on jumla dar Hinduston, Pokiston, Eron, Turkiya va Afrikai Sharqi niz navishta shudaand. Dar davrai hukmronii turkho (asri 16 — avvali asri 20) dar ilmi tarikhshinosii arab peshravii jiddie mushohida karda nameshavad. Dar in davra muarrikhon asosan dar payravii muarri­khoni guzashta asarhoi kompilyativi navishtaand, ki muhimtarini onho «Tarikhi Andalusiyai»-i Maqqari (1591/2—1632) va asari tarjumaiholii muarrikhi misri Khafoji (vafot 1659) meboshand. G. Goibov.

Adabiyot. Adabiyoti arab az ananahoi sanati shifohii sukhanvari ogoz yofta paydoishi on ba davrahoi qadimi toislomi, ba zamoni hayoti avlodiyu qabilavii aholii nimjazirai Arabiston taalluq dorad. Adabi­yoti arab ibtidoan az tasiri ajnabi taqriban kholi buda, beshtar miyoni bodiyanishinoni kuchmanchii chorvoparvar (badaviho) malum bud, va­le dertar, dar bayni aholii nimmuqim va muqimiyu ziroatkori mavzehoi obodu shahrho niz intishor yoft. Manbai asosii on nazme bud, ki surudhoi shikori, mehnati, sorboni va marosimii digarro faro megirift. Dar hamon vaqt janrhoi sherii tanqidu tahqiri dushmanon (hajv). sitoishi qabilai khud (fakhr), surudhoi intiqomgiri (sar), motamu taziya (riso yo khud marsiya), ifodai ehsosoti ishqi (nasib) va tasviri (vasf) ba vujud omada, tashakkul va takomul yoftand. Ibtidoi nasri ba­dei az qabili putqhoi khitobi, rivoyatho dar borai janghoi qabilavi (ayyomularab) va digar voqeahoi namoyoni ruzgor niz ba hamon davrai qadim taalluq dorad. Qadimtarini in rivoyathoi shifohii arabho, ki bo unvoni umumii «Ayyom-ul-arab» mashhurand, «Harb-ul-Basus», «Yavmu Dahis va-l-Gabro», «Harb-us-siboq», «Yavm zi Qor» va g. meboshand.

Nazmi bostonii arab beshtar dar qismi markazi va shimolii nimjazirai Arabiston inkishof yofta, mavzuhoi ishqiyu hamosiro dar bar megirift. Nazmi asrhoi 5—7 namunai behtarini mahsuli ejodi adabii arabho shinokhta shuda, dar davomi asrhoi minbada meyori makhsusi za­boih, bahsu vaznhoi sheri va ide­alu  husnu zeboi gardid va mavzu, tariqati insho va uslubhoi badeiro dar adabiyoti arab muayyan mekard.

Dar nazmi toislomi mavqei markaziro khudi shoir ishgol menamud. U az mavqei manfiathoi kabila baromad mekard. Simoi shoir az raftoru kirdori u dar sharoiti hayoti vaznini bodiya, zimin tasviri manzarahoi voqeii shikoru jang va sahroi gunogunrangi arab huvaydo megardad. Shakli asosii nazmi qadimi arab qasida va porchahoi sheri (qita yo khud muqatta) bud. In nazm bo zakhirai lugavii khele boyu sermano, shaklhoi rangini sarfu nahv, tarzhoi mukhtalifi ifodavu bayon, zaboni purbalogatu seroburang va faseh farq mekunad.

Ba tavassuti tazkirahoi qadim nomi taqriban 125 shoiri toislomii arab to zamoni mo rasidaand. Barjastatarini onho shoironi zerin hisob meyoband: Imrulqays (vafot bayni solhoi 530—540), ofarandai shakli klassikii qasida; Tarafa ibni Abd (asri 6) muallifi yake az muallaqot., Antara ibni Shaddod (asrhoi 6—7) saroyandai shujoatu mardonagi va ishqi odami; Zuhayr ibni Abisulma (asri 6), Labid ibn Rabia (560—661), Shaifara (asri 6), Taabbata Sharrai (asri 6), Horis ibn Hilliza (asri 6), Ib­ni Kulsum (asri 6), shoira-al-Khanso (vafot 664), shoironi darbori Nobigai Zubyoni (asri 6 — avvali asri 7), inchunin shoiron Alqamai Fahl, Urva ibni Vard, Abid ibni Abras, Asho, Adi ibni Zayd va digaron. Bazei on shoiron dar darbori shohoni Sosoni khizmat kardaand (Adi ibn Zayd tarjumoni Khusravi II Parviz bud) va onhoro dar ashori khud madh guftaand (al-Asho).

Dar davrai toislomi adabiyoti arab bo haft shohkorii manzumi haft shoir: Imruulqays, Tarafa, Zuhayr, Horis ibn Hilliza, Amr ibn Kulsum, Antara va Labnd boy megardad. In shohkoriho bo nomi muallaqot shuhrat paydo kardand. Baze shernavisoni asrhoi miyona adadi muallaqotro to dahto rasonidaand. Yake az avvalin murattiboni muallaqot shoiri eroninajod az sh. Kufa Hammodi Rovi (694—773) me­boshad. Dar bayni asrhoi 8—10 muallaqaho navishta girifta shuda, dar tazkiraho, majmuaho va asarhoi yak qator muallifon ovarda shudaand: dar «Al-Mufazzaliyot»-i Mufazzali Zabi (vafot 786), «Al-Asmaiyot»-i al-Asmai (vafot 830), «Kitob-ul-khamosa»-i Abutammomi Toy (796—845) va «Kitob-ul-khamosa»-i al-Bukhturi, «Naqd-ush-sher»-i Ibni Qutayba (vafot 889), «Kitob-ul-bayon va-t-tabi- in»-i al-Johiz (vafot 869), «Kitob- ul-agoni»-i Abulfaraji Isfahoni, inchunin dar devonhoi shoironi nomburda muallaqaho nufuzi vase pay­do karda, ba adabiyoti minbadai arab tasiri ziyode bakhshidand.

Nakhustin osori khattii arabi Quron ast. Dar on vazu guftorhoi Muhammad, hikoyathoi diniyu afsonavii arabho va kitobhoi muqaddasi digar dinho (Injilu Tavrot), sukhanhoi pandomez, qonunu tartiboti jomea va davlati islomi gird ovarda shudaand. Tasiri Quron dar tamomi adabiyoti min­badai arab his karda meshavad. Mu­hammad va payravoni u dar ogozi faoliyati khud bar ziddi sheru shoiri baromad mekardand, zero dar nazm onho yak ifodai aqidahoi bisyorkhudoivu butparastiro medidand. Vale nisbat ba shoirone, ki dini islomro maqul donista qabul me­kardand, onho hech guna tanqid yo taqibro ravo namedidand. Dar ibtidoi paydoishi dini nav inkisho­fi nazm yak andoza aqib mond, vale ananaho, vositahoi badeii on hamono nigoh doshta shuda, mazmuni goyavii on dar zeri tasiri islom kamu besh tagyir yoft.

Markazhoi kaloni adabi aknun dar Suriya va Iroq ba vujud omadand. Dar darbori khalifahoi Umaviyon shoironi nomi — Akhtal, Qarir va Farzadak ejod mekardand.

Dar nazmi in davra yak qator hodisahoi kalon ba nazar merasand, ki beshtar ba khulqu atvori doirai ashrofoni shahrhoi kaloni Khilofat vobastaand. Dar in jo navi sherhoi kutohi oshiqona rivoj meyobad. Namoyandagoni in janr shoironi maruf Umar ibni Aburabia (641 — vafot 712 – 718), Ibni Qaysi Ruqayyot, Abudahbal dar Madina , khalifa Validi 2 dar Dimishq. Az miyoni bodiyanishinoni arab yak zumra shoiron — vassofoni ishqi ideali yo khud uzri (az nomi qabilai Uzro) arzi vujud kardand. Dar sheri Uzri oshiq va mashuqai u hamesha ba visoli yakdigar narasida halok megardand. Dertar dar borai in guna oshiqon (Jamil va Busayna, Majnun va Laylo, Kusayir va Azza va dig.) qissahoi ajibi ro­mantiki ofarida shudand. Makhsusan qissai Majnun va Layli, ki sayri tarikh in daroz dorad, shuhrati olamshumule paydo karda, ba adabiyoti khalqhoi gunoguni jahon tasir rasonidaast.

Az nimai asri 8 cap karda sahmi namoyandagoni khalqhoi az tarafi arabhkho istilo shuda dar inkishofi ada­biyoti arab afzun megardad. Az in dam husni tavjjuhi olimon va adibon ba omuzishi merosi qadim meafzoyad, tadqiqot oid ba zabon, uslub, vazni sher ziyod megardand, tarjuma az zabonhoi yunoni, suriyoni, forsii miyona avj megirad. Dar inkishofi nasri badei makhsusan tarjumahoi Abdulloh ibni Mukaffa (qatlash 759) az forsii miyona ba zaboni arabi roli bagoyat muhime bozid. U asarhoi bostonii «Ka­lila va Dimna» va «Khudoynoma»-ro tarjuma kard. Abboni Lohiqi (vafot 815) «Kalila va Dimna», kitobhoi Mazdak, Sindbod va g-ro ba sheri arabi gardond. Tasiri tamadduni Eron dar nazmi arabi niz his karda meshavad.

Dar nazm navovari dida meshavad, zero aknun shoiron az qasidahoi kalonhajmu vaznin dida beshtar sherhoi kutohi mustaqilmavzuro mepisandand. Onho ba uslubi nav (uslubi bade) mayl kar­da, obrazu vaznho va sanathoi tozai latifero istifoda mekardand, ki dar nazmi peshin dida nameshud. Ofaridgori «uslubi nav» shoiri eroninajod az Tahoriston, sukhanvari ozodfikr Bashshor ibni Burd (vafot 783) bud. Darbori khalifai Abbosiyon makoni adibon va shoironi on davra Mute ibni Iyos, Voliba ibni dubob, Dibil, padaru pisar Ibrohim, Ishoqi Mavsili va bisyor digar bud. Bayni in shoiron ustodi barjastai kalomi bade Abunuvos (762—815) makomi makhsus dorad. Abunuvos, beshubha, klassiki adabi­yoti arab ast, vale boyad guft, ki u zaboni forsiro az modarash Gulbon omukhta, bad dar yak qator sherhoyash kalima va iborahoi ziyodi for­siro istifoda burdaast va mavzuhoi marbut ba muhit va aqoidi eroniro ifoda namudaast. In guna sherhoi u bo nomi «Forsiyoti Abu­nuvos» mashhur shudaand.

Dar zaamin davra shoir Abulatohiya chun navovar baromad karda, dar ashori zohidonai khud sharthoi ananavii nazmi arabro sarfi na­zar kard. Bo mururi zamon «uslubi nav» mavridi etirofi umum gardida, dar shakhsi Abdulloh ibni Mutazz (861—908) nazariyotchii khudro daryoft. Lekin boz shoirone budand—Marvon ibni Abihafs (721—797), Muslim ibni Valid (vafot 803), Abutammom Habib, Buhturi va digaron, ki ananahoi qasidai klassikiro idoma medodand.

Asrhoi 8—9 inchunin davrai muhimi inkishofi nasri arab gardidand, ki zaminai onro ejodiyoti shifohi, omuzishi Quron, tarjumai osori ilmiyu adabi az zabonhoi yuno­ni, suriyoni va forsii miyona tayyor karda bud. Adabiyoti tarikhii dar in davra paydoshuda afsonavu asotir, tasviri hodisahoi alohida va adabiyoti kosmografi, naqli hikoyahoi tojironu sayyohonro dar borai kishvarhoi mukhtalif dar bar megiriftand. Nasri badei inchunin az hisobi uslubhoi kitobati rasmi va khitobi monandi mukotiba sanati sukhanroni va nutqerodkuni (voizi), vazu hadis va g. boytar megardid. Yak zumra kotibon va notiqon dar in soha ba darajai balandi ifodanoki va mahorat rasidand. Dar in bobat dar asarhoi nasrnavisoni arab Johiz (767—868) va Qutayba (828— 889) malumothoi farovon ovarda shudaand. Dar asri 9 tarjumai afsonahoi forsi-tojiki, kitobi «Hazor afsona» («Hazoru yak shab»-i hozira) ba vujud omad.

Tanazzuli Khilofat boisi pareshon gardidani quvvahoi ilmiyu adabi gardid. Dar hamin davra yak qator davlathoi mustaqile ba vujud omadand, ki doroi markazhoi ilmiyu adabii khud shudand. Dar davlati Somoniyon adabiyoti badei, khususan nazm bo rohi khud va ba zaboni forsi-tojiki inkishof yoft. Albatta zabon va adabiyoti fors-tojik az zabon va adabiyoti arab tasir bardosht. Az jumla ilmhoi aruz, bade az arabho iqtibos shudaand. Shoironi fors-tojik zaboni arabiro khub medonistand, merosi ganii shoironi arabro azbar karda budand, nomhoi sukhanvaroni nomii arabro bo ehtirom ba zabon megiriftand, baze sherhoi onhoro ba zaboni khud tarjuma mekardand. Mas., ustod Rudaki nomhoi shoironi arab Jarir, Abutamom Habib, Hasson ibn Sobit, Muslim ibni Valid (Sare), Sahboni Voilro dar qasidai «Modari may» yod karda, khudro hamradifi onho mehisobad va dertar yak qitai Ibni Rumiro az arabi tarjuma mekunad. Ammo inkishofi umumii adabiyoti fors-tojik aknun dar zaminai digar va bo tarzi ba khud khos jarayon meyoft. Dar Khurosonu Movarounnahr nazmi arabizabon niz vujud dosht, vale doirai on tang bud, beshtar dar tabaqai hokimonu ashrofon roij va ba mardumi oddi begona bud. Qati nazar az in, nazmi arabizaboni in jo allakay az tasiri muhit va nazmi arabi ozod buda, bo adabiyoti fors-tojik robitai nogusastani dosht. Binobar in on yak qismi adabiyoti fors-tojik meboshad.

Yake az markazhoi adabiyoti arab dar asri 10 poytakhti davlati Hamdoniho sh. Halab shud. Dar darbori Sayfuddavla shoiri mashhur Mutanabbi (915—965) umr ba cap meburd. Madhiyaho va qasidahoi hajvi ba yak uslubi nozuk va zebo navishta va bo tashbehu istmora, tamsilu kinoya, tajrisu tarse va digar sanathoi badei ba yak tarzi ajibe oroish doda shudaand. Tasiri Mutanabbi dar ejodiyoti yak qator shoironi arab va fors-tojik (mas, Sadii Sherozi) his karda meshavad. Dar asri 11 dar Suriya shoir va mutafakkiri buzurgi arab Abulaloi Maarri (973—1057) zindagi karda ast. Dar ejodiyoti u mavzuoti amiqi falsafi, pandu akhloqi bayon shudaast. Nasrnavisoni marufi asri 10 Abuhayyoni Tavhidi (vafot 1009) va Tanukhi (940—994) budand. Dar in davra nasri musajja khele rivoj meyobad. Khorazmi (vafot 993) bo nasri musajja «Rasoil»-i purzarofati khudro ejod kardaast. Badeuzzamoni Hamadoni (969—1007) bo in nasr janri «maqoma»-ro ofaridaast, ki onro komyobii balandtarini nasri badeii arab meshumorand, In janr dar adabiyoti arab va bad dar adabiyoti fors-tojik pahn gashta payravoni khudro yoft. Vale agar dar maqomahoi Badeuzzamoni Hamadoni zeboi va balogati zaboni arabi nigoh doshta shuda boshad ham, dar maqomahoi digar muallifon, ki aksar taqlidkori mekardand, zarofatu tarovati zaboni arabi az bayn raftaast.

Dar asrhoi 8—10 dar Andalusiya (Ispaniyai arabi), ki bo kishvarhoi Magrib aloqamandii zich dosht, adabiyoti ganie tashakkul meyobad. Dar in marhala Andalusiya yake az muzofothoi duri Khilofat ba hisob meraft, iazmi on asosan dar majroi nazme, ki dar qismati sharqii Khilofat ba vujud meomad, dokhil bud. Dar in jo shoiri nozukbayon, muallifi doston dar borai Ispaniyaro istilo namudani arabho al-Razal (770—864), muallifi tazkirai mashhuri «Al-iqdul-farid» va shoir Ibn Abdu Rabboihi (860—940), ofarandai qarib 60 qasida Ibni Honi (vafot 972) va digaron zindagi va ejod mekardand. Bo mururi vaqt dar nazmi arabii Andalusiya na tanho tasiri muhiti mahalli zohir gasht, balki janrhoi sherie ba monandi muvashshah (kamarbasta) va zajal (ohangdor) ba vujud omadand, ki ba nazmi ananavii arab noshinos budand. In janrho dar miyoni mardumi oddi dar natijai omezish, ba ham payvastani madaniyati arabho, barbarho va aholii mahallii romani tavlid yoftand. Muvashshah az in jo baromada dar asri 10 ba nazmi kishvarhoi Khilofat vorid gardid, vale dar asri 13 ba yak qolibi shakhshuda mubaddal shud. Zajal hamchun shakli dustdoshtai sherii musulmonon va masehiyoni Ispaniya boqi mond, dar kishvarhoi digari arab niz intishor yoft va ba inkishofi nazmi provansali tasiri kaloni musbat bakhshid.

Behtarin ofarandai in janr Ibni Quzmon (1086—1160) buda, devoni u to imruz mahfuz mondaast. Avji balandi adabiyoti arabizaboni andalusi ba asri 11, ba davrai parokanda shuda in Khilofati Durtuba va darji on tasis shudani yakchand amorat rost meoyad. Dar har yake az onho mahfili adabi amal mekard. Yake az in guna markazhoi adabi Sevilya buda, dar on du hokimi adabiyotdustu shergui al-Mutazid (1012—69) va Mutamid (1040—95) shirkat mevarzidand. Al-Mutamid ba asorat aftoda, dar Marokash az dunyo chashm pushid. Dar asorat uro shoiri digari arabizaboni andaluey Ibni Hamdis (1055—1132) hamrohi mekard. Dar Andalusiya inchunin yak zumra shoironi arabizabon ba monandi Ibni Zaydun (1003—71), Ibni Abdun, al-Vaqoti, Ibni Khafoja, Solehi Rondi va digar zindagi va ejod mekardand. Tashakkul va ravnaqi nasri badeii in sarzamin bo nomhoi navisandai asari «Tavq-ul-hammoma» («Zebi gardani mahbuba»-)i Ibni Hazm va muallifi rivoyati falsafii «Hay ibni Yaqzon» (hamnomi asari Abuali Ibni Sino «Khay ibni Yaqzon»)-i Ibni Tufayl (1110— 85) marbut ast.

Qati nazar az ziyodshavii hajmu miqdori adabiyoti arab az nimai asri 11  cap karda dar on alomathoi inqiroz va pastravi zuhur mekunand va adabiyoti arab ohista ru ba tanazzul meovarad. Dar nazm aknun beshtar mavzuhoi tasavvufiyu irfoni va dar nasr ohanghoi panduakhloqi ifoda karda meshavand. Namoyandagoni marufi adabiyoti arab dar in davra shoironi andaluey Ibni Arabi (1165—1240)  Shushtari (vafot 1269), shoir va mutafakkiri misri Umar ibni Foriz (1182—1235) budand. Ibni Zafar (vafot 1169) dar Sisiliya dar rohi ejodi novellahoi tarikhi qadamhoi zaifi nakhustin guzoshta bud. Amiri suriyoni Usoma ibni Munqiz (1095—1188) avvalin shuda dar adabiyoti arab asari badeii tarjumaiholii «Kitobi nasihot»-ro talif namud.

Dar sharoiti tanazzuli adabiyoti khatti, ki asosan talaboti madaniyu manavii hokimonu feodalon va doirai mahdudi sohibmalumotu bosavodonro qone megardond, ejodiyoti manzumi shifohi khele vusat yoft. Pas az istiloi mugulho (asri 13) markazhoi asosii adabiyoti arab dar Misru Suriya doimi joygir shudand. Dar in jo janrhoi muvashshah va zajal roij gashtand. Shoironi sufi va hatto shoiri darbori Bahouddini Zuhayr (1187—1258) kushish mekardand, ki sherhoi khudro bo zaboni ba khalq nazdiku mafhum binavisand. Ibni Doinyol (asri 13) dar Misr namoishchahoi khalqii dar sahna guzoshta meshudagiro navishta megirad. Dar asrhoi 13—15 va minbad qissahoi khalqii dar janri «sira» (capguzasht) ofaridashuda shuhrat yoftand. In sarguzashtho az silsilai hikoyahoi dar mavzuhoi qahramoniyu ishqi bo ishtiroki shakhsoni tarikhi yo gayritarikhi, hodisahoi voqeiyu bofta (masnu) ejodshuda iborat budand. Dar Evropa in guna qissahoro ba guruhi dostonu rivoyathoi javonmardiyu qahramoni (risarskiy roman) dokhil namudaavd. In qissahoro guyandagon — roviyon dar kuchavu maydonu bozorho naql mekardand va amalan ba tarzi sodda nishon ham medodand.

Muhimtarin va maruftarini in qissaho chuninand: sarguzashti shoiri nangovar Angara (asri 6) va mahbubai u Abla, sarguzashti sultoni mamlukho Beybars, qissai ba Misr va Afrikai Shimoli kuchida omadani qabilai Banu Hilol, sarguzashti Zulkhimma va g. Bazei in qissaho zohiran khele barvaqt paydo shudaand. Khotirai khalq onhoro dar tuli asrho nigoh doshta, naqlhoi gunoguni guyandagon ba onho lahzaho va tafsiloti navero bofta zam mekardand, ki dar natija jarayoni hodisaho dar onho bazan mukholifu galat aks yoftaast. Dar sarguzashthoi jangi hodisahoi davrai hujumhoi salibdoron inikos yoftaast, zero dar onho aksaran sukhan dar atrofi jang bo kofiron— farangiho yo rumiho meravad. Majmui afsonahoi «Hazoru yak shab» az qabili hamin adabiyoti khalqi ast, chunki ba on dar barobari malumothoi folklori, adabi va tarikhi sarguzashti Umar ibni Numon purra dokhil karda shudaast.

Adabiyoti arab dar asrhoi 16—18 az chorchubai skholastiki va ananavi berun nabaromada chizi namoyone ba amal naovardaast. Az in ru, ahamiyati kalon nadorad. Vale dar in davra ananai ruybardorii dastkhathoi qadimi mavjuda khele quvvat girift. Ba tufayli hamin anana bisyor osori khattii davrahoi boshukuhi guzashtai adabiyoti arab to ruzgori mo boqi mondaast.         T. Mardonov.

Memori, sanati tasviri va oroishi. Sanati kishvarhoi arab tarikhi durudaroz va sarchashmahoi ziyode dorad. Dar janubi nimjazirai Arabiston az madaniyati davlathoi Saba, Mino va Himyar (hazorai 1 to m.— asri 6 m.) ogoz meyobad, ki on dar navbati khud bo davlathoi mintaqai bahri Miyonazamin va Afrikai Shimoli aloqai zich dosht. Ananahoi qadimai memori dar imorathoi manorashakli Hadramavt va binohoi bolokhonadori Yaman, ki namohoi onho bo naqshhoi rangorang zinat doda shudaand, mushohida meshavand. Sanati asrimiyonagii Suriya, Baynannahrayn (Iroq), Misr va Magrib asoshoi mahalli doshta boshad ham, dar tashakkuli on madaniyati forsho, vizantiyagiho, oshuriho va digaron tasiri ziyode rasonid.

Memori. Dar davrai islom masjid ibodatgohi asosii mardum ba shumor meraft. Masjidho dar avval az du qismi bo devor faro giriftashuda — havlijoy va dolon, ki asosan onro qatori ziyodi sutunho tashkil medodand, iborat budand. Masjidhoi avvalin soli 635 dar Basra, 638 dar Kufa va solhoi 40 asri 7 dar

Fustot sokhta shuda budand. Masjidi arabie, ki bo sanati olii khud mashhur ast va on qatori sutunhoi zebo dosht, dar Dimishq — poytakhti Umaviyon hanuz dar ibtidoi asri 8 sokhta shuda bud. Binokoroni masjidi Dimishq az ananahoi mahallii memorii ellini, usuli binosozii suryoniyu vizantiyagiho istifoda namuda, binoro bo materialhoi gunogunrang hotamkori karda, ba ofaridani obidahoi memori muvaffaq shudaand. Masjidhoi Qayruvon (Sidi Uqbo, asrhoi 7—9) va Qurtuba (asrhoi 8—10) niz az jumlai masjidhoi bohashamat va boshukuh ba shumor meravand. Sokhtani masjidhoe, ki dar onho qatori sutunho mavqei asosiro ishgol menamud, dar kishvarhoi arab muddati daroz hamchun shakli asosii memori boqi mond (masjidhoi Ibni Tulun dar Qohira, asri 9; Mutavakkil dar Somarro, asri 9; Hasan dar Rabot va Kutubiya dar Marokash, har du asri 12; Masjidi Buzurg dar Aljazoir, asri 11 va g.). Memorii arab ba sanati binokorii davrai islomii chunin kishvarho ba monandi Eron, Kavkaz, Osiyoi Miyona va Hinduston niz tasir rasonidaast. Gayr az in, dar sanati memorii arab sokhtani binohoi gunbazdor niz rivoj meyobad, ki masjidi hashtkunjai Qubbatussakhra dar Baytulmuqaddas (687—691) yake az namunahoi avvalini on meboshad. Badtar gunbazho dar sokhtmoni maqbaraho istifoda shudaand.

Dar davrai Umaviyon sokhtmoni binohoi dunyavi rivoji makhsus yoft: shahrho mustahkam shuda, dar beruni shahr baroi feodalho va khalifaho qasrhoe sokhta meshudand, ki onho bo mujassamahoi mudavvar, kandakori, hotamkori va naqshunigor oro doda shuda budand (Mshatta, Qusayri Amr, Qasrulkhayri Garbi, Qasrulkhayri Sharqi, Khirbetulmafjar).

Dar davrai khilofati Abbosiyon shahrsozi avj girift. Bagdod, ki tahkursii on soli 762 guzoshta shuda bud, ba monandi Khatra va Ktesifon (Madoin) shakli doiraro dosht; dar markazi on qasr va masjid joy girifta, atrofi on bo du devori mustahkami mudofiavi pechonida shuda bud. Dar Somarro (poytakhti Khilofat dar solhoi 836—892), ki on qad-qadi daryoi Dajla tul kashida bud, naqshai sokhtmoni shahr shakli chorkunja dosht; kharoboti qasrhoi muhtashami az khisht bunyodgardidai ashrofon va havlihoi onho chorkunja budand; devori tolorhoi qabuli ravoqbandii onho bo kandakori va surathoi rangai gunogun zinat yofta budand; manorahoi masjidhoi Somarro shakli zikkurat (qafasa) doshtand.

Sokhtmonhoi Qohirai davrai Fotimiyon maktabi makhsusi memorii arab donista shudaast. Devorhoi ondavrai shahr az sang bino shuda, az rui naqsha murabba tartib doda shudaast. Chande az darvozahoi shahri asri 11 boqi mondaand, ki kuchahoi asosii shahr ba onho payvastaand. Qohirai davrai Fotimiyon doroi Qasrhoi muhtasham, korvonsaroyho, hammomho, dukonho, havliho va masjidho bud. Masjidhoi Hakim va al-Lhar, inchunin masjidhoi al-Akmar va as-Soleh-Taloiro, ki sanghoi onho bo kandakorihoi zeboyu nafis zinat doda shudaand, az jumlai binohoi boshukuhe meboshand, ki to zamoni mo omada rasidaand.

Az asri 13 to avvali asri 16 ananahoi sanati memorii Misru Suriya bayni khud aloqai zich doshtand. Sokhtmoni qalaho avj girift (qalahoi buzurg dar Qohirayu Halab va g.). Dar sanati memorii in davra ba joi masjidhoi havlidor shakli digari sokhtmon — binohoi azimi kalonhajm rasm meshavad. In binoho doroi ustuvonahoi muqtadiri gunbazpush va peshtoqhoi muhtasham budand. Dar in davra sokhtani binohoi buzurgi chorayvona rasm shuda bud: moriston (bemorkhona) dar Qalovun (asri 13) va masjidi ) Hasan dar Qohira (asri 14), masjidu madrasaho dar Dimishq va digar shahrho. Sokhtmoni maqbarahoi gunbazpush mamul gashtand (guristoni mamlukho dar Qohira, asrhoi 15—16). Baroi zinat dodani devorhoi imorat az berun va az dokhil dar barobari kandakori hotamkori niz vase istifoda meshud. Dar Iroq dar asrhoi 15—16 imoratho bo ranghoi gunogun va zarhal zinat doda meshudand (masjidhoi Musoi Qozim dar Bagdod, Husayn dar Qarbalo va imom Ali dar Najaf).

Dar asrhoi 10—15 sanati memorii arab, makhsusan, dar Magrib va Ispaniya khele taraqqi kard. Dar shahrhoi kalon (Rabot, Marokash, Fes va g.) kasabaqalahoe, ki doroi devorhoi mustahkam, darvozaho, burjho budand va Madina (shahriston — mahallahoi savdogaron va hunarmandon) sokhta meshudand. Masjidhoi buzurgi sersutuni Magrib (masjidhoi Tlemson, Taza va g.), ki doroi manorahoi serqabata budand, bo kandakorihoi purnaqshunigor va bo khud az digar yodgoriho farq mekardand. In masjidho monandi digar masjidhoi asrhoi 13—14 Marokash bo kandakorihoi nafis, marmar va sanghoi rangorang zinat doda shudaand. Dar Ispaniya dar barobari masjidi Qurtuba boz digar yodgorihoi memorii arab boqi mondaand; manorai «La Khiralda» dar sh. Sevilya, ki memor Jobir sokhta bud (solhoi 1184—96), darvoza dar Toledo, qasri Algambra (Qasrulhamro) dar Grenada (Garnota)— shohkorii barjastatarini sanati memori va oroishi arab dar asrhoi (13—15) va g. Sanati memorii arab ba memorii romani va gotii Ispaniya («uslubi mudehar») Sisiliya va digar kishvarhoi havzai bahri Miyonazamin tasir rasondaast.

Badi dar asri 16 kishvarhoi arabro zabt kardaii turkhoi usmoni dar sokhti ibodatgohho tasiri ananahoi memorii turkho mushohida meshavad. Ammo dar memorii binohoi dunyavi ananahoi mahallii binokori va sanati oroishi idoma yofta, pesh meraft.

Sanati tasviri va oroishi. Oroish, ki tajassumi ravshani tafakkuri badeist, dar sanati asrimiyonagii arab, sarfi nazar az on ki dar har kadom kishvar shaklhoi khos doshtand, qonuniyathoi umumii inkishofro az cap guzaronidaast. Islimi, ki az baze jihatho to ba davrai atiqa rafta merasad, yak nav naqshunigore meboshad, ki az tarafi arabho ejod gardida, dar on naqshhoi daqiqi handasi payvasta bo khayoloti ozodi badei omadaast. Katiba — navishtajoti zebo, juziyoti sanati oroishi meboshad, niz khele inkishof yoft.

Naqshunigor va katiba, ki dar sanati memori vase istifoda meshudand (kandakori dar rui chubu sang), ba sanati amali (bo naqshho zinat dodani asbobhoi ruzgor, ki ba darajai oli inkishof yofta, tarzi ba khud khosi ejodiyoti badeii arabhoro tajassum mekunand) niz kharakternok bud. Zarfho bo naqshhoi rangorang zinat doda meshudand (dar shahrhoi Baynannahrayn — Raqqa va Somarro va dar Misri davrai Fotimiyon). Tarzi ispani-mavritanii oroishi zarfho dar asrhoi 14—15 ba sanati amalii evropoiyon tasiri kalon rasonidaast. Matohoi abreshimii guldori arabi (suriyoni, misri, mavritani) niz shuhrati jahoni doshtand. Arabho inchunin az pashm patqolin meboftand. Asbobhoi birinji (kosa, kuza, chilim va g.) bo tilloyu nuqra hotamkori va haqqoqi megardidand. Khususan mahsuloti asrhoi 12—14 sh. Mavsili Iroq va baze az markazhoi hunarmandii Suriya bo sanati baland sokhta shudaand. Shishahoi suriyonii bo qabati tunuktarin sirdoda shuda, ki doroi naqshunigori nafisi haqqoqi budand va mahsuloti misrii az bulur, ustukhoni fil va az navhoi qimati darakhtho sokhta shuda niz shuhrati kalon doshtand.

Sanati kishvarhoi islomi zeri tasiri mutaqobili sanatu din inkishof yoftaast. Binobar on masjidho va kitobi muqaddasi Quron bo naqshunigori handasi va munabbati zinat doda meshudand. Islom, baraksi dini masehi va buddoi, az istifodai tasviri mavjudoti zinda bo maqsadhoi tashviqi ideyahoi khud dast kashid. Ruhoniyoni asrhoi 11—13 (Razzoli va digar) in guna tasvirhoro gunohi azim elon karda budand. Vale rassomoni ozodfikr dar tuli tamomi asri miyona surati odamon va hayvonotro kashidaand. Dar asrhoi avvali paydoishi islom, ki fiqh qonunhoi estetikii khudro hanuz kor karda nabaromada bud, farovonii tasvirho va haykalho dar qasrhoi Umaviyon az quvvai buzurgi ananahoi badeii toislomi shahodat medihand. Dar «Risolahoi barodaroni pok» («Rasoilu ikhvon-us-safo», asri 10) ba sanati rassomi chunii baho doda shudaast: «on taqlidest ba shakli ashyohoi mavjudai suni va tabii, odamon va hayvonot».

Sanati tasviri dar Misri asrhoi 10—12 khele pesh raft: devorhoi binohoi sh. Fustot, ki bo surathoi odamon va sahnahoi tasvirii doroi mazmuni muayyan zinat doda shuda budand, taqsimchaho va guldonhoi zeboi safolini usto Sad va digar kandakorihoi rui ustukhon va chub (lavhai asri 11 dar qasri Fotimiyoni Misr va g.), matohoi abreshimi va pakhtagi, zarfhoi birinji dar shakli hayvonotu parrandaho va g. Ayni hamin dar Suriya va Baynannahrayn asrhoi 10—14 joy dosht; sahnai bazmhoi darbori va digar manzaraho bo amalhoi khele nozuk va nafisi hakkoki, kandakori va khotamkori dar naqshunigori asbobhoi birinji shishagi va safoli joy doda shudaand.

Dar tarikhi sanati jahoni minyoturi kitobii arab yake az joyhoi namoyonro ishgol mekunad. Dar Misr minyotur asrhoi 9—10 (az Fayyum cap zadaast) va asrhoi 11—12 az jihati uslub bo sanati kibtiyon aloqamand ast. Dar minyoturhoi suriyoni tasiri Vizantiya mushohida meshavad. Sanati minyoturi kitobi dar Iroq asrhoi 12—13 ba darajai baland rasid. Dar on jo yakchand jarayoni uslubi joy dosht. Yake az onho (shoyad uslubi shimoli Iroq) agar dar tasviri sahnahoi darbori ranghoi balandro istifoda burda, sahnahoro khele dabdabanok va bohashamat tasvir karda boshad, jarayoni digar surathoro (dar adabiyoti ilmi) mujaz va mukhtasar tasvir kardaast, makhsusan varaqho az «Farmakologiya»-i Dioskorid, ki soli 1222 az tarafi Abdulloh ibni Fazl nuskhabardori karda shuda bud va holo dar muzeyhoi gunoguni jahon mahfuz ast. Minyoturhoi kitobi «Maqomot»-i Hariri dar haqikat iftikhori maktabi minyoturi Iroq meboshand. Onho dar shakli yakchand dastkhat to ba davrai mo omada rasidaand (minyoturhoi dastkhati soli 1237, amali rassom Yahyo ibni Mahmud az sh. Vosit, dar kitobkhonai millii Parij va dastkhati asri 13 dar shubai leningradii Instituti sharqishinosi). Dar minyoturhoi zikrshuda rasmho bo ranghoi gunogun va tabii dar asosi mushohida kashida shuda, obrazho baroi hama mafhumu dastrasand. Sanati minyoturi Iroq dar okhiri asri 14 davrai peshraviro az cap guzarond. Dar in vaqt dar Bagdod rassomi buzurg Junaydi Sultoni, muallifi minyoturhoi dastkhati «Khamsa» Khojui Kirmoni, soli 1396 (Muzei Britaniya, London) zindagi mekard.

Sanati tasviri dar kishvarhoi arabii Gapb na on qadar taraqqi karda bud. Bo vujudn on dar in jo niz yak qator namunahoi khubi sanat ejod gardidaand chun haykali hayvonot, naqshupigorho dar shakli jismhoi zinda va minyoturho (dastkhati «Tarikhi Bayoz va Riyoz», asri 13, dar kitobkhonai Vatikan).

Umuman sanati arab dar tarikhi madaniyati badeii davrai asrimiyonagii jahon yak hodisai barjasta va makhsuse meboshad, ki on na faqat olami islom, balki yak qator kishvarhoi digar jahonro niz faro girifta bud.

Musiqi. Musiqii arab dar natijai omezishi sanati musiqii arab bo musiqii kishvarhoi zabtshuda (khususan Eron, Khuroson va Movarounnahr) tavlid yoft. Musiqii arab ham yakjoya bo sheri arab ba vujud omadaast. Dar borai hofizon va dar yak vaqt hofizoni kasbii arab, janrhoi onvaqtai surud — hida (surudhoi korvoniyon), habob (surudhoi savoragon) va dar borai asbobhoi musiqi — dafor (doirai khurdi chorkunja), mizhar (yak nav udi oddi, ki ba boloi kosai on pust kashida shudaast), rubob (yak nav gijjaki yaktora) malumotho boqi mondaast.

Pas az zabt shudani Eron, yak qismi Vizantiya, Osiyoi Miyona va Misr, arabho ananahoi madanii mutaraqqii khalqhoi in kishvarhoro qabul kardand (asoshoi nazariyavii musiqii yunoni; dar zeri tasiri musiqii forsi va vizantiyagi qatorovozi musiqii arabi to du oktava vase shud). Dar baze maqomho va asbobhoi musiqii arabi tasiri forsho va khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona baralo his karda meshavad. Davrai gulgulshukufii musiqii klassikii arab ba okhiri asri 7 rost meoyad. Asosi musiqii klassikii arabro pardahoi 7-daranagi tashkil medihand, ki dar onho dar barobari ovozhoi asosi fosilahoi mobayni — kommaho (kamtar az ‘/v hissai pardai purra) niz istifoda burda meshavand. Khususiyati pardagii musiqii arab tarzi khosi surudkhoniro ba vujud ovardaast, ki dar on lagjish az yak lahn ba lahni digar vase istifoda burda meshavad. Musiqii klassikii arab asosan vokali bud. Janri az hama pahnshudatarin — ansambli vokali-instrumentali ba hisob meravad, ki dar on roli asosiro hofiz ijro mekard.

Dar davrai Umaviho hofizon — Ibni Musajjih va Muslim ibni Muhriz, az bayni zanho Jamila va shogirdonash shuhrati kalon paydo karda budand. Dar davrai Abbosiyon mutribon va ohangnavozon Ibrohimi Mavsili (742—804) va pisari u Ishoqi Mavsili (767— 850)— asosguzoroni maktabi musiqii Bagdod va inchunin Mansuri Zalzal shuhrati ziyode doshtand. Ilmi musiqii arab dar asrhoi miyona khele pesh raft. Yake az nazariyotchiyoni ilmi musiqii asrimiyonagi — faylasufi arab al-Kindi bud, ki u nazariyai metafizikii «garmoniyai olam» – i aflotunii navro dar musiqii arab istifoda burd. Gayr az u boz al-Isfahoni (897—987), muallifi «Kitobi surudho» va Safiuddini Urmavi (1230—94), muallifi «ash-Sharafiya» ro, ki asarash ba sadoho va muvofiqatu aloqai onho bakhshida shudaast, nombar kardan mumkin ast. Dar asari Forobi «Risolai buzurg dar borai musiqi» va asari Ibni Sino «Risola dar (ilmi) musiqi» va asarhoi digar muallifon malumoti muhimtarin dar borai musiqii Sharq gird ovarda shudaand. Musiqii arab dar asrhoi miyona ba sanati musiqii Ispaniya, Portugaliya va dar sokhtani baze asbobhoi musiqii evropoi tasir rasonidaast.   G. Goibov.

Adabiyoti istifodashuda .: Krachkovski I I. Yu., Izbr. soch., t. 1—0, M.—L., 1955—60; Yushievich A, P., Istoriya matematiki v srednie peka. M., 1961; Khan naal-Fakhuri, Istoriya arabskoy literaturi, t. 1—2, per. sarab., M., 1959—61; Bartold V. V., Soch., t. v, M., 1966; Mes A., Musulmanskiy Renessans, per. s nem., M., 1966; Belyaev E. A., Arabi, islam i arabskiy khalifat v rannee srednevekove, M., 1966; Petrushevskiy I. P., Islam v Irane v VII—XV vekakh. L.. 1066; Lev i-P rova nsal E„ Arabskaya kultura v Ispanii, per. s frans. M., 1967; Filshtinskmy I. M.. Sh i d f a r B. Ya., Ocherk arabomusulmanskoy kulturi (VII—XII vv.), M.. 1971; Voronina V.’D., Narodnoe jilishe.arabskikh stran, M., 1972; Uott U. M. i Kakia P., Musulmanskaya Ispaniya, per. s angl.. M., 1976; Fil-sht i nekiy I. M., Arabskaya literatura v srednie veka. Slovesnoe iskusstvo arabov v drevnosti i rannem srednevekove, M., 1977; hamon muall„ Arabskaya literatura. VIII—IX vekov, M,. 1978; Bol yan I., Ocherki arabskoy muziki, M., 1977; Putinseva T. A., Tisyacha i odin god arabskogo teatra. M., 1977.

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

SATO

SATO, asbobi musiqii torist, ki bo kamoncha menavozand. Sato dar bayni tojikoi, uzbekho, eroniyon, afgonho …