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Lunokhod

LUNOKhOD – in apparati khudgardi qamari, vositai naqliyotiest, ki ba tarzi avtomati (az Zamin) va yo az tarafi khudi kayhonnavardon idora karda meshavad.

Lunokhod
Surati “Lunokhod – 2”

Nakhustin apparati khudgardi qamari «Lunokhod bud, ki onro stansiyai avtomatii baynisayyoravii (SAB) soveti «Luna-17» ba sathi Moh burda rasond; dar sathi Moh az 17.11.1970 to 4. 10. 1971 amal kar­da, programmai vasei tadqiqoti ilmaro anjom dod. Massai «Lunokhod-1» 756 kilogram buda, dar korpusi germetin on yak qismi apparativu tajhizot joy doda shudaast. Shassii iborat az 8 charkh Lunokhodro az rui 2 surat ba peshu qafo va chapu rost ba harakat medarorad.

Harakati Lunokhod Markazi aloqai duri kaydhoi ba vositai radio (dar asosi akhbori televizioni va telemetrii az Lunokhod giriftashuda) ido­ra karda meshavad. Manbai energiya: batareyahoi oftobi va batareyai akkumulyatorhoi mobayni (buferi). Ap­paraturai ilmi: asbobho baroi tadqiqi afkanishoti kayhoni, jihathoi fizikaviyu khimiyavi va tarkibi khimiyavii khoki Moh; teleskopi rentgeni baroi omukhtani intensiviyat va taqsimoti kunjii afkanishoti rentgeni va digar manbahoi afka­nishoti kayhoni, aksgiri kunjshakli optiki baroi lokasiyai lazeri.

Masofai dar sathi Moh taykardashuda 10 540 metr; masohati tadqiqshuda 80 000 m3; 200 panorama va ziyoda az 20000 surati sathi Moh ba Zamin firistoda shud; dar ziyoda az 500 nuqtai khati harakat khosiyathoi fizikiyu mekhanikii khok tadqiq dar 25 nuqta tarkibi khimiyavii on muayyan karda shud va gayra.

«Lunokhod-2» ba sathi Moh 16-umi yanvari soli 1973 bo yorii SAB-i «Luna-21» rasonda shud. Massai Lunokhod 840 kg; sokhtash bo «Lunokhod-1» yak khel, ammo sistema va apparaturahoi ilmii takmilyofta, asbobhoi ilovagi dorad. Dar zarfi 4 moh Lunokhod 37 kilometr masofaro tay karda, ba Zamin 86 panorama va besh az 80000 surati televizioni, tasviri stereoskopii relefi Mohro firistod. Bo vositai andozagirihoi magniti doir ba sokhti dokhilii Moh taqriban to chuqurihoi sadho km malumot ba dast ovarda shud. Andozagirihoi ravshanhoi osmoni Moh nishon dodand, ki radifi Zaminro qabati zarrahoi chang pechondaast, ki rushnoiro ba miqdori kalon paro­kanda mekunad.

Lunokhodi amerikoii «Rover» (LRV) dar vaqti parvozi kishtihoi mohnavardi «Apollon-15, -16, -17» (1971—72) istifoda shudand. Lunokhodi mazkur ba sathi Moh; iyul der po­latigun rasonida shud; badi furudoi ba sathi Moh kayhonnavardon onro ba holati kori ovardand. Massai mushtaraki «Rover» (bo 2 kayhkhonnavardi skafandrpush, bor va gayra.) 725 kg. Surati maksimalii harakatash to 15 km./soat. «Rover» shakli platformai kushodi chorcharkharo do­rad; manbai energiya batareyai akkumulyatorhost. Dar boloi platforma 2 kursii nishasti astronavtho, pulti idorakuni bo sistemai naviga­siya, radiojihoz baroi aloqai bevosita bo Zamin, kamerai televizioni, va gayra joy giriftaand. Harakati «Rover»-ro khudi kayhonnavardon idora mekardand. Masofai taykardai on dar vaqti ekspedisiyai «Apollon-17* 35,7 km bud.

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